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General Biology II

by: Derick Crona

General Biology II BIOL 1020

Derick Crona
GPA 3.63

Christopher Brown

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Christopher Brown
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Derick Crona on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1020 at Tennessee Tech University taught by Christopher Brown in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see /class/225710/biol-1020-tennessee-tech-university in Biology at Tennessee Tech University.


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Date Created: 10/21/15
Study Guide for Exam 2 Domain Bacteria amp Archaea Basic characteristics and structure of prokaryotes membrane cell wall nucleoid plasmid DNA Ribosome Envelope Flagellum 9 pilus 3 shapes of prokaryotes round rod spiral 2 types of reproduction binary fission and conjugation Know the difference between 1 Autotrophes 2 Heterotrophs they eat other organisms primarily other bacteria 3 Phototrophs make their own food using sunlight 4 Chemotrophs can make their own food using other chemical or heat energy sources Some produce specialized cells such as spores or nitrogen fixing cells Properties of bio films attaches to surface using pili form large mats with many cells covered by an EPS extracellular polysaccharide matrix an example of biofilm may be found on your teeth in the morning Archaebacteria and Eubacteria Ribosome structure is different 2 Cell membrane has different components 3 Process of DNA replication amp protein formation 4 Cell wall and envelope have different structure 5 Flagella have different structure Extremophile archaea l Halophiles live in extremely salty habits salt water ocean P gt U JgtE quot 2 Acidophiles live in acidic habitats 3 Thermophiles hot habits yellow stone old faithful 4 Methanogens produce methane gas may or may not be extremophiles many live in animal guts and in deep ocean swamps Pratists Basic structure and characteristics of the eukaryotic cell Membrane bound nucleus 2 Dna usually exists as multiple linear chromosomes 3 Possess multiple organelles 4 Cell membrance may be surrounded by a cell wall andor an outer envelope or capsule S May have flagella or cilia to assist in movement Know that the kingdom protista should be broken apart into multiple kingdoms and why because the structures between fungus plant and animal differ in various ways Know that protists differ in modes of nutrition organization and reproduction 1 Organization unicellular colonial multicelluar 2 Nutrition heterotrophs photoautotrophs some can do both 3 Reproduction asexually by binary fission sexually or both Know the difference between unicellular colonial multicellular l Unicellular 2 Colonial 3 Multicelluar Know what is meant by the twofold cost of sex Cost 1 You only pass on 12 of your genes Cost 2 Sex breaks up good allele combination Know how sex might have evolved dea ii 1 Sex really genetic recombination helps remove bad mutations dea ii 2 Sex allows individuals to remain more quotmutationfree avoid Muller s ratchet dea ii 3 Sex increases the ability of species to handle environmental change or it increases the rate at which new allele combinations arise Avariant of the red queen hypothesis Know the characteristics of the four major groups of protists Animallike either always heterotrophs or primarily hetertrophs almost always unicellular primarily separated by how they move the flagellates have flagella the ciliates have cilia the amoeboids have neither they move by extending pseudopodia 2 Plantlike primarily autotrophs although a few can switch to heterotrophs some euglenoids may be unicellular colonial or multiceuar includes dinoflagellates diatoms euglenoids green algae brown algae golden algae red algea 3 Fungal all are hetertrophs all are multiceuar for at least part of their lives when unicellular resemble amoebas water molds cause many plant diseases potatoe blight sudden oak death and some fish diseases pasmodia slime molds when multiceuar a massjoined cells not separated by membranes cellular slime molds when multiceuar first form slugs and then fruiting bodies 4 Parasitic most are unicellular all are hetertrophs may occur in a single host or may use multiple hosts one example arrows at right pasmodium which causes malaria Fun i Know the basic organization of fungi hyphae myceium cell walls of chitin l Hyphae basic body quotpartsquot are strands of cells called hyphaes 2 Mycelium the mass of hyphae forming the fungus quotbodyquot 3 Cell wal made of chitin Know that fungi are heterotrophs usuay detritivores or parasites Know the basics of sexual reproduction different mating strains fruiting body and how a dikaryon is formed Know the characteristics of the different groups of fungi Mutualism symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit in terms of growth and reproduction l Lichens 15000 species a symbiosis or mutualism between a fungus and an algae or cyanobacteria fungus nearly all ascomycetes a few basidiomycetes can grow where neither partner can alone algae provide water and nutrients or it may parasitize not providing anything fungus and algae may be obligate or facultative mutualists 2 Mycorrhizae l symbiosis between plant roots and a fungus plant provides food carbon to fungus fungus provides inorganic ions such as phosphorus to plants symbiosis is at least 400 million years old need mycorrhizae 2 Kingdom Plantae Know basic characteristics of most plants Photoautotrohs sessile possess chloroplasts multiceuar Know what alternation of generation is means that each type of plant exists in two forms one form is diploid sporophyte and the other is the haploid gametophyte Sporophyte produces spores Gametophyte produces gametes Know the general characteristics and key innovations of the four major groups of plants 1 Nonvascular plants also called the bryophytes do not have true roots stems or leaves lSt appear 450 mya includes 3 major groups true mosses 14000 species liverworts 8500 General Biology H BIOL 1020 Spring 2010 Study Guide for the Second Exam Friday 5 March 2010 Below I39ve listed the important topics that you should be studying for the second exam Again this is reasonably comprehensive but I may have missed something so be sure to look over your notes The exam will have 50 objective type questions worth 1 points each for a total of 50 pointsjust like exam 1 l The Prokaryotes Domains Bacteria and Archaea Know the basic characteristics and structures of prokaryote cells membrane cell wall nucleoid plasmid DNA strand ribosomes envelope flagellum pilus Know the 3 shapes prokaryotes come in round rod spiral Know the two types of reproduction binary fission conjugation Know the difference between autotrophs and heterotrophs and the photo and chemo forms of autotrophs Know that some produce specialized cells such as spores or nitrogenfixing cells Know some of the special properties of biofilms Know how archaebacteria differ from eubacteria Know some aspects of the extremophile Archaea typical habitats examples from class 2 The Kingdom Protista Know the basic structure and characteristics of the eukaryotic cell Know that the Kingdom Protista should be broken apart into multiple kingdoms and why Know that protists differ in modes of nutrition organization and reproduction Know difference between unicellular colonial multicellular Know what is meant by the twofold cost of sex Know how sex might have evolved fixreduce mutation rates increase fitness in changing environment Know the characteristics of the four major groups of protists animallike plantlike fungi ike and parasitic 3 The Kingdom Fungi Know the basic organization of fungi hyphae mycelium cell walls of chitin Know that fungi are heterotrophs usually detritivores or parasites Know the basics of sexual reproduction different mating strains fruiting body and how a dikaryon is formed Know the characteristics of the different groups of fungi Know what mutualism means and the two mutualistic fungal groups lichens mycorrhizae 4 The Kingdom Plantae Know basic characteristics of most plants photoautotrophs sessile possess chloroplasts multicellular I Iquot P Uquot 9 N Study Guide for the first exam Bio 39 and Natural quot 39 quot Microevolution change in the frequency of alleles within a population over multiple generations Hardy Weinburg equilibrium something else has to be going on for allele frequencies to change random mating alone causes no change in allele frequencies and the population is said then to be in h w e Know that simple random reproduction does not lead to microevolution 5 mechanisms that lead to microevolution mutations gene flow non random mating genetic drift natural selection Know the basic ideas of a Non random mating female swordfish prefer males with longer swordtails Males with shorter tails don t mate as often or at all and so their short tails alleles will tend to decline in the population This process is also called sexual selection and is somewhat similar to natural selection b Mutation changes in the DNA code For example a mutation may change a G allele to a g allele c Gene flow individuals may move into or out of the population taking out or bringing in with them their alleles Immigration and emigration are examples of this process Genetic drift this is change in allele frequencies due to random chance An example a line of 50 spiders are walking across a desert highway when a car runs over 25 of the spiders The dead ones are not killed because they are quotless good but because they were in the wrong place at the wrong time a Driftworm example Bottle neck effect this is an example of genetic drift this occurs when a population is dramatically reduced in size from a large number of individuals to a small number of individuals When this happens allele frequencies can change dramatically as seen in the wild pigs This is though to have also occurred in cheetahs in the past Know darwins general thinking on NS 3 observations and 3 hypothesis a observations 39 all organisms produce more offspring than needed to simply replace the parents Resources such as food water space ect are in limited supply Organisms vary among individuals and this variation can be passed along from parent to offspring b Hypothesis i Individuals will compete among themselves to obtain needed resources Individuals which inherit better traits will compete better survive or reproduce better l l Ni iii Over time better traits will increase in frequency in the population and worse traits will decrease in frequency Alfred Russell Wallace co discovered natural selection Fitness relative success of a trait compared to other traits Fitness is determined by number of offspring number of offspring x the probability of each offspring surviving to maturity growth rate ofa population with all individuals having a single allele Know that fitness is relative and can vary across environmentshabitats Hydrobia ulvae 5 6mm in Denmark been around for 300 years Know these terms a Stabilizing individuals with extreme forms ofa trait are less fit than individuals with intermediate forms of the trait Directional individuals with one extreme forms of a trait are more fit than individuals with the other extreme or intermediate forms ofthe trait c Disruptive individuals with intermediate forms of a trait are less fit than individuals with either extreme form ofthe trait 57 Macro evolution and speciation 1 5 quot Defining a species a Typological separate species based on differences in appearance b Biological separate species based on ability to interbreed c Evolutionary species separate species based on differences in evolutionary history Know how these work a Allopatric speciation occurs when a single population is divided into two by some physical barrier b Sympatric speciation occurs without this physical barrier being present Allopatric or sympatric a Iguana allopatric b Snakes sympatric c Fruit flies sympatric d Apple maggot fly sympatric Polyploidy example of sympatric speciation in plants Reproductive isolating mechanism Any environmental behavioural mechanical and physiological barrier that prevents two individuals of different populations producing viable progeny Geographic ecological Lobster and insect wing replacement Epipod The Histo of Life 1 5 quot Age ofthe earth 45 billion years old first living organisms appeared around 35 39 billion years old Volcanic activity lack of ozone layer atmosphere composition All were unicellular or perhaps colonial all were prokaryotes lack nucleus most organelles all were anaerobic do not require oxygen in fact would likely have Pquot 6 9 l kD 0 died if exposed to oxygen all were heterotrophs ate things or chemoautorophs made own food using heat energy Organic molecules membrane coding molecule How organic molecules form a Atmosphere Ancient atmosphere had Hydrogen Nitrogen Ammonia Methane Carbon dioxide Some water vapor But no oxygen Add some energy source like lightning volcanic activity or ultraviolet UV light UV light breaks apart molecules Underwater Thermal vents emit bubbles of superheated gases including ammonia methane carbon dioxide hydrogen As gases cool organic molecules form UV does not penetrate water very far so the molecules do not break down c In ice As ice forms tiny pockets of gases and liquid water are trapped inside Organic molecules can form inside these spaces d Come from space This is called the Panspermia Hypothesis Simple organic molecules are found in comets interstellar dust clouds and some meteors These could be carried to Earth during its early formation One possibility is that molecules interacted on a charges surface such as clay or ice crystals This allows molecules to come close enough together to easily form bonds Longer molecules are harder to destroy Know the idea behind the evolution ofa cell membrane Proteins can catalyze reactions but lack sufficient information storage many are too short DNA can store lots of information but cant catalyze reactions plus from all we currently know you need proteins to make DNA and DNA to make proteins RNA can store lots of info and can catalyze reactions and can make copies of itself One possibility is PNA or peptide nucleic acid It s a lot easier to make from simple organic molecules than either RNA or DNA and it has many of the same properties as RNA The first cells may have resembled viruses 57 Eukaryotic cells appear 19 21 billion years ago joined in symbiotic relationship with early eukaryotes called the endosymbiont hypothesis Know Precambrian 650 540 million years ago 1St extensive radiation of multi celled organisms Cambrium Period 540 505 million years ago explosion of multi celled animals in the sea Ordovician Period 505 440 million years ago 1St appearance of multi cellular plants and fungi 1St appearance ofjawless fish Silurian Periods 440 408 million years ago 1St appearance of vascular seedless plants 1St appearance ofjawed fish 1St land animals appear worms centipedes millipedes and scorpions Devonian Period 408 360 million years N U ago age of fish they dominate ocean 1St seed plants appear 1St insects and arachnids appear 1St amphibians appear Mississippian and Pennsylvanian Periods 360 290 million years ago age of amphibians 1St true conifers appear insects evolve flight 1St reptiles appear Permian Period 290 245 million years ago reptiles spread 1St mammal like reptile appears Triassic Period 245 208 million years ago age of reptiles begins 1St dinosaurs appear 1St mammals appear Jurassic Period 208 144 million years ago large dinosaurs appear and dominate 1St turtles and crocodiles appear bird like reptiles appear 1S marsupials pouched mammals appear Cretaceous period 144 65 million years ago 1St flowering plants appear insect abundance explodes reptiles continue to dominate toothless birds appear Tertiary and quaternary periods 65 2 million years old tertiary 2 million years to present quaternary age of mammals primates and hominids appear Know that the number of types of organisms has generally increased over time and why this may be an artifact of preservationfossilization Know how meteorcomet impacts volcanic activity and climate change may have influenced extinctions 14 Know the general details explaining the cretaceous extinction NonLiving organisms Viruses etc 1 Defines a living organism some kind of organizational plan for performing needed tasks adaptability to short and long term changes in the environment ability to interact with or respond to other objects ability to use and manipulate energy ability to replicate itself Taxonomy is the primarily concerned with the description of new species amp systematic is primarily concerned with understanding the relationships among living organisms that is defining quotfamily treesquot Binomial nomenclature uses two work latin or greek name to characterize each species first work capitalized second work lower case always written in italics Linnaen hierarchy domain kingdom phylum class order family genus species 3 domains bacteria eubacteria archaea archaebateria eukarya protista fungi plantae animalia b 6 kingdoms eubacteria archaebacteria protista fungi plantae animalia They cannot make copies ofthemselves and they cannot obtain or produce energy by themselves Size most 10 100 nanometers 1nm000000001 structure possess an inner core of DNA or RNA plus a few proteins surrounding the core is a capsid of protein and some carbohydrates outside the capsid may be an envelope made of lipids many viruses also have proteins sticking out through the capsid andor envelope a a Lytic cycle viral replication leads to immediate cell death General Biology 11 BIOL 1020 Spring 2010 A Brief Study Guide for the First Exam Wednesday 10 February Below I ve listed the important topics that you should be studying for the rst exam The exam will have 50 objectivetype questions mostly multiple choice a few truefalse and be worth 50 points NOTE We ll de nitely get through the rst 4 topics but we may not get through some or all of topic 5 the prokaryotes If we don t cover a topic it will not be on this exam 1 Microevolution and Natural Selection iKnow the de nition of microevolution iKnow what the HardyWeinberg equilibrium isdescribes a nonevolving population iKnow that simple random reproduction does not lead to microevolution iKnow the ve mechanisms that can lead to microevolution iKnow the basic ideas of nonrandom mating mutation and gene ow iKnow what genetic drift is and the driftworm example iKnow what the bottleneck effect is and that it s an example of genetic drift iKnow Darwin s general thinking on NS his 3 observations and 3 hypotheses iKnow that Alfred Russel Wallace codiscovered natural selection iKnow what is meant by tness and the different ways to determine tness iKnow that tness is relative and can vary across environmentshabitats iKnow the basic info about the Hydrobia snail example of NS in nature iKnow the difference between stabilizing directional and disruptive selection 2 Macroevolution and Speciation iKnow the basic ideasproblems of typological biological and evolutionary species concepts iKnow how allopatric and sympatric speciation work iKnow the examples of the above iguanas snakes fruit ies apple maggot y iKnow the basic idea of polyploidy and that it is an example of sympatric speciation in plants iKnow the different 1 39 39 isolating 39 39 ecological etc iKnow the insect wing example of evolution of a major trait 3 The History of Life iKnow the age of the Earth and when living organisms rst appeared iKnow the Earth s appearance soon after formation volcanic activity lack of ozone layer atmosphere composition iKnow the characteristics of the rst organisms prokaryotic anaerobic etc iKnow the three things needed for living organisms to evolve organic molecules membrane coding molecule iKnow how organic molecules could be formed in the atmosphere underwater in ice or come from space iKnow the importance of clay or ice substrates for making longer molecules iKnow the ideas behind the evolution of a cell membrane iKnow the ideas behind the evolution of coding mechanisms DNA and RNA PNA iKnow that rst cells may have resembled viruses the Mimivirus story iKnow when eukaryotic cells appear and the endosymbiont hypothesis iKnow the general sequence of the origin of multicellular diversity NOTE You do NOT need to know speci c dates or the exact order of the geologic periods You DO need to know the relative order of the origin of different groups that is jawless sh came before jawed sh mosses before owering plants etc General Biology 11 BIOL 1020 Spring 2010 A Brief Study Guide for the Third Exam Wednesday 7 April 2010 Below I ve listed the important topics that you should be studying for the third exam As usual the exam will have 50 objective type questions and will be worth 50 points NOTE You ll need to know the major characteristics ofthe Kingdom Animalia as well as distinguishing characteristics of major groups of animals Questions will come mainly in two forms 1 asking you to identify a group of organisms based on a distinguishing characteristic or 2 giving you a group and asking you what important trait is found in that group I will always use either a common name only or both the common and scientific name never just the scientific name on the exam You DO need to know in general when the different groups first appear in the fossil record but you DO NOT need to know speci c dates You DO NOT need to know how many species are in each group although you should know which is the largest group in the Animalia 1 The Kingdom Plantae Know in general how pollen and egg form and the meaning of megaspore and microspore Know what the pollen contains sperm cell and tube cell and how fertilization occurs Know how pollination can occur wind animals in seed plants Know what a fruit is Know the difference between primary and secondary growth in plant size Know the function ofthe apical meristem Know the different types oftropisms in plants gravitropism phototropism Know the different type of plant hormones and what traits they affect 2 The Kingdom Animalia Know the general characteristics of the Kingdom Animalia multicellular heterotrophs etc Know the general characteristics and key innovations in each of the major Phyla we discussed Porifera Cnidaria Platyhelminthes Annelida Mollusca Nematoda Arthropoda Echinodermata Chordata Know the difference between radial and bilateral symmetry Know in which group two tissue layers evolved and in which three tissue layers evolved Know the difference between I e and 39 animals Know what a gastrovascular cavity is and how it differs from more complex digestive tracts like ours Know the differences between a deuterostome and a protostome Know what a blastula and a blastopore are Know the major characteristics of the four groups of arthropods Crustacea Chelicerata Myriapoda Hexapoda Know the 5 key characteristics ofthe Phylum Chordata Know the 4 subphyla of chordates Urochordata Cephalochordata Hyperotreti General Biology 11 BIOL 1020 Spring 2010 Vertebrata Know the key characteristics of the major vertebrate groups Cephalospidomorphi Chondrichthyes Osteichthyes Amphibia Reptilia Aves Mammalia Know in general the evolutionary sequence of vertebrates for example when jaws arise when vertebrates move onto land etc Know the difference between ray finned and lobe finned fishes Know why Reptilia might not be a good taxonomic group because it should include birds Know what is meant by endothermic Know the difference between placental marsupial and monotreme mammals


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