TOPICS HIST OF ROCK
TOPICS HIST OF ROCK MUSC 200
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Fleta Collins DDS on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MUSC 200 at Texas A&M University taught by B. Vogel in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see /class/225797/musc-200-texas-a-m-university in Music at Texas A&M University.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
Final Exam Review Chapter 11 Blacks Whites and the Minstrel Stage 0 In the early and mid 1800 s white Americans were fascinated with the image of the black slave o This fascination mixed with curiosity fear love and loathing all combined to become a key ingredient of blackface minstrelsy the most popular form of entertainment of the time o Minstrelsy originated with white performers pretending to be black o It has been called racist and exploitative entertainment 0 While entertaining audiences with jokes skits and music minstrels played on social issues 0 Wearing black makeup enable white performers to amuse audiences by imitating black ways of talking moving dancing laughing singing and playing musical instruments 0 However it also freed them up to comment on society in general politics culture social class 0 Three main elements combined to give blackface minstrelsy its appeal 0 The black mask 0 Chance for social commentary 0 Creation of a zone of unbridled pleasure o quotMinstrelsy s main subject was not really white s views of African Americans but Whites responses to the conditions of their own lives delivered from behind a mask fashioned out of their notions about African American culture 0 The late 1820 s and early 1830 s saw the creation of two characters that had a long stage life 0 Jim Crow played by Thomas D Daddy Rice 0 Zip Coon played by George Washington Dixon The First Minstrel Shows 0 The first fulllength minstrel show was given in Boston in 1843 By the Virginia Minstrels The members were Dan Emmettfiddle Billy Whitlockbanjo Dick Pelhamtambourine and Frank Browerbones The programs were filled with short musical numbers 0 In 1844 a troupe called the Ethiopian Serenaders was invited to play at the White House Other minstrel troupes included The African Melodists the Congo Minstrels the Gumbo Family and the New Orleans Serenaders o The violin was played as a fiddle lnstrumentalists held it loosely and more or less in front of themselves It was a wiry rhythmic voice played with little or no vibrato o The banjo originated in Africa and was made from materials found in nature a large hollow gourd with a long handle strung with catgut West African slaves were playing banjos in the New World before 1700 The early minstrel banjo gave the ensemble its distinctive character It did not sound like the modern banjo though The sound was fuller and was played as a melody instrument 0 The minstrel percussion instruments were the bones and the tambourine They testified to the group s emphasis on rhythm sound and body movement over melody and harmony 0 OLD DAN TUCKER o CAMPTOWN RACES quotdoodahquot Blackface Minstrelsy in the 1850 s 0 Uncle Tom s Cabin aka Life among the Lonely It was very successful in the north but banned in parts of the south Within weeks of its publication plays based on Stowe s book began to appear on American stages The minstrels made fun of the novel and its characters acting them out as feeble and dumb Lincoln called her the lllittle lady who started the war Chapter 13 From Jeanie to Dixie Medieval love songs featuring brave knights and protected damsels were very appealing to Americans because like the courtly medieval love nineteenth century courtship was based on separation of the sexes Men and women acted as virtually different species each governed by its own rules Business was separating itself from home life and men and women were becoming more distant This caused a redefining of their roles and made an impact on the language and decorum of romance in music In fact early 1820s songwriters used separation as their main subject Male lovers and their ladies might be separated by shyness the social code physical distance or death These songs take a man s point of view and dwell on the pain of separation but they do NOT show loves coming together touching conversing or erotic attachment 0 The leading American master of the translated courtly love song was Stephen Foster I Jeanie with the Light Brown Hairday dreaming bout girl running through woods I Open They Lattice Love Other songs of Separation and Yearning Poets and songwriters searched for subjects that would trigger yearning moved to inanimate objects rather than people 0 Ex Henry Russel llWoodman Spare that Tree Hutchison Family and Songs of Social Reform They were the leading singers of activist songs in the preCivil War years and they sang for paying audiences They stressed their American origins and were even praised by a New York critic who said they sounded llsimple sweet and full of melody Their first goal was to help reduce the consumption of alcohol They sang songs about sobriety and the fight against slavery and were able to convince spectators of the emotional truth of what they were hearing Songs of the Civil War They were fueled by patriotic feelings and commerce The Battle Cry of Freedom was a recruiting song for the union army written by George Root The elements of the song are the flag collective cheer and goal anyone could join in Dixie was the signature song of the Confederacy and it originated in the North It was popular in both the North and South because it offers a myth of the South so inviting that Southerners wholeheartedly embraced it Drinking Gourd Big Dipper Chapter 14 Of Yankee Doodle and Ophicleides American military used wind instruments that customs borrowed from British Army After the revolution the size of the army had been drastically reduced but when Congress issued the draft in 1792 field music was required for each battalion and bands of music were also maintained They play tunes that listeners already know and appreciate Joseph Halliday cut holes in the side of a bugle and created a brass instrument that could play any note in any scale and it helped to inspire the making of Ophicleides a family of keyed brass Adolph Sax invented the saxhorn modeled after an upright tuba The brass band could achieve a uniform blend with the addition of the saxhorn Music Played by Bands By the mid 1800s bands in America were serving functions that had nothing to do with the military They could be heard in theaters hotels private halls churches hospitals parks sporting events dinner parties ect The band offered a concert in two parts with six numbers on each 0 The first half consisted of a march a vocal song a comet solo a dance piece another song and an overture Bands embraced all of the musical genres that audiences of the time were likely to hear marches patriotic songs popular songs programmatic pieces solo pieces transcriptions of orchestra works and dance pieces Band soloists James A and Milton Clark W Band repertory dance musickey Classical Music as Entertainment lmpresarios invited a thoroughly commercial approach to concert giving When asked what kind of music would be played Bernard Ullman replied llfinancial music Audiences liked virtuoso display wide variety compositions based on familiar tunes descriptive instrumental music established favorites and dance music Patrick S Gilmore Bandmaster He proved that the band could cut loose from military affiliation and succeed as an independent ensemble in the public arena He led the Salem Bass Band in the early 1850s and took over in 1855 In 1864 he accompanied a band to New Orleans where he staged a giant musical event celebrating the inauguration of a new governor a llGrand National Band boasting some 500 players and a chorus of 5000 school children In June 1869 Gilmore was aware that the war s end had not soothed the bitterness between the North and South so he organized a National Peace Jubilee in Boston It was a huge five day musical event with an orchestra of 500 a band of 1000 a chorus of 10000 and many famous soloists Chapter 23 Stars Stripes and Cylinders Sousa American Bands and the March John Philip Sousa formed a band in 1892 that set the professional standard from that time forward He is a key figure in American music history He put his stamp on a wellknown popular form the march By the time he ended his performing career in 1931 the professional band was a thing of the past and an amateur reincarnation the school band begun to flourish Sousa formed his own band in 1892 and it had about 70 members They played marches and operettas and toured for weeks at a time They spend half the year or more touring North America by train They had shiny instruments and dressed in militarystyle uniforms and played as if they were on welltu ned instrument Sousa s fav composer was Wagner Sousa s marches O O O 0 There were 136 Dancebased form that featured a steady beat regular phrase structure and repeated sections not just steady it was quotmilitaryquot in Sousa s eyes There were three instrumental sections I Trumpets trombones clarinets euphoniums play the melody I Saxophone French horn tuba percussion play the bassharmony I Flutes piccolos sometimes clarinets play the counter melody Sousa s best known march is The Stars and Stripes Forever It glorifies the flag and its words deliver a warning to potential enemies Chapter 25 llTo Stretch our Ears Before Ives the American classical music scene was full of amateur performance centered in the popular sphere and seemingly led by commercial interests it was thought to carry little artistic value Charles E Ives was born in 1874 in Danbury Connecticut and attended Yale College Ives credited his father with shaping his musical outlook Polytonality two opposing tones clashing Ive s Instrumental Music Instrumental music quotation layering and changes of voice Putnam s Camp the major feature of this piece is harmonic dissonanceillusion of two bands marching towards each other In The Unanswered Questions a single trumpet intones the same angular figure over a string ensemble s consonant organlike chords while four flutes respond with growing agitation to the trumpet s calls The song also clashes between layers American Experimental Composers Edgar Varese was the first to use musique concretemusic in which composer manipulates sounds naturally found in the environment recorded onto magnetic tape He was the pioneer in the use of percussion instruments John Cage was the leading proponent of chance music where musical events happen in an unpredictable sequence He also created the prepared piano where various objects are inserted into and on the strings inside a piano 4 33 Completely silent piece the quotmusicquot is the background noises in the concert hall Chapter 26 quotCome On and Hear AfricanAmerican Traditions and Popular Music 0 Most black American musicians grew up in communities that maintained the musical practices of the ring shout where signifying made each performance seem spontaneous o Signifying syncopation against a strict beat pitch bending exploration of instrumental and vocal sounds variation of material 0 Will Marion Cook violinist brought the skills of a classically trained musician to an African American musical theater that boomed in New York from the mid1890s until the early 1910s 0 ln Dahomey 1903 the first blackproduced show to run at a regular Broadway theater made an international impact 0 ln Swing Along Cook uses syncopation and dialect to celebrate black folk culture 0 WC Handy Father of Blues Memphis Blues first blues song in sheet music form Scott Joplin and the Rise of Ragtime o Joplin took piano lessons from a Germanborn music teacher that made him appreciate music as an art form He traveled in his early years as a minstrel troupe member and in 1893 spent time in Chicago during the World s Columbian Exposition 0 His most famous composition was the Maple Leaf Rag that he dedicated to a black social club he belonged to called Maple Leaf Club 0 Ragtime is thought to have been named for the quotragged rhythm whose accents cut across the meter s alternating strong and weak beats But a more recent theory holds that it was named by its black practitioners for the hoisting and handkerchiefs rags to signal a dance 0 Joplin had three goals in publishing rags 0 Stop things from being passed down orally 0 Expand range of customers 0 Raise ragtime stocks Irving Berlin 0 He got his success through songs not piano music 0 Alexander s Ragtime Band 1911 song about negros o Resurgence in popularity of dance in starting in 1912 with Berlin s music Chapter 27 Blues Jazz and a Rhapsody 0 Blues took shape in oral tradition lt developed in the 1890s and was accompanied by instruments especially a guitar which provided a foundation of harmony and rhythm 0 Blues was unique in its pitch the raspy singing and call and response between voice and instrument 0 Blues in a spontaneous kind of music and therefore is not written down 0 3 development levels of the blues 0 Down home black blues very low open strings simple singer and guitar 0 Cabernet style classic blues race records more instruments o Tin pan alley dances looked at ragtime music took away race element The Rise ofJazz The origins ofjazz are not known but virtually all authorities agree that New Orleans played a key role and that its AfricanAmerican citizens took the lead 0 3 main melodic voices in New Orleans jazz and their roles o Trombone plays base line 0 Cornettrumpet basic melody o Clarinetcountermelody 0 Original Dixieland Jazz band 1916 first jazz band to make recordings 0 Jazz and prohibition people believed that jazz encouraged people to drink Gershwin and the Rhapsody in Blue 0 llJazz concerto o What were the 3 strands of music Gershwin brought together 0 Blues 0 Jazz instrumental 0 Modernizing in classical music 0 Branded popular but has changed over time to a more classical sound 0 Aaron Copland was the one who used jazz influence in his classical music Chapter 30 From New Orleans to Chicago 0 Fred llJelly Roll Mortan 1920s 0 The Red Hot Peppers worked hard on each number no less 0 Emphasized New Orleans Jazz 0 Claimed to have invented jazz 0 Louis Armstrong 0 Hot Five and Hot Seven recordings 0 Toured for the US State Dept o lnvented quotscatquot singing nonsense syllables in a jazz style treats voice like and instrument 0 Chicago What did jazz flourish here Because there were a lot of people and a lot of African Americans which means a lot of interest 0 King Oliver and the Gennett Studio recordings significance Allowed them to make recordings It was the first time a set of recordings were done by an all black band for general public 0 Dippermouth Blues song that sounds like tap dancing music 0 What elements did Armstrong combine to become such a successful entertainer o Kept with African American traditions 0 Was an entertainer 0 Did improve 0 Major dif between Morton and Armstrong was that Morton felt that compostition was the vital force in jazz quotnever discard the melody Armstrong on the other hand felt that improvisation was the most important based improvisations on harmony Chapter 31 llCrescendo in Blue and other Jazz Topics covered Big Bands and Swing 0 Height of popularity in the 1930s and early 1940s 0 Larger ensemble than New Orleans jazz 0 Multiple trumpets trombones and saxophones o Rhythm section still consisted of single instruments 0 Charts rather than improvisation 0 Everything planned out 0 Played from notation o Resulted in a more discipline polished sound Major Ensembles 0 Duke Ellington and Count Basie early 0 Glenn Miller Benny Goodman later Goodman played the clarinet Bebop o A complex harddriving style of jazz that emerged shortly after World War II o Improvisation was more important than composition 0 quotJammedquot in small elite groups 0 Name derived from the snappy sounds of the melody 0 Usually a quintet of trumpet saxophone piano double bass and drums 0 Played at an breakneck place 0 Notable bebop musicians 0 Charlie Parker started bebop 0 Dizzy Gillespie o Thelonious Monk Later Jazz Styles 0 Cool Jazz 0 Style emerged in the 1950s 0 Softer more relaxed and less frenzied than bebop o Emphasizes lyricism restraint and instruments in the lower part of their range 0 Miles Davis a representative musician first super cool guy of music first to live the llrock star lifestyle o Jazzfusion o A mixture ofjazz and rock cultivated by American bands in the 1970s Rock rhythms and repetitious harmonies Bigband brass sound and improvisation Economically successful Representative artists I Chuck Mangione I Chicago 0 O O O I Kenny 3 Chapter 34 llRock Around the Clock 0 Frank Sinatra 0 Generation gap and rock and roll From Rhythm and Blues to Rock and Roll 0 The music can be traced back to 0 styles of the Mississippi Delta as modified in Chicago and other cities but with influence from black swing bands such as Lionel Hampton s and the smallband o uptempoblues approach of Louis Jordan 0 with elements of piano boogiewoogie mixed in 0 Instruments 0 Rhythm section double bass or electric bass guitar drums guitar and a keyboard instrument 0 backup grou p wind instruments guitar organ 0 Alan Freed o Introduced white middleclass kids to quotblack I music 0 Coined the term rock and roll 0 Major performers of the time were 0 Chuck Berry Little Richard Jerry Lee Lewis Elvis Presley in Memphis 0 Influenced by local black radio station WDIA and the station s diskjockey BB King 0 Sam Philips founded Sun Records as a place where black entertainers would feel free to play and record their music 0 Elvis paid Sun studio 398 plus tax to record 0 How did the musical process in making a record differ from traditional music creation 0 Rock and roll as interracial expression and social change 0 Music business and Brown vs Board of Education
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