Introduction to Nutrition
Introduction to Nutrition HEC 1030
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Date Created: 10/21/15
Study Guide for Chapter 12 Pregnancy through Infancy 0 Full term pregnancy is how long Terms trimesters zygote embryo placenta fetus 0 Full tenn 40 weeks Trimesters divides pregnancy into 3 parts Zygote conception to 2 weeks Embryo 2 to 8 weeks Placenta Common tissue between mother and embryo where nutrients oxygen waste products exchanged through umbilical cord 2 to 8 weeks forms Fetus 8 to 9 weeks 0 Eating and lifestyle habits for men what practices should be avoided to improve pregnancy outcomes 0 Eat healthy 0 no drugs or alcohol 0 For women attain a healthy weight folic acid moderate fish and caffeine consumption 0 No diets while pregnant 0 What kind of fish should pregnant women avoid what kinds are safe 0 O O O O o Av01d l shark swordfish king mackerel tilef1sh golden bass or golden snapper 0 Limit l Albacore white tuna to no more than 6 oz weekly locally caught fish from nearby lakes rivers and coastal areas Check local advisories regarding its safety before consuming it if no advice is available eat up to 6 oz weekly Don t consume any other fish during that week 0 Enjoy I up to 12 oz weekly of fish with low levels of methylmercury such as o canned light tuna cod catfish crab Pollack salmon scallops and shrimp 0 What substances should pregnant women avoid o Cigarettes alcohol botanical supplements illicit drugs and green tea inhibits foliate 0 Goals for adequate weight gain 7 what are the recommendations for each BMI category 0 Goals for adequate weight gain I 2535 pounds total weight gain for women starting pregnancy at a healthy weight pounds 0 What are the dietary considerations during the first trimester 0 Need up to 50 more folate zinc and iron I Nutrientdense food sources prenatal supplement may be needed 0 Calcium needs don t increase but diet needs to meet requirements 0 Vegans and vegetarians need to ensure linolenic acid and vitamin B12 needs are met I Also have higher zinc and iron needs 0 Too much preformed vitamin A can be toxic limit supplements to no more than 5000 IU 0 Use sugar substances in moderation 0 Most nutrient needs can be met by balanced diet 0 What are food safety concerns during pregnancy 0 Be wary of foodbome illness I Listeria monocytogenes may cause miscarriages premature labor low birth weight 5 12 pounds and under developmental problems even infant death I Avoid raw and undercooked meat fish or poultry unpasteurized milk cheese juices raw sprouts 0 During the second trimester what are kcal and carbohydrate needs 0 340 kcal 0 175g carbohydratesday 0 What types of exercises are safest during pregnancy 0 30 minutes or more of moderate exercise most days of the week I Lowimpact activities best during final weeks especially 0 Walking 0 stationary cycling 0 Lowimpact aerobics 0 Swimming 0 Dancing 0 What are potential complications and what are the risk factors for developing them 0 Potential complication Gestational diabetes high blood glucose levels develop after about twentieth week of pregnancy 0 Can result in macrosomia large baby weight more than 8 lbs 13 oz 0 Increases risk of baby having jaundice breathing problems birth defects Gestational hypertension high blood pressure develops about halfway through pregnancy Preeclampsia includes hypertension severe edema and protein in urine 0 Treatment includes bedrest medication even hospitalization until baby can be safely delivered 0 Ifuntreated can lead to eclampsia l Eclampsia can cause seizures in mother and is major cause of death of women during pregnancy 0 What are concerns for younger or older mothers during pregnancy 0 Pregnant teenagers face special challenges since they are still growing and are likely to have unbalanced diets I May be short of iron folic acid calcium and calories l Teenage mothers more likely to develop pregnancyinduced hypertension to deliver premature and low birth weight babies 0 Women older than 35 more likely to develop diabetes and hypertension l Achieve healthy weight prior to conception avoid smoking obtain adequate folic acid I More at risk for complications 0 What are the bene ts of breastfeeding P 432436 0 Breastfeeding provides physical emotional and financial bene ts for mothers l Breastfeeding helps with pregnancy recovery reduces risk of some chronic diseases cancer I Breast milk less expensive more convenient than formula PDR formula 1200year 0 About 75 cheaper than powdered formula always sterile and correct temperature I Breastfeeding promotes bonding with baby Breastfeeding provides nutritional and health benefits for infants l Breast milk is best for infant s unique nutrition needs 0 Composition of breast milk changes as infant grows 0 Colostrum uid produced after birth that contains antibodies protein minerals vitamin A 0 Brest milk is high in lactose fat B vitamins 0 Low in protein and more digestible form alpha lactalbumin Breastfeeding protects against infections allergies chronic diseases and may enhance brain development I Decreases risk and severity of diarrhea meningitis respiratory ear and urinary tract infections 0 Lactoferrin binds iron making it unavailable to bacteria 0 Helps protect baby from pathogens in ammation allergies and diseases such as SIDS asthma leukemia heart disease diabetes 0 May reduce risk of childhood obesity Breast milk may help with brain development I Rich in unsaturated docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid I Research suggests breastfed babies have greater cognitive function I American Academy of Pediatrics and American Dietetic Association recommend that women exclusively breastfeed for first 6 months and combination of appropriate foods and breastfeeding during at least first year I Milk can be expressed refrigerated or frozen for use later 0 What substances should the mother avoid while breastfeeding 0 Alcohol and illicit drugs limit caffeine and follow FDS s guidelines on fish consumption 0 Infant birth weight should double by six months and triple by 12 months of age 0 14 pounds at 6 months 0 What are specific calories and nutrient needs of the infant P 440441 0 O O 000000 0 108 calorieskg of body weight for first 6 months 91 g protein day first 6 months 1 lgday second 6 months Fat should not be limited Vitamin K injection needed due to sterile gut Vitamin D drops needed breast milk doesn t contain enough to prevent rickets Ironenriched cereals should be introduced at 6 months If underweight they may not grow to their full potential 0 What are the guidelines for starting solids foods and how should solid foods be introduced 0 Infant needs to be nutritionally ready at 6 months old infant iron stores depleted 0 Infant needs to be physiologically ready I GI tract and kidneys cannot process solid foods in early infancy l Tonguethrust re ex fades at 46 months I Swallowing skills matured adequately l Head and neck control able to sit with support 0 Solid foods should be introduced gradually to make sure child isn t allergic or intolerant l One new food per week I Rice cereal is great first food least allergycausing introduce when baby can hold its head up alone I Other grains cereals then vegetables fruits over a period of months then pureed meats about 1 year old 0 Homemade or storebought food Homemade is cheaper but can also find highquality storebought foods without added sugar salt preservatives 0 What foods should be avoided for infants 0 Some foods are dangerous and should be avoided Choking hazard from certain foods such as hot dog slices Avoid common food allergens chocolate cheese fish strawberries egg whites cow s milk peanut butter Honey can lead to botulism which can be fatal Herbal teas may pose risk Seasonings salt sugar butter should not be added I 0 What is the difference between a food allergy and a food intolerance 0 Food allergy abnormal reaction by the immune system to a particular food 0 Food intolerance adverse reaction to a food that does not involve an immune response Lactose intolerance is one example 0 Review sum nary table p 447 Prior to conception First trimester Second trimester Third trimester First year Father Stop smoking Limit alcohol Maintain a healthy weight Avoid illicit drugs Mother Consume a Consume a Consume a Consume a Consume a balanced diet balanced diet with balanced diet balanced diet balanced diet Continue getting adequate calories with adequate with adequate Maintain a folic acid for growth calories for calories and healthy weight Take an ironrich Continue growth uids for Add folic acid to supplement exercising breastfeeding diet Limit caffeine Eat frequent Limit caffeine Avoid too much Small meals if NurSing Avoid certain vitamin A more mOljheTS Sl10uld fish with high levels Avoid foodbome Comfortable de 111110111 1 of methylmercury illness rugs a cf 0 9 Avoid alcohol Continue bshfzzz high and SmOkmg herbs illicit drugs exercising L t ff 1m1 ca eme and smoking Drink Plenty EXCTCiSC of uids Avoid certain regularly sh with high gontmue levels of 110111121321 methylmercury exerc1ses Baby Supplement diet with vitamins K and D and sources of iron or iron fortified foods Avoid common food allergens honey and herbal tea Consume breast milk or formula as primary source of calories Do not start drinking cow s milk until after this year Introduce solid foods gradually and one at a time Avoid too much fiber and excessive amounts of juice Study Guide For Chapter 13 Toddler thru Later Years 0 Rule of thumb for portion sizes for toddlers 0 Serve 1 tablespoon of food at atime per year of age 0 Foods to avoid to prevent choking under age 4 0 Hot dogs Nuts Seeds Chunks of meat or cheese Whole grapes Hard candy Popcorn Chunks of peanut butter Raisins Raw vegetables 0 Chewing gum 0 Food sources for calcium and iron and why they are important 0 Calcium l Develops healthy bones l Ages 13 should receive 500 milligramsday l 2 8ounce glasses ofmilk each glass provides 300 milligrams 0 Iron l Iron keeps you from becoming ironde cient 0 Diminishes mental motor and behavioral functioning 9 of ages 1 and 2 are ironde cient 4 of ages 3 and 4 are iron de cient Lean meats Ironforti ed cereal 0 Food sources for Vitamin D and why it is important 0 Ages 1 to 8 should consume 5 micrograms of vitamin D daily 0 Found in l Forti ed milk I Egg yolks l Certain types of sh 0 Prevents rickets o 2 cups of milk daily will meet child s needs 0 How many times does a child need to be exposed to a food before accepting it o 10 times 0 What is responsibility of the adult and the child when it comes to control of feeding P 000000000 0 Role model for healthy eating o What are the nutrition needs and issues of schoolaged children 0 O O O 0 Quality of diet impacts growth I Caregivers should encourage and model healthy habits Schoolaged children are experiencing higher rates of obesity and diabetes l Due to many factors too many calories too little physical activity 0 Excess calories from sugary drinks sports drinks high fat foods larger portions 0 Less physical activity due to increased screen time less physical education at school American Academy and Pediatrics recommends l Caregivers act as role models of healthy eatin l Offer children healthy snacks of vegetables fruits whole grains l Increase physical activity I Limit screen time to no more than two hours daily Childhood obesity increases risk of type 2 diabetes l Early intervention and treatment important I Entire family should adopt healthy diet and exercise to manage diabetes National School Lunch Program provides nutritionally balanced lowcost or free lunches l Meals must meet certain nutrient guidelines l Regulated by USDA 0 USDA donates commodity foods to lower cost I Some schools also have school breakfast programs 0 Eating breakfast associated with healthier body weight academic performance psychosocial function school attendance rate 0 May benefit cognitive function especially memory 0 What are the nutritional needs and issues of adolescents O O O Adolescence is generally between 10 12 and 1821 years of age I Rapid growth spurt and for girls menarche l Overweight and obesity increasing in this age group I Girls who take in too much fat andor too little fiber may experience menarche earlier especially those who are inactive Adolescents need calcium and iron for growth and development I Bone growth occurs in the epiphyseal plate I Low intake of calcium can lead to low peak bone mass and is a risk factor for osteoporosis 0 Soft drinks and diet sodas displace milk in diet I Teen males and females need more iron for different reason 0 Iron needed for muscle growth and increased blood volume 0 Girls experience loss due to menstruation Adolescents are sometimes at risk for disordered eating I Poor body image in both males and females can lead to eating disorders l Adolescents don t realize longterm health consequences of poor diet and lifestyle habits 0 More likely to engage in risky behaviors to achieve desired weight including skipping meals eating little food smoking cigarettes using diet pills selfinduced vomiting or using laxatives or diuretics 0 Know why calcium and iron are so important for adolescents 0 Calcium bone growth 0 Iron support muscle growth and increased blood volume I Females 0 More iron to support onset of menstruation o 14 of girls in US aged 15 to 18 years are irondeficient l Males 0 12 of boys in US aged 11 to 14 years are irondeficient 0 What are the nutritional issues of older adults Read the text and also look at the table p 472 0 At age 50 a person is considered an older adult I Adults are living longer 0 Life expectancy of person born in 1900 was 47 years 0 Life expectancy of person born in 1990s is more than 75 years 0 Advances in medicine and nutrition have contributed to the increased average life span 0 Number of older adults in US will increase dramatically over next several decades 0 Older adults need fewer calories not less nutrition l Metabolic rate declines with age due to loss of muscle mass and less physical activity 0 Decline 10 caloriesyear for men 7 caloriesyear for women 0 Nutrient needs to stay same or increase in some cases requiring nutrientdense food choices 0 Older adults need to get enough ber and uids 0 I Help reduce the risk of constipation and diverticulosis l Thirst mechanism and kidney s ability to concentrate urine declines with a e Older adults need to watch intake of vitamins A D and B12 l Overconsumption of preformed vitamin A may increase risk of osteoporosis and fractures l Ability of skin to make vitamin D from sunlight of intestines and kidneys to absorb and convert vitamin D into active form declines with age 0 Need for dietary vitamin D doubles at age 50 triples at age 70 l Up to 30 of people over 50 cannot absorb natural form of vitamin B12 from foods because stomach produces less acidic juice 0 Synthetic vitamin B12 in forti ed foods and supplements should be added to diet 0 Older adults need to get enough iron zinc calcium diets often fall short I Zinc needed for healthy immune system ability to taste I Calcium needs increase to 1200 ug day over the age of 50 0 What physical and mental challenges do older adults face 0 0 World Health Organization best strategy for aging adults to maintain health and prevent chronic diseases is a varied nutrient and phytochemicaldense heart healthy diet Staying physically active in spite of physical and mental challenges such as osteoarthritis rheumatoid arthritis Alzheimer s disease l Exercise increases ability to live independently longer 0 Nutrients and compounds in foods and herbs can interact with medications having negative consequences 0 Study table p 475 Eating Right to Fight AgeRelated Diseases and Conditions Avaried plant based diet with plenty of phytochemicals ber and essential nutrients is the best diet defense against the conditions and chronic diseases associated with aging Condition Disease DiseaseFighting Compounds Alzheimer s disease Parkinson s disease Antioxidants vitamins E and C and carotenoids see chapter 7 Anemia Iron Folate Vitamin B12 see chapters 7 and 8 Cancer colon prostate breast Fiber in whole grains fruits vegetables Phytochemicals phenols indoles lycopene betacarotene see chapter 2 and 4 Cataracts Agerelated macular disease Vitamins C and E Phytochemicals lycopene lutein zeaxanthin Zinc see chapter 7 Constipation Diverticulosis Fiber see chapter 4 Heart disease Vitamins B6 B12 and folate Omega3 fatty acids Soluble ber Phytochemicals in whole grains see chapters 4 5 and 7 Hypertension Stroke Calcium Magnesium Potassium see chapter 8 Impaired immune response Iron Zinc Vitamin B6 see chapters 7 and 8 Obesity Fiber as part of lowcalorie highsatiety fruits and vegetables Osteoporosis Calcium Vitamins D and K see chapter 8 Type 2 diabetes Chromium Fiber Phytochemicals see chapters 4 and 8 0 What economic and emotional conditions affect nutritional health of older adults 0 Food insecurity limited diet may be de cient in many nutrients l Older American Act 1965 provides support and services for ages 60 and older including congregate meals and nutrition education 0 Depression and grief up to 20 affected 0 Alcohol abuse alcohol tolerance decreases with aging Study Guide for Chapter 14 Food Safety 0 What 3 types of pathogens may cause foodbome illnesses o Viruses o Bacteria o parasites Study the table on p 492493 Pathogens that Cause Foodborne Illness Microbe Where You How You Can What You May Find It Get It Experience Viruses Noroviruses In the stool or Fecaltooral Watery diarrhea vomit of transmission nausea vomiting infected eating ready ulike symptoms individuals toeat foods or possible fever drinking Can appear 2448 liquids hours after onset contaminated and last 2460 by an infected hours person eating Typically not contaminated serious shellfish touching contaminated objects then putting hands in mouth Hepatitis A In the stool of Fecaltooral Diarrhea dark infected transmission urine jaundice individuals eating raw ulike symptoms produce that can appear 30 irrigated with days after contaminated incubation water eating Can last 2 weeks raw or to 3 months undercooked foods that have not been properly reheated drinking contaminated water Bacteria Campylobacter Intestinal Drinking Fever headache ieiuni tracts of 39 J and muscle pain animals and water or raw followed by birds raw milk and diarrhea mild eating raw or sometimes untreated undercooked bloody water and meat poultry abdominal pain sewage or shell sh and nausea Appears 2 to 5 days after eating may last 7 to 10 days GuillainBarre syndrome may occur Clostridium Widely Eating Bacteria produce a botulinum distributed in improperly toxin that causes nature in soil canned foods illness by water on garlic in oil affecting the plants and in vacuum nervous system the intestinal packaged and Symptoms usually tracts of tightly appear after 18 to animals and wrapped food 36 hours May fish Grows experience double only in vision droopy environments eyelids trouble with little or speaking and no oxygen swallowing and difficulty breathing Fatal in 3 to 10 days if not treated Clostridium Soil dust Called the Bacteria produce perfringens sewage and cafeteria toxin that causes intestinal germ because illness Diarrhea tracts of many and gas pains may animals and outbreaks appear 8 to 24 humans result from hours after eating Grows only in eating food usually last about little or no left for long 1 day but less oxygen periods in sever symptoms steam tables or at room may persist for l temperature Bacteria are destroyed by cooking but some spores may survive to 2 weeks Escherichia coli Intestinal Drinking Diarrhea or 0157H7 tracts of some contaminated bloody diarrhea mammals water abdominal raw milk unpasteurized cramps nausea unchlorinated apple juice or and weakness water one of cider or raw Can begin 2 to 5 several strains milk or eating days after food is of E coli that raw or rare eaten lasting can cause ground beef or about 8 days human illness uncooked Small children fruits and and elderly adults vegetables may develop hemolytic uremic syndrome HUS that causes acute kidney failure A siliar illness thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura TTP may occur in adults Enterotoxigenic Intestinal Fecaltooral Dia1rhea nausea Escherichia coli tracts of some transmission vomiting stomach major cause of mammals and Consuming cramping traveler s unpasteurized stool bloating fever diarrhea dairy contaminated and weakness products water and More foods from common in unsanitary developing water supplies countries and food establishments Listeria Intestinal Eating ready Fever chills monocytogenes tracts of toeat foods headache humans and such as hot backache animals milk dogs luncheon sometimes upset soil leafy meats cold stomach vegetables cuts abdominal pain can grow fermented or and diarrhea may slowly at dry sausage take up to 3 weeks refrigerator other delistyle to become ill may temperatures meat and later develop more poultry or soft serious illness in cheeses highrisk drinking individuals unpasteurized milk Salmonella Intestinal Eating raw or Stomach pain over 2300 tracts and undercooked diarrhea nausea types feces of eggs poultry chills fever and animals and meat raw headache usually Salmonella milk and dairy appear 8 to 27 enteritidis in products and hours after eating eggs seafood Can May last 1 to 2 also be spread days by infected food handlers Shigella over Human Fecaltooral Disease referred 30 types intestinal transmission to as shigellosis tract rarely by consuming or bacillary found in other contaminated dysentery animals food and Diarrhea water Most containing outbreaks bacillary results from dysentery and eating food mucus fever especially abdominal salads cramps chills and prepared and vomiting begins handled by 12 to 50 hours workers with from ingestion of poor personal bacteria can last hygiene few days to 2 weeks quot I ylococcus On humans Bacteria produce a aureus skin infected foods that toxin that causes cuts pimples were illness Severe noses and contaminated nausea abdominal throats by being cramps vomiting improperly and diarrhea occur handled l to 6 hours after Bacteria eating recovery multiply within 2 to 3 days rapidly at longer if severe room dehydration temperature occurs Parasites Crytosporium In the Fecaltooral Stomach pains parvum intestines of transmission diarrhea cramps humans and Drinking fever and animals contaminated vomiting water eating contaminated vegetables and fruits Cyclospora Human stool Fecaltooral Dia1rhea cayatenensis transmission atulence Drinking stomach cramps contaminated vomiting fatigue water eating contaminated produce Giardia lamblia In the Fecaltooral Dia1rhea stomach intestines of transmission pains atulence humans and Drinking animals contaminated water eating contaminated produce Trichinella In Raw or Nausea vomiting spitalis undercooked undercooked diarrhea fever or raw meats contaminated aching joints and containing Trichinella worms meat usually pork or game meats muscles What population groups are most at risk for foodbome illness 0 Older adults 0 Young children 0 Those with compromised immune systems What techniques are most important for preventing foodborne illness P 497503 7 Read and study these pages 0 Clean hands and produce l Hands hot soapy water with agitation for at least twenty seconds I Sanitize cutting boards sponges l Wash fruits and vegetables under cold running water scrub rm skins with vegetable brush httpwwwfoodsafetygov 0 Combat crosscontamination I Keep raw meat poultry sh separate from other foods during preparation storage and transportation 0 Cook foods thoroughly l Color not reliable indicator measure internal temperature 0 Chill foods at a low enough temperature I Bacteri O l Freezer temperature at or below 0 F a multiply rapidly between 40 F l40 F Keep hot foods hot above l40 F Keep cold foods below 40 F perishables shouldn t be left more than 2 hours Keep leftovers no more than 4 days in refrigerator raw meats 2 days Understand the 4 main government agencies and what they are responsible for in terms of food safety l Age l Respon ncy sible for l US l Safe DA Food and accurately Safety and labeled meat Inspection poultry eggs Service FSIS l Foo I Safety d and Drug of all other Administrat foods ion FDA l Env l Protecti ironmental Protection ng you and
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