General Chemistry Lecture
General Chemistry Lecture CHE 106
Popular in Course
Popular in Chemistry
This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Dr. Alana Bauch on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CHE 106 at Syracuse University taught by Teresa Freedman in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see /class/225659/che-106-syracuse-university in Chemistry at Syracuse University.
Reviews for General Chemistry Lecture
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/21/15
Chapter 1 Introduction Matter and Measurement Chemistry the study of materials and the changes that materials undergo study of properties and behavior of matter atoms and molecules the central science Matter physical material of the universe anything that has mass and occupies space Property characteristic that allows us to recognize a particular type of matter and to distinguish it from other types Elements basic substances cannot be split into simpler substances 0 117 compositions are currently known Atoms the almost in nitesimally small building blocks of matter Molecules two or more atoms that are joined together in speci c shapes States of matter the three forms of matter liquid gas or a solid 0 Gas has no xed volume or shape rather it conforms to the volume and shape of its container molecules are far apart moving at high speeds Liquid has a distinct volume independent of its container but has no speci c shape molecules packed tightly together but still move rapidly Solid has both a de nite shape and a de nite volume molecules are held tightly together usually in definite arrangement where the molecules can only wiggle slightly Pure substance matter that has distinct properties and a composition that does not vary from sample to sample eg water and table salt sodium chloride Compounds substances composed of two or more elements they contain two or more kinds of atoms Mixtures combinations oftwo or more substances in which each substance retains its own chemical identity Oxygen carbon and hydrogen make up over 90 ofthe human body Pure water 11 hydrogen and 89 oxygen by mass In mixtures each substance component retains its own chemical identity and its own properties 0 Two types of mixtures homogeneous and heterogeneous Solutions homogeneous mixtures can be liquid solids or gases Matter is n uniform YE throughoutquot I Hctulvgcncaus mixqu H mogLanIa NU Dues u have a YEL 39 variable L composttmn l i i soluhnn Homogeneous Pure substance nuKlure ND Lan n be separated YE 77 mm mnyler 7 summit27 Element anpound hysicalr 394 u L L39A v r the substance eg odor color density melting point boiling point and hardness chemical properties describe the way a substance may change or react to form other substances eg ammability I L are particularly useful in chemistry because many ofthese properties can be used to identify substances eg temperature melting point and densIty Extensive properties of substances depend on the quantity of the sample with two 4 u x u Physical change a 390 39 39 Fr 39 39 r same substance before and alter the change eg water evaporation All changes of state are physical changes Chemical 3 reaction a quot chemically different substance E quot 39 a mixture Distillation process that depends on the different abilities of substances to form gases separates components of a homogeneous mixture Chromatography separate the mixture by taking advantage ofthe differing abilities of substances to adhere to the surfaces of various solids such as paper and starch Scientific method guidelines for the practice of science Hypothesis tentative explanation Scientific law a concise verbal statement or a mathematical equation that summarizes a broad variety of observations and experiences Theory explanation ofthe general causes of certain phenomena with considerable evidence or facts to support it Metric system units used for scientific measurements SI Units system has seven base units from which all other units are derived 0 kg m sa K mol A cd Mass a measure ofthe amount of material in an object 1 kg22 lbs Temperature measure ofthe hotness or coldness of an object Celsius scale the everyday scale of temperature in most countries Kelvin scale the SI temperature scale and the SI unit of temperature is the Kelvin K 0 K27315 absolute zero c K C 27315 o C 59 F32 or F95C 32 Volume ofa cube is given by its length cubed m3 0 1mL 1cm3 1 dm31 L o 1 dm3 1000 cm3 Density a property of matter that is widely used to characterize a substance temperature dependent o Densitymasslvolume gm3 or gmL 0 Density ofwater100 gmL o 25 C close to normal room temperature Exact numbers those values are known exactly most have de ned values can result form counting numbers Inexact numbers those who values have some uncertainty 0 Numbers obtained from measurement are always inexact Uncertainties always exist in measured quantities Precision a measure of how closely individual measurements agree with one another Accuracy refers to how closely individual measurements agree with the correct or true value The precision ofthe measurements is often expressed in terms of what is called the standard deviation which re ects how much the individual measurements differ from the average Measured quantities are generally reported in such a way that only the last digit is uncertain Significant figures all digits of a measured quantity including the uncertain one o The greater number of sig gs the greater is the certainty implied for the measurements In any measurement that is properly reported all nonzero digits are signi cant 0 Zeros at the end and between nonzero digits are always signi cant The least certain measurement limits the certainty of the calculated quantity and thereby determines the number of signi cant gures in the nal answer Dimensional analysis carry units through all calculations to ensure proper units correction use of conversion factor Conversion factor a fraction whose numerator and denominator are the same quantity expressed in different units
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'