❖ What about infanticide?
❖ Warren: A newborn has no right to life, and it is not okay to kill a baby. ❖ Once the baby is born, it no longer burdens the mother.
❖ Why not make others happy?
➢ Foster care
➢ Infants are valuable to other, if you don’t want it someone else does. ❖ Objection to Warren
➢ Why do 15 confer a right to life?
■ 1) consciousness
■ 2) advanced reasoning
■ 3) self motivated activity
■ 4) language
■ 5) self concepts
➢ Warren doesn’t justify them well
➢ Sentience (feel pain)
➢ Must be alive
❖ Corresponding right If you want to learn more check out Is it possible for a monopolistically competitive firm to make a profit in the short-run?
➢ Right not to be tortured
➢ Right not to be killed
❖ Don Marquis: We also discuss several other topics like Define economics.
➢ “Why abortion is immoral?”
➢ Why is it bad to kill an adult?
■ Personal reason→to harm victim
■ Social reason→harm to others
❖ It’s very wrong to kill a “hermit”
➢ The main reasons are personal
➢ How does killing you hurt you?
➢ you lose your future. No friendships, no chocolate, no accomplishments, no sex, nothing.
We also discuss several other topics like What discrimination mean?
➢ Marquis’ Account Explains:
■ Why killing is so bad→it deprives its victim of everything
■ Why dying young is tragic
■ Why killing personaliens is bad
■ Why killing people who are suffering and dying is not bad
■ Why killing babies is bad
➢ But the fetus loses even more potential than an adult!
➢ The fetus has even more good life ahead of it. Bottom line, abortion is murder.
❖ Famous people who died young:
➢ James Dean, Kurt Cobain, Andy Kaufman, John Belushi, Marilyn Monroe ➢ Amy Winehouse, Jim Morrison, Buddy Holly, Ritchie Valens, Elvis Presley ➢ John Lennon, Jimi Hendrix, Tupac SHakur, Jon Binet Ramsey, Patsy Cline
❖ Emmett Till→killed at 14 years old and spurred civil rights movement. ➢ Killers found not guilty by all white jury
❖ Marquis’ Argument:
➢ Killing adults is wrong because it deprives them of their future.
➢ If (1), then killing fetuses is wrong because it deprives them of their future. ➢ Killing fetuses is wrong because it deprives them of their future. We also discuss several other topics like Is flucloxacillin a broad spectrum antibiotic?
If you want to learn more check out What is the most abundant mineral in the body?
➢ (3) is in old testament: if you’re a slut, you should die.
■ But this could kill the baby too
❖ Historical accident that antiabortion is related to Christianity.
❖ Criticisms to Marquis:
➢ Its inference is valid
➢ “If you apply, you’ll get in.”
➢ You apply. What do you expect?
❖ The vulnerable step is (2)
➢ (2) relies on an analogy between adults and fetuses.
➢ A possible disanalogy: Why does killing a 20 year old deprive him of his future? ■ Because if you don’t kill him, he may live another 60 years. We also discuss several other topics like What are the traits of a personality disorder?
■ We assume: the same person will exist this whole time
■ This assumption can be questioned regarding fetuses.
■ Will the fetus be the child it develops into? If not, it’s okay to deprive fetuses of their futures, since they won’t exist for very long.
➢ Why think this?
❖ Three Theories According to Which You Never Were a Fetus:
➢ 1) same person requires same parts.
■ Plutarch’s Ship of Theseus:
● Periodically, a plank is replaced
● After many years, every plank has been replaced.
● Is the ship the same? Maybe.
■ Cell turnover/ cell addition:
● Because the child has few cells in common with the fetus, the
child is not the fetus
■ Objection→ does this imply that no one lasts more than 9 years? ■ 2 growing things, do they have enough in common (at any point in time)? ➢ 2) Same person requires memory links
■ ex) advanced dementia:
● Real question: is this the same grandma I used to know?
● No memory. (people think, “my friend is gone.” why?)
■ ex) complete amnesia
● Can’t remember being earlier person ⇑⇑⇑
■ Objection: “I don’t remember my 6th birthday party, but i was there.” ■ Response: a chain of memories links you to that person
■ I can remember some even when i was 10. When i was 10, i remembered something when i was 7. That 7 year old version remembers 6th birthday party.
■ On this view, you were not the fetus because the fetus has no memories to establish a link to you.
■ Was that you when you blacked out at a party?
● You have memories when you are blacked out. Yes you are.
■ What about your bizarre dreams, that you don’t remember?
● Is that you dreaming? Maybe, maybe not, it depends on whether
the dream person remembers your life
● 18% of our lives are spent dreaming
➢ 3) same person requires same personality .
■ Dissociative identity disorder→different personalities (very rare)
■ Same person, but just no memory, same personality
■ Myers Briggs personality test
■ What about random person with close personality?
■ When you grow up, your personality stays the same.
● But the fetus has no personality, so you can’t be the same person
as the fetus.
■ But maybe bodily (small changes everyday) continuity is enough to ensure same personhood.
● If so, then the fetus is the adult and Marquis argument is
❖ Judith Jarvis Thompson
➢ “A Defense on Abortion”
➢ When a woman has voluntary sex, she has not made the promise to have a baby.