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Unit 2 Study Guide

by: Moriah Cheng

Unit 2 Study Guide PSY 1113

Moriah Cheng
GPA 4.0
Elements of Psychology
Jenel Cavazos

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About this Document

This is a thorough study guide of information from the book, as well as more applicable examples and all the terminology you'll need to know. I didn't want to repeat so much information from ppts/l...
Elements of Psychology
Jenel Cavazos
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Moriah Cheng on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 1113 at University of Oklahoma taught by Jenel Cavazos in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Elements of Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Oklahoma.


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Date Created: 10/20/15
Psychology 1113 Unit 2 Study Guide Chapter 5 State of Consciousness Stream of consciousness a continuous ow of changing sensations images thoughts and feelings Metacognition describes the process by which we think about thinking Consciousness is defined in two parts awareness and arousal Awareness includes awareness of self and thoughts about one s experiences 0 Ex fall colors on a tree leaves of red gold orange You do not only see them you are aware you are seeing them Arousal the physiological state of being engaged with the environment 0 Ex sleeping vs awake o The way awareness is regulated being on high alert when in danger or relaxed when we are in a safe environment Theory of mind is an individuals understanding that they and others think feel perceive and have private experiences Higher level consciousness controlled processes is the most alert state of consciousness individuals actively work towards a goal Executive functions include thinking planning and problem solving Cognitive control is the capacity to maintain attention by reducing interfering thoughts Lower level consciousness the mind s state of leisure including activities that require little attention and do not interfere with other ongoing activities automatic processes such as daydreaming Altered state of consciousness self explanatory Ex fatigue and fever can filter sensory information DRUGS Subconscious awareness is what goes on in the brain just below the surface of awareness For example your brain will continue working on a problem even after you ve given up No awareness FREUD unconscious thought a reservoir of unacceptable wishes feelings and thoughts that are beyond conscious awareness Blame mood swings and uctuations in the body to biological rhythms Also morningnight people are determined by their circadian rhythms which include sleepwake cycle body temp bp and blood sugar levels SLEEP necessary due to adaptive evolutionary functions restorative functions brain plasticity and learning why children require much longer periods of sleep VIEW STAGES OF SLEEP In ppt lecture as well as notes Cognitive theory of dreaming proposes that dreams can be understood by applying the same cognitive concepts used to study the waking mind while activationsynthesis theory of dreaming argues that dreams are caused by the synthesis of neural signals generated from the lower part of the brain DRUGS Psychoactive drugs act on the nervous system to alter consciousness modify perception and change mood Continued use can lead to a tolerance and addictions Which can be either physical coffee or psychological House MD VIEW TYPES OF DRUGS In ppt lecture as well as notes Stimulants increase the central nervous system s actiVity caffine VIEW TYPES OF STIMULANTS Chapter 6 Learning Associative learning is the ability to make connections between two events sound of shots firing to signify game day Conditioning to learn these associations can be classical or operant PAVLOV S DOGS Classical Conditioning NS picture of earth does not elicit response US melting ice cream ice cream shouldn t melt UR urge to keep ice cream from melting people want to stop the ice cream from melting CS associating of melting With the earth CR people want to stop global warming earth melting bad Operant Conditioning 7 339 Rioting Achieves Nothing But 39 394 7 And Imprisonment Positive punishment stimulus of caning is added to decrease likelihood of rioting Continuous reinforcement punishment will occur every time Operant conditioning stimulusgtresponsegtconsequence Thorndike s law of effect states that responses that lead to more satisfying consequences are likely to be repeated parents rewarding their child for pottytraining Closely related to shaping which rewards successive approximations of a desired behavior LITTLE ALBERT Watson and Rayner worked to condition a baby to fear animals by conditioning them with a loud noise SKINNER BOX used to shape behavior by controlling reward and punishment Reinforcement can be positive something is added or negative resulting in either punishing or reinforcing a behavior REINFORCEMNT is better since punishment tell us what not to do but not what to do instead Vending machines are examples of continuous reinforcement A night out at a casino rewards with partial reinforcement slot machines Read fixed vs variable ratio vs interval notes and ppt ALBERT BANDURA conducted the Bobo doll study to examine observational learning Latent learning is unreinforced learning that is not immediately re ected on behavior ie a person roaming a venue hall in advance and being rewarded by knowing where to go to avoid crowds and sneak backstage Chapter 7 Memory The first step is to a memory whether it is watching a movie learning a new skill talking with a friend it all must be entered into memory storage The most effective way to store memory is through sustained attention which is the ability to pay close attention to a selected stimulus for a long period of time So think back to an anticipated release debut concert or event when you wanted to soak up as much detail and immerse yourself in the situation as much as possible Divided attention is what most people find themselves engaged in background interferences such as music or tv while reading or trying to study Memory can be processed on shallow intermediate or deep levels Elaboration forms a number of different connections around a stimulus at any level of processing including self referencing or relating material to personal experience Once memory is placed in storage it is placed in three separate systems AtkinsonSh rin theory Sensory memory what you see and hear immediately It is very rich and detailed but lost quickly often only a fraction of a second to several seconds what Nemo sees on his way to school processed and forgotten quickly Shortterm memory the sticky note of portion of memory information can be stored for up to 30 seconds before being deleted ie what P Sherman 42 Wallaby Way Sydney should have been Short term memory can be improved by chunking packing information into higher order units grouping a list of musicians by genre and rehearsal the conscious repetition of information Working memory is a combination of shortterm memory and attention which allows for cognitive tasks For example shortterm memory of learning to fold a paper airplane a certain way but working memory allows you to elaborate on the model and add your own nuances and improvements The three component of working memory are the phonological loop speech based information about language sounds visuospatial working memory visual and spatial information central executive integrates information and communicates with long term memory Long term memory the brain can hold huge amounts of information for a long time Explicit memory also called declarative memory is the conscious recollection of specific facts and events such as remembering events during the civil war or the day of an anticipated comeback Permastore memory represents what appears to be with a person virtually forever even without rehearsal we will always remember the address P Sherman 42 Wallaby Way Sydney even though we don t rehearse it all the time Episodic memory is retaining autobiographical information and events recalling a special performance where you sat in a movie theatre during a premiere Semantic memory is explicit memory pertaining to the world including what you learn in school and common everyday knowledge Implicit memory affects behavior by prior experience without a conscious recollection of that experience ie recognizing a J B or TS song even if you might hate it because it is played so frequently on the radio and public places Procedural memory is an implicit process that involves memory for skills people say you never forget how to ride a bike once you ve learned an example of procedural memory Priming activates information people already have in storage to help them remember new information better positive people will remember more about a lighthearted rom com than cynicals Encoding Speci city encoding the big picture information at the time of learning Memory is stored in many areas of the brain Explicit memory is stored in the hippocampus and temporal lobes in the cerebral cortex Both of these areas are involved in retrospective memory remembering things from the past and prospective memory remembering things you need to do in the future Emotional memories are stored in the amygdala The cerebellum activates implicit memory Retrieval of memories can be blurred each time a memory is recalled it changes slightly Flashbulb memories are emotionally significant and recalled with more accuracy 911 Memories can also be repressed in order to protect the psychodynamic health of a person Repressed memories forgets the act of forgetting while motivated forgetting is forgetting something so painful it is emotionally intolerable Chapter 8 Thinking Intelligence and Language Cognition the way in which information is processed and manipulated in remembering thinking and knowing The growth of computer and technology opened the way for psychologists to study what goes on in a human brain much like engineers can study and interpret the inside of a computer What humans are capable of that computers are not is thinking manipulating information mentally by forming concepts solving problems making decisions and re ecting in a critical or creative manner We form concepts which are mental categories used to group objects events objects etc Concepts allow us to generalize associate experiences and objects aid memory by making it more efficient and provide clues to react to an object or experience However humans can also become fixated on a prior strategy failing to look at a problem from a fresh perspective Decision making is made through reasoning which is processed through inductive reasoning from specific observations to make generalization bottom up processing or deductive reasoning from a general principle that we know to be true coming to a conclusion based on facts reasoning


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