RACIAL AND ETHNIC RELATS
RACIAL AND ETHNIC RELATS SOCI 317
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Date Created: 10/21/15
Sociology Exam 3 Review Asian Americans Chinese 0 Early Immigrants So39oumers o39 umers are those immigrants who intend to stay temporarily to earn money and eventually return home 0 1849 California Gold Rush 0 1860 Chinese made up 9 of the population in the state of California but 25 of the labor force 0 18631869 I The first Transcontinental Railroad over 1756 miles connected Sacramento and Omaha I Over 9000 Chinese laborers a year tunneled through the high Siena I Chinese are quiet industrious economical I President of Central Pacific Rail Road I Hiring Chinese resulted in no displacement of nonChinese o A er the Civil War 0 Economic conditions worsened veterans returned and labor supply exceeded demand 0 Competition with white laborers led to the associations of racial inferiority with this group 0 Ethnophaulism started oating yellow perils oriental Despotism against freedom heathen Chinese against God The Chinese were labeled as menace to both the Economy and the health of the society 0 Exclusion 1868 Burlingarne Treaty I Providing unrestricted travel between China and the US 0 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act I Barred Chinese laborers for ten years I First of its kind designed to stop the immigration of a single group I Impacts on immigration 0 1883 8000 Chinese immigrants 1885 22 Chinese immigrants o 1892 Congress extended Chinese Exclusion Act by ten years 0 1902 Chinese Exclusion Act was extended indefinitely o Segregation 0 Ethnic Violence ecarne more spread out a er 1882 I 1885 Rock Springs Wyoming murder of Chinese group a concerted effort Chinese were expelled from many places in the western US 0 Chinatown symbol spatial amp social segregation I Housing I ra e I Education 0 Four stages ofChinese Segregation Involuntary choice in response to prejudice and discrimination o Defensive insulation against racial hostility o luntary se aration due to group consciousness o Gradual assimilation slowed by isolation Recent Immigrants o 1943 Congress ended the ban on Chinese immigration I uson Act was passed due to China s allegiance with the US during WWII o 1965 Immigration and Naturalization Services Act I Also kno as HartCeller Act or the INS of 1965 I It abolished the nationalorigin quota system that had been in place in the US since the Immigration Act of 1924 I It let to steady increase of immigrants from Asia and Latin America in the following decades Population of Asians in America 19 0 o 1980 806000 0 1990 1645000 0 2000 2423000 Social amp Economic Status me higher than other ethnic groups Polarization of occupational pattern I 30 professional amp technical positions vs 15 for white I 24 lowskill service positions vs 7 for white Asian Americans Japanese 0 Beginning 0 1868 I arrived as laborers o Primogeniture the eldest son inherits the entire estate 0 Gravitated toward agricultural works I ir success led to competition and confrontation with farmers from other groups 0 Gentlemen s Agreement 0 1907 through 1908 an informal agreement between the US and the Empire of Japan regarding immigration 0 Japan agreed to restrict issuance of new passports 0 US agreed to accept the presence of Japanese immigrants already residing in America and to permit the immigration ofwives children and parents 0 1913 Alien Land Holding Act of California First of its kind prohibiting any person ineligible for citizenship from owning land 0 Under US Naturalization Act of 1790 citizenship was available to any alien being a free white person It let to protest from the Japanese government and President Wilson 0 1920 barring alien landleasing in California 0 1 23 US Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality ofthe law o Cronological Order 0 Immigration Law of 1924 I Also known as the National Origins Act of the Johnson Reed Act A Nation Quota System Limited the number who could be admitted from any country to 2 of the number of people from that country who were already living in the US in 1890 o Effectively barred Japanese immigrants Intemment During WWII I Feb 19 1942 Executive Order 9066 After Pearl Harbor President FDR authorized US armed forces commanders to declare areas ofthe US as military areas from which any of all persons may be excluded 0 This ower was used to declare that all people of Japanese ancestory were excluded from the entire Paci c Coast I Results roundup millions ofthe Japanese 39 39 39 39 fimmigran s r 39 39 39 Korematsu vs US 1944 I Question the constitutionality of internment policy 0 US Supreme Court Decision 63 decision 0 Majority opinion compulsory exclusion through constitutionally suspect isjustified during circumstances of emergency and perid Justice Blac Dissent It is the case of convicting a citizen as a punishment for not submitting to imprisonment in a concentration camp based on his ancest and solely because of his ances and excuse evidence or inquiry concerning his loyalty and good disposition towards the United States Justice Roberts I In 1980 the commission appointed by President Carter concluded that the decisions to remove those of Japanese Ancestry to prison camps occurred because of race prejudice war hysteria and a failure of political leadershi I In 1988 Congress apologized and granted personal compensation of 20000 to each surviving prisoner I In 1998 President Clinton awarded Korematsu with the Presidential medal of freedom 0 o 0 Group Profile 0 Population I 1970 591000 I 1980 701000 I 1990 848000 I 2000 795000 0 In 2000 over halfwere US born 0 Social Economic Characteristics H39 ucational status I High presence in professionaltechnical jobs s I Higher income than white American Asian Americans Koreans o Refugees of the Korean War forgotten war 19501953 o The 383911 parallel separates the North and the South 0 Continued US military presence in South Korea 0 Family Uni cation a er 1965 Immigration Act I Chain migration a sequential ow of immigrants to a location previously settled by friends family or other compatriots neighbor o This led to signi cant increase of immigration from Sou orea o Koreans were known for their success in the small businesses Middleman Minority Theory A minority group occupying an intermediate occupational position in trade or commerce between the top and bottom strata 0 Korean store owners and fruitnews stand operators in the markets of other minority groups particularly those of blacks and Hispanics o o A rotatingcredit association that provides inds for ethnic Koreans to start or expand their business 0 0 Group Profile 0 Population I 1970 70000 I 1980 355000 I 1990 799000 2000 1073000 7 O Heavily Religious I 70 of its population claimed Christian belief Highly Educated recognition in the US Hi 11 elf p b o usiness anu Jami 0 Hispanic Americans 0 Hispanics in the US o Racial category or Ethnic category 0 Main component groups I Mexicans Puerto Ricans Caribbean Central Americans South Americans 0 Population I 1990 224 million 9 of totally US population I 2000 353 million 125 of total US population 0 67 increase from 1990 o Subgroup distribution x39cans 73 Puerto Ricans 12 0000 Cubans 4 Other Hispanics 36 Hispanic Americans 0 Mexicans Experiences 0 Histo of Texas Texas Revolution or Texas War of Independence 18351836 A military con ict between the Mexican government and the American settlers in Texas 0 Texian o Refers to AngloAmerican citizens of Texas when Texas was part of Mexico and subsequently when it was a sovereign nation 0 Battle ofthe Alamo 1836 Took place at the Alamo mission in San Antonio between the Republic of Mexico and the rebel Texian forces 0 The 13day siege ended on March 6 with the capture of the mission and the death of nearly all the Texian defenders Remember the Alamo Republic of Texas 18361845 0 rrned as a breakaway republic from Mexico as a result of the Texas Revolution The Texas Annexation of 1845 voluntary annexation ofthe Republic of Texas by the US became the state of Texas d from the Republic of Texas also became major parts of New Mexico and Colorado and also parts of Oklahoma Kansas amp Wyoming 0 L I Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1848 he peace treaty that ended the MexicanAmerican War 18461848 a military con ict between the US and Mexico after the annexation of Texas 0 Mexican Cession 0 Mexico ceded 525000 sq miles to the US in exchange for 15 million and 32 million in debt relief about 6 cents per acre 0 It included modemday United States of California Nevada and Utah as well as parts of Colorado Arizona New Mexico and Wyoming 0 Immigration Histogy Recruited as agricultural workers Expulsion 19541959 38 million Mexicans were expelled 0 Not all were illegal immigrants 0 Group Profile 0 Cub aniAmerican s 0 Th Population 21 million census 2000 Low Education 8 with college education or higher High poverty over 20 below poverty Occupation farming service manual labor e SpanishAmerican War April 1898December 1898 Reason Feb 15 1898 an explosion sank the American battleship USS Maine in Havana harbor Teller Amendment April 19 1898 granted Cuba independence Treaty of Paris was signed in Paris on Dec 10 1898 Cubans participated only as observers Platt Amendment March 2 1901 ceded to the US the naval base Guantanamo Bay A longterm lease can only be revoked by the consent of both parties denounced by Cuban government declared independent in 1902 I Cuba 0 Cuban Revolution July 26 1953 Januaryl 1959 I Be i nning 26Lh of July Movement 0 A Cuban revolutionary organization and guerilla movement led by Fidel Castro 0 July 26 1953 a group of revolutionaries led by Fidel Castro launched a failed attack on an army facility in the city of Santigo de Cuba the Moncada Barra Victory January 1 1959 authoritarian dictator General Fulgencio Batista ed Cuba for the Dominican Republic Che Guevara or el C e an Argentinebom Marxist revolutionary and leader of Cuban and Internationalist guerrillas Was captured in a CIAUS Army Special Forces organized military operation while forming revolutions in Bolivia where he was executed by the Bolivian Army on Oct 9 1967 o Refugee Immigrants o Other Events Displaced bourgeoisie rthe ls39wave o Uppermiddle class professionals 0 Cuban American Adjustment Act of 1966 The Cuban Re rgee Program provided more than 1 billion of direct nancial assistance Established CubanAmerican centers like Miami Florida and Union City New Jersey Mariel boatlift the 2m wave Around 125000 Cubans departed from Cuba s Mariel Harbor to the US between April 15 and October 31 1989 o It was later discovered that a number of the exiles were convicted felons or committed mental patients who had been releases from Cuban jails and mental facilities Reform economy including nationalization of Cuban industries Bay ofPigs invasion April 17 0 An attempt of Cuban exiles to overthrow Castro approved by JFK administration 0 A tra ic failure when the US withheld air support due to international pressure Cuban Missile Crisis Oct 16 1962 Oct 28 1962 o Soviet nuclear missile installations were detected on the island Elian Gonzalez 2000 0 Group Profile Population 1241685 census 2000 Education Higher than Hispanic average 25 with college education or higher 0 But lower than nonHispanic white 30 Income 0 Nativebom Cuban Americans have higher median income than even nonHispanic whites 50000 vs 48000 Residential Concentration voluntary separation 0 Southern Florida Little Havana Sociology Exam 2 Review Native Americans o Amprir zn o Themain 39 Nam 39 pr sitar 39 eunurardifferences 0 Cultural differences R ligion Lifestyle Government Language Over the years thoughts about Indians have changed why 0 In European eyes there has been debate between the Indians as a Noble Savage or a Bloodthirsty Barbarian o le Savage Sees Indians as trainable potential servants 3 main people who have had this view are 0 E o E a 0 Las Casas a Spanish priest Bloodthirsty Barbarian l rain p r Sepulveda said 39 Luau L o The view ofIndians in the Early Encounter n whites were few in numbers They As settlement became stabilized the view ofIndians changed dians became graceless and savage people Their differences in values were highlighted o Views Against the 39 39 l About the status 1573 English Royal Proclamation tribes are seen as accorded independent nations 778 Continental Congress reaffirms the British poli o 1832 US Supreme Court Cherokee is a domestic dependent nation 1871 a rider attached to Appropriation Bill 39 39 About the land 0 1830 Indian Removal Act 0 All In th erefnre L dians must move west ofthe Mississippi River a t rg pr 39 L p 39 u ia rat a r FiveCivilized Tribes 0 Act resultedin 39 Nam 1830 and 1843 1887 Allotment Act Dawes Act 0 Reservations surveyed divided and allotted to tribe members 0 Ledtothe loss ofmore Indian and 1898CurtjsAct o nninates tribal government that refuse allotment 1953Termination t o L Nam 39 ending all federal services 0 This ledto sales of additional reservation lands Dumping Gro d 0 To niedump39 39439 L 39 andnuclearwaste i partian 39 39 TheEive CivilizedTnbes o a Na vp 39 39 ofthe colonists 39 39 L39r 39 39 P I goodrelations with their neighbors 0 Cherokee Ch39ckasaw Choctaw Creekamp Seminole o The Removal of the Cherokee Nation Cherokees were the Model ofAssimilation arming commerce government conversion to Christianity and written language 39 Trail of Tears October 1838 March 193 0 Some 4000 died out ofa total 13000 0 It was the result of the Treaty of New Echota o A removal treaty signedin New Echota Georgia December 29 1935 i r or n in rrh US Was never signed by an 39 39 L 39 39 39 39 39 A petition with over 15000 signatures88 was sent from the Cherokee Tribal Council in the Spring of1838 and was denied 0 o o r r at o 0 Indian Movements o The Red Power A political movement in the 19605 with a violent connotation e Native Americans were willing to light to regain their civil rights Most ofthe participants came from the urban ghettos o PanIndianism A social movement 39 39 a common in Math Today s Native Americans 0 Population 510 million before colonization 39 4 1 million in Census 2000 Decrease in population was due to Warfare destmction oftheir way oflife devastating epidemics 0 High unemployment 50 plus 0 Poor health Inadequate health care system Low life expectancy 5 years lower than average High rates of disease and suicide 0 Alcohol abuse is common The new buffalo over A ofthe 175 reservations have casinos Group struggl es DominantCrroupResponses Legislative Controls Immigrationacts Votingrighs o Segregation s u a pecial t39 39 separation Social segregation 39 urh a in hnu ing or education of social 39 39 grou o Expulsion The forced removal ofa group from an area 0 Xenophobia The irrational fear or contempt for what is foreign or strange o Annihilation e extermination ofa specific group ofpeople Subordinate Group Responses 0 Avoidance I withdraw 39 39 ui uiinindiiun o D eviance characteristics or behaviors that violate social norms Ex delinquency gangs 0 De ance Peaceful or violent action to challenge openly a discriminatory practice 0 x Fivil 39 1 A rim of cer 39 um n u 0 Acceptance p 39 r r 39439 in iminat r 39 39 L per ona safety orfatalism Ex Japanese Internment during WWII prejudice stereotype amp Discrimination Prejudice o Asystem ofnegativeur quot 39 feelinn 39 39 39 certain group or o 31evelsofprejudice Ex Insh areheavy drinkers Emotional feelings arousedin a group by another group Ex fear envy contempt empathy k A r sump Ex racial exclusion segregation o SelfJustification 39 A 39 r r 39 r j Ex crusaders against Christ Killers and In dels Ex pioneers against heathen savages Ex slave masters against an inferior species 0 Scapegoating Placing blame on others for something not their fault Ex blame low wages on immigrant workers 0 How can we reduce Prejudice 39 Interaction Ex Jigsaw method Education Ex higher education stereotype o 39L p ra up 39 39 quot differences n o Ethnophaulism 39 A u r at a in r Prejudice vs stereotype Prejudice has different levels A stereotype is more uniform and is widely accepted Discrimination 0 Differential and unequal treatment of other groups ofpeople usually along racial religious and ethnic lines 0 Different levels of discrimination Verbal expression nce Avoida Exclusion Dejuresegregationleal De facto segregation in effect Physicalabuse Extermination Prejudice amp Discrimination Prejudice can leadto discrimination Discrimination can lead to prejudice Scenarios Robert Merton o All weather liberals non prejudiced non discriminator Eair weather liberals non prejudiced discriminator Timid bi got prejudiced non discriminator o 0 Active bigot prejudiced discriminatior African Americans They are a Unique Group 0 ey are Strangers in their Own Land They L Us citizens yet in Umcl 4 why L 39 an n kinds quot n as the collective being of the whole society African Americans vs Elacks frican American is not equivalent to Black American 0 A ir an 39 39 L 39 39 AM 2quot Descent 0 Ethnic Identity Native Immigrant African blacks West Indians amp AffroCaribbeans Slavery o The only group in history of the U S that was enslaved for long period oftime 0 Race became the basis Eefore 16 h17391 centuries slavery was based on wealth status ethnicity religion and so on The myth 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 kin color and social status Social Construction ofRace I to race labor was degraded humanity was despised the theory of race arose the word N egro a u en lo 39 39 r and blackness to slavery and degradation W E B Dubois 0 Atlantic Slave Tirade 16091807 The purchase ofpeople in and transport from West Africa amp Central Africa into Slavery in the New World Triangular 39n39ade andits MiddlePassa e 18 h century trade between Europe South AmericanNorth AmencaNew EnglandWest Indies amp the West Coast ofAfnca Rum for slaves o 15 1eg Europe to Africa manufactured goods 0 2m leg Africa to America slaves o 31 leg America to Europe raw materials such as sugar cotton tobacco The trade accumulated much wealth of American capitalism n 39 39 39 39 39 A L 39 1807 an estimated 10 million African slaves arrived in the New World 0 Consequences Total separation of slaves and the rest of society Illiteracy Lack or resources Lack or organizations except black churches L 39 ideologv terentvne inferioritvl o Emancipation Civil War 18611865 n ustri or Plantation South Three hs Compromise o A 39 outhem andNorthem 39 philadelnhia Convention of1787 in which 35 39 r a taxation 0 Article 1 Section 2 Clause 3 ofthe Constitution Dred Scott vs Sandford 1857 o A known as the Dred Scott Case or Dred Scott Decision 0 e U S Supreme Court ruled in 1857 that people ofAfrican descent whether or not they were slaves could never be citizens ofthe U S andthat Congress had no authority to prohibit slavery in federal tenitories o The decision was written by ChiefJustice Roger Taney Reconstruction18os1877 0 Goals The return of the couther states to the Union quotL L L 0 Black Codes nnli rzl economic and social system A L 39 level in the 39 39 39 quot rights and civil liberties of Black Americans After the abolition ofslavery all m l A f f 39 39 an r o plessy vs Ferguson 1896 A r a a pro iueunn facilities Lynching o A b 39 0 Role oflynchin An integral part of the Southern economy and class structure rTony amp Beck Festival ofViolence o Victims blacks moo4000 during the late 1880s and early 1900s Ilnll in Ul 0 Impact Enforcing Elack Codes Enforcing Jim Crow Laws Great Migration o 39 39 African 39 SouthemU S 39 39 cities 0 push amp pull Causes to avoidthe racial segregation ofthe Jim Crow in the South The promised Land booming industrial job openings in the North 0 Impact A A L L L m I r quotL 439 uuuclun prourem in American cities Racial Discrimination 0 De Jure Segregation de Jure Latin for by law physical separation ofa group that is established by a law Jim Crow Laws Southemstate segregation laws passedin the 1890s and early 1900s which cover 39 39 39 39 39 39 re naint nan nnnannn wash rooms an drinking fountains 0 De Eacto Segregation de Eacto Latin for in practice physical separation ofa group that is entrenchedin customs and practices Struggles Against Racism o 1954 Brown vs anrd ofEducation of Topeka Agai the Board ofEducation ofthe City ofTopeka Kansas 39 39 ni pl itl outlawed racial Ll Overturn the doctrine of separate but equal established in plessy vs Ferguson 1986 Racial segregation 14 Amendment L The Negros o 1954 Bolling vs Sharpe Against school segregation in District of Columbia 39al 39 39 39 39 39 guaranteed by the 5 h amendment 39 L 14 39 t 39 exclusive rChi ef Justice Earl Wanen o 1955 Rosa Parks Refused on Dec 11955 to give up her seat to a white passenger nu 39 39 Boycott emega nn in histnrv she became a symbol ofthe civil rights movement 0 1963 Washington March 39 ugust 28 1963 March on dsuiu lUll JUI 39 39 39 39 quot I Have A Dream 7 Martin Luther Ring 0 1945 civil Rights Act color religion sex or national origin Originally 39 39 L everyone and pr it the 15 time In effect endedDe Jure Segregation o 1955 Voting Rights Act Prohibit voting discrimination outlaw literacy tests or pay a poll tax or other quali cation for voters All frican Americans gained the right to vote in elections The demographic Aspect 0 Fa growing 0 Relatively young A result ofthe migration from the South The Economic situation 0 Wage differential Between whites and blacks Between black men and black women 0 Occupational Patterns Low skill manual labor domestic labor Lack ofbusiness class A major defect 39 Causes 171sz L 39 lack ui uduui mic Most of all lack ofhabbit ofsaving The education 0 Lack ofsuccess Reasons slaverylegacy not value not money not aspirations school segregation Most of all lack offamily and community support Family 0 Disintegrated family structure 0 Illegitimacy Responsible for creating the dif cult conditions The conclusion by the au 0 39 39 39 39 go so far 0 Education program is needed andthe culture is to be changed
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