INTRO TO PSYCHOLOGY
INTRO TO PSYCHOLOGY PSYC 107
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Joyce Gutkowski II on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 107 at Texas A&M University taught by J. Schumacher in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see /class/225874/psyc-107-texas-a-m-university in Psychlogy at Texas A&M University.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
CH2 Methods of Psychology Normal Curve normal sfrbufonbelcune a frequency distribution in which most measurements are concentrated around the mean and fall off towards the tails and the two sides ofthe distribution are symmetrical Sample Distribution Mean the average of the measurements in a frequency Randomization a procedure to ensure that a participant s inclusion in the experimental or control group is not determined by a third variable Correlation the corelationship or pattern of covariation between two variables each of which has been measured several times Correlation coefficient r measures the direction and strength of a correlation r1 perfect positive correlation r1 perfect negative correlation r0 uncorrelatedno relation Hypothesis a speci c and testable prediction that is usually derived from a theory Reliability the tendency for a measure to produce the same result whenever it is used to measure the same thing CH3 Neuroscience and Behavior Limbic System motivation emotion learning memory Hypothalamus body temperature hunger thirst amygdala emotional processes hippocampus creating new memories store in cerebral cortex Wernicke s area language comprehension left temporal lobe Synapse the junction or region between the axon ofone neuron and the dendrites or cell body of another Axon in a neuron transmits information to other neurons muscles or glads Dendrites receive information from other neurons and relay it to the cell body Myelin sheath covers the axons an insulating layer of fatty material composed ofglial cells support cells Resting potential difference in electric charge between the inside and outside ofa neuron s cell membrane Terminal buttons knoblike structures that branch out from axonend of axon lled with vesicles Vesicle bags that contain neurotransmitters which are chemicals that transmit information across the synapse to a receiving neuron s dendrites Thalamus senses not smell Hind brain brain stem coordinates information coming into and out of the spinal cord Includes medulla extension of the spinal cord heart rate circulation respiration cerebellum little brain ne motor skills Pons relays info from cerebellum to rest of brain CH4 Sensation and Perception Synesthesia the perceptual experience of one s sense that is evoked by another sense Sensation simple awareness due to the stimulation of a sense organ basic registration of light sound pressure odor or taste as your body interacts with world Perception organization identi cation and interpretation of a sensation in order to form a mental representation Cones detect color operate under normal daylight conditions and allow us to focus on ne detail 6 million sensitive to ne detail Rods lowlight conditions for night vision120 million Fovea and area of the retina where vision is the clearest and there are no rods at all Trichromatic Theory the pattern of responding across the three types of cones that provides a unique code for each color 1short wavelengths blue 2 medium wavelengths green 3 long wavelengths red Lateral lnhibition pg 134 CH5 Memom Sensory memory the place in which sensory information is kept for a few seconds of less Short term memorynonsensory information is kept for more than a few seconds but less than a minute Long term Memorya place in which information can be kept for hours days weeks or years Implicit memory the influence of past experienced on later behavior and performance even though people are not trying to recollect them and are not aware that they are remembering them without conscious recall procedural memory the gradual acquisition of skills as a result of practice or knowing how to do things iconic memory semantic memory a network of associated facts and concepts that make up our general knowledge of the world episodic memory the collection of past personal experiences that occurred at a particular time and place priming an enhanced ability to think of a stimulus such as a word or object as a result of a recent exposure to the stimulus proactive interference situations in which earlier learning impairs memory for information acquired later retroactive interference situations in which later learning impairs memory for information acquired earlier CH6 Learning Classical conditioning When a neutral stimulus evokes a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally evokes a response Operant Conditioning a type of learning in which the consequences ofan organism s behavior determine whether it will be repeated in the future Observational Learning is a condition in which learning takes place by watching the actions of others Fixed Ratio Schedule FR reinforcement is delivered after a speci c number of responses have been made Variable Ratio Schedule VR reinforcement is based on a particular average number of responses Reinforcer any stimulus or event that function to increase the likelihood ofthe behavior that led to it Punisher any stimulus or event that functions to decrease the likelihood of the behavior that led to it Positive reinforcement where something desirable is presented Negative reinforcement where something undesirable is removed Positive Punishment where something unpleasant is administered Negative Punishment where something desirable is removed Reinforcement is more effective than punishment CH7 Learning Language and Thought Phoneme a system for communication with others uses signals that convey meaning and are combined according to rules of grammar Morphemes are the smallest meaningful units of language Broca s area is located in the left frontal cortex it is involved in the production of the sequential patterns in vocal and sign languages The second Wernicke s area is located in the left temporal cortex is involved in language comprehension Prototype Theory category members that have many features in common with other members are rated as more typical ofthe category than are member that share few common features Aphasia is dif culty in producing or comprehending language CH9 Intelligence Prodigy is a person of normal intelligence who has an extraordinary ability Savant is a person of low intelligence who has an extraordinary ability Factor Analysis is a statistical technique that explains a large number of correlations in terms of a small number of underlying factors Spearman Fluid Intelligence is 1 of8 middle level abilities It is the ability to process information Crystallized Intelligence 7 the accuracy and amount of information available for processing 1 of8 middle level abilities suggested by John Carroll Howard Gardner believes there are eight types of intelligence linguistics logical mathematical spatial musical bodily kinesthetic interpersonal intrapersonal and naturalistic Robert Stenberg suggest three types of intelligence analytic creative and practical Anaytca is the ability to indentify and de ne problems and to find strategies to love them Creative is the ability to generate solutions that other people do not Practical is the ability to apply and implement theses solutions everyday CH1O Emotion and Motivation 2 Factor Theory a theory about the relationship between emotional experience and physiological activity suggesting that emotions are inferences about the causes of undifferentiated physiological arousal Amygdala emotion make memories very potent receive information from the thalamus before the cortex people may feel scared before they know why see pg 375 Emotional expression any observable sign of an emotional state Hedonic Principle the notion that all people are motivated to experience pleasure and avoid pain CH12 Intelligence Temperaments are characteristic patterns ofemotional reactivity Extraversion social fun loving and affectionate Big Five the traits ofthe vefactor model conscientiousness agreeableness neuroticism openness to experience and extraversion Psychodynamic Approach an approach that regards personality as formed by needs strivings and desires largely operating outside of awareness motives that can also produce emotional disorders In Freud s psychoanalytic psychotherapy the process of revealing the unconscious is the main focus of therapy Defense Mechanisms are unconscious coping mechanisms that reduce anxiety generated by threats from unacceptable impulses Rationalizationinvolves supplying a reasonable sounding explanation for unacceptable feelings and behavior to conceal mostly from oneself one s underlying motives or feelings Reaction formation involves unconsciously replacing threatening inner wishes and fantasies with an exaggerated version of their opposite Projection involves attributing one s own threatening feelings motives or impulses to another person or group Regression the ego deals with internal con ict and perceived threat by reverting to an immature behavior or earlier stage of development Displacement involves shifting unacceptable wishes or drives to a neutral or less threatening alternative Identification helps deal with feelings ofthreat and anxiety by enabling us unconsciously to take on the characteristics ofanother person who seems more powerful of better able to cope Sublimation involves channeling unacceptable sexual or aggressive drives into socially acceptable and culturally enhancing activities CH13 Psychological Disorders Generalized anxiety disorder GAD a disorder characterized by chronic excessive worry accompanied by three or more ofthe following symptoms restlessness fatigue concentration problems irritability muscle tension and sleep disturbance affects people with low income women people with traumatic childhood experiences life changes people with personal vulnerabilities Phobic disorders characterized by marked persistent and excessive fear and avoidance of speci c objects activities or situations speci c phobia irrational fear or a particular objectsituation that interferes with an individual s ability to function Eg social phobiairrational fear of being publicly humiliated Obsessive compulsive disorder OCD repetitive intrusive thoughts obsessions and ritualistic behaviors compulsions are designed to fend off those thoughts interfere significantly with an individual s functioning Bipolar disorder an unstable emotional condition characterized by cycles of abnormal persistent high mood mania and low mood depression Personality disorder disorders characterized by deeply ingrained in exible patterns of thinking feeling or relating to others or controlling impulses that cause distress or impaired functioning Depression a mood disorder that has mood disturbance as their predominant feature Major depressive disorderunipolar severely depressed mood that lasts 2 or more weeks and is accompanied by feelings ofworthlessness and lack of pleasure lethargy and sleep and appetite disturbance Dysfhyma same cognitive bodily problems as above but less severe and last longer persisting for at least 2 years Daube depresson moderately depressed mood that persists for at least 2 years and is punctuated by periods of major depression Dissociative identity disorder DID is characterized by the presence within an individual oftwo or more distinct identitieshostdominateunaware alternate that at different times take control ofthe individuals behavior CH16 Social Psychology Aggression Behavior whose purpose is to harm another eg premeditatedseen more commonly in women impulsive seen more commonly in men Frustrationaggression principlepeople aggress when goals are thwarted Cognitive Dissonance Theory an unpleasant state that arises when a person recognizes the inconsistency of his or her actions attitudes or beliefs Passionate love an experience involving the feelings of euphoria intimacy and intense sexual attraction Social Loafing the tendency for people to expend less effort when in a group than alone Cooperation behavior by two or more individuals that leads to mutual benefit Physical proximity mere exposure effect the tendency for liking to increase with the frequency of exposure Attraction Situational mere exposure effect physical male inverted triangle symmetricalmature face Female hourglass symmetricalimmature face psychological attracted to inner qualities similar to your own Emotional Intelligence Summary of Emotional Intelligence By Daniel Goleman Part V The part V Emotional Literacy comprises of two last chapters Chapter 15 The Cost of Emotional Literacy Chapter 16 Schooling the Emotions In Chapter 15 The Cost of Emotional Illiteracy Goleman writes that some people are unable to differentiate between being scared and angry They feel more hunger in depressing situations and eat more to gain weight The author also indicates that the people with few friends or with extreme tendencies for loneliness are at great risk of medical diseases and early death The chapter 16 Schooling the Emotions is the final chapter of the book Here Goleman concludes the book with training programs to educate you Self Science He also mentions emotional coaching such as Resolving Conflict Creatively Program in the New York public schools in which children are encouraged to be assertive and articulate their feelings in situations involving conflict with others He says that emotional intelligence can be taught However it is not enough to lecture children Instead they should be allowed to see ethics in practice Furthermore they should be given different models of ethics so that they may develop their own value conclusions Page 1 of 3 1 Test 3 Study Guide Psvch 107 Fall 2009 87 Questionsmultiplechoice Students should be able to de ne and apply the concepts listed For chapters 1 2 3 4 and 12 students are responsible for only those concepts listed For chapters 6 7 and 10 approximately 80 of test items come from the concepts listed below The remaining test item concepts come from lectures and text book chapters For Chapter 6 Operant Conditioning pp 224 to 242 will not be covered on this test CH 1 Roots Darwin s theory of natural selection features of an organism that help it survive and reproduce are mere likely than other features to be passed on to subsequent generations CH 2 Methods Independent variable the variable that is manipulated in an experiment Dependent variable 9the variable that is measured in a study Correlations the corelationship or pattern of covariation between two variables each of which has been measured several times Correlation coef cient a statistical measure of the direction and strength of a correlation which is signi ed by the letter r Ch 3 7 Brain Neurons cells in the nervous system that communicate with one another to perform information processing tasks Broca s area region of the brain with functions linked to speech production central nervous system the part of the nervous system that is composed of the brain and spinal cord Wernicke s area is one of the two parts of the cerebral cortex linked to speech superior part of temporal gyms cerebral cortex the outermost layer of the brain visible to the naked eye and divided into two hemispheres hippocampus for creating new memories and integrating them into a network of knowledge so they can be stored indefinitely in other parts of the cerebral cortex Ch 4 7 Sensation and Perception Sensation simple awareness due to the stimulation of a sense organ Perception the organization identification and interpretation of a sensation in order to form a mental representation Ch 12 7 Personality Personality an individuals characteristics style of behaving thinking and feeling Twin studies Chapter 6 7 Learning Page 2 of 3 2 Classical conditioning when a neutral stimulus evokes a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally evokes a response unconditioned stimulusUS9something that reliably produces a naturally occurring reaction in an organism Conditioned stimulusCS9A stimulus that is initially neutral and produces no reliable response in an organism Acquisition the phase of classical conditioning when the CS and the US are presented together Generalization a process in which the CR is observed even though the CS is slightly different from the original one used during acquisition observational learning a condition in which learning takes place by watching the actions of others Explicit learning Chapter 7 7 Language and Thought Language a system for communicating with others using signals that convey meaning and are combined according to rules of grammar Deep structure the meaning of a sentence Morpheme surface structure Nativist View behavioral View Human language and Ape language learning Exemplar theory a theory of categorization that argues that we make category judgments by comparing a new instance with stored memories for other instances in that category prototype theory Availability bias items that are more readily available in memory are judged as having occurred more frequently means end analysis a process of searching for the means or steps to reduce differences between the current situation and the desired goal Well de ned problems ill defined problems Heuristics a fast and efficient strategy that may facilitate decision making but does not guarantee that a solution will be reached Chapter 10 7 Emotion and Motivation James lange theory a theory about the relationship between emotional experience and physiological activity suggesting that stimuli trigger activity in the autonomic nervous system which in turn produces an emotional experience in the brain 2 factor theory a theory about the relationship between emotional experience and physiological activity suggesting that emotions are inferences about the causes of undifferentiated physiological arousal Cannon bard theory a theory about the relationship between emotional experience and physiological activity suggesting that a stimulus simultaneously triggers activity in the autonomic nervous system and emotional experience in the brain role of amygdala a part of the limbic system that plays a central role in many emotional processes particualry the formation of emotional memories Page 3 of 3 Reappraisal a strategy that involves changing ones emotional experience by changing the meaning of the emotioneliciting stimulus reaction formation a defense mechanism that involves unconsciously replacing threatenting inner wishes and fantasies with an exaggerated version of their opposite Universality hypothesis the hypothesis that emotional expressions have the same meaning for everyone emotional expression any observable sign of an emotional state Hedonic principle the notion that all people are motivated to experience pleasure and avoid pain homeostasis the tendency for a system to take action to keep itself in a particular state Bulimia nervosa an eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging
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