ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE ATMO 201
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Demarcus Schaden V
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Ahrens Study questions for chapters 13 rho5H7 9951579 Chapter 1 The Earth and Its Atmosphere Multiple Choice Questions 1 The primary source of energy for the earth s atmosphere is a energy from Within the earth b the sun c erupting volcanoes d lightning discharges associated with thunderstorms e latent heat released during the formation of hurricanes 2 The most abundant gases in the earth s atmosphere by volume are carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxygen and water vapor nitrogen and oxygen oxygen and helium oxygen and ozone 3 A single breath of air contains about 102 molecules 102 ions 1022 molecules 1022 ions none of these 4 Water vapor is a a gas b a cloud droplet c a rain drop d a snow ake e all ofthese In a volume of air near the earth s surface nearly 21 percent a nitrogen oxygen b hydrogen oxygen c oxygen hydrogen d nitrogen water vapor e hydrogen helium occupies 78 percent and The earth s rotation has 777 to do with the behavior of atmospheric storms a nothing b little c much Which of the following is considered a variable gas in the earth s atmosphere a water vapor b nitrogen c oxygen d argon e helium The gas that shows the most variation from place to place and from time to time in the lower atmosphere is which of the following a ozone 03 b carbon dioxide C02 c water vapor HzO d methane CH4 e argon Ar Water vapor a is invisible b colors the sky blue c makes clouds white d is very small drops of liquid water Typically water vapor occupies about what percentage of the air s volume near the earth s surface a about 78 percent b about 21 percent c close to 10 percent d less than 4 percent e none ofthese The only substance near the earth s surface that is found naturally in the atmosphere as a solid liquid and a gas is a carbon dioxide b water c molecular oxygen d ozone e carbon In the atmosphere tiny solid or liquid suspended particles of various composition are ca e a aerosols b carcinogens c greenhouse gases d microbes e none ofthese The most abundant greenhouse gas in the earth s atmosphere is a carbon dioxide C02 b nitrous oxide N2 0 c water vapor H20 d methane CH4 e chloro uorocarbons CFCs Since the turn of this century C02 in the atmosphere has a been increasing in concentration b been decreasing in concentration c remained at about the same concentration from year to year d disappeared entirely The greenhouse gas that has been increasing in concentration at least partly due to deforestation is a carbon dioxide C02 b chloro uorocarbons CFCs c water vapor H2 0 d ozone 03 e all of these Which below is not considered a greenhouse gas a carbon dioxide C02 b nitrous oxide N2 0 c water vapor H2 0 d methane CH4 e oxygen 02 Which of the following processes acts to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere a lightning b deforestation c photosynthesis d burning fossil fuels e none of the above The outpouring of gases from the earth s hot interior is called a evaporation b outgassing c photodissociation d the hydrologic cycle The earth s rst atmosphere was composed primarily of a carbon dioxide and water vapor b hydrogen and helium c oxygen and water vapor d argon and nitrogen 20 The primary source of oxygen for the earth s atmosphere during the past half billion years or so appears to be a volcanic eruptions b photosynthesis c photodissociation d exhalations of animal life e transpiration 21 The most abundant gas emitted from volcanoes is a nitrogen b sulfur dioxide c helium d carbon dioxide e water vapor 22 Hypoxia is a condition caused by a lack of oxygen going to the brain b over exposure to ultraviolet radiation c the combined effects of heat and humidity d rapid changes in atmospheric pressure e extreme cold 23 iiii holds a planet s atmosphere close to its surface a Radiation b Gravity c Cloud cover d Moisture e Pressure 24 The amount of force exerted over an area of surface is called a density b weight c temperature d pressure Much of Tibet lies at altitudes over 18000 feet where the pressure is about 500 mb At such altitudes the Tibetans are above roughly a 10 percent of the air molecules in the atmosphere b 25 percent of the air molecules in the atmosphere c 50 percent ofthe air molecules in the atmosphere d 75 percent of the air molecules in the atmosphere e 90 percent of the air molecules in the atmosphere Which of the following are M units of pressure a millibars b newtons c inches of mercury Hg d pascals The unit of pressure most commonly found on a surface weather map is a inches of mercury Hg b millibars or hectopascals c pounds per square inch d millimeters of mercury Hg Which of the following weather elements ALWAYS decreases as we climb upward in the atmosphere a wind b temperature c pressure d moisture e all of these The number or mass of air molecules in a given space or volume is called a density b pressure c temperature d weight 30 Which of the following is a planet whose atmosphere is mainly nitrogen and oxygen a Venus b Mars c Earth d Jupiter e Mercury 31 The atmosphere of a Earth b Mars c Jupiter d none of these e all of these is composed primarily of carbon dioxide C02 32 The gas responsible for the greenhouse effect on Venus is a carbon dioxide C02 b oxygen 02 c ozone 03 d nitrogen N2 e water vapor H2 0 33 The planet with a strong greenhouse effect whose surface temperature averages 480 C 900 F is a Earth b Venus c Mars d Pluto e none of these 34 In the stratosphere the air temperature normally a decreases with increasing height h increases with increasing height c both increases and decreases depending on the season d cannot be measured The earth s atmosphere is divided into layers based on the vertical pro le of a air pressure b air temperature c air density d Wind speed Carbon dioxide is a naturallyoccurring component of the atmosphere Almost all of the earth s weather occurs in the a exosphere b stratosphere c mesosphere d thermosphere e troposphere The most abundant gas in the stratosphere is a oxygen 02 b nitrogen N2 c carbon dioxide C02 d ozone 03 e chloro uorocarbons CFCs The hottest atmospheric layer is the a stratosphere b mesosphere c thermosphere d troposphere Scientists are able to determine the air temperature in the thermosphere by a using radiosondes b using temperature probes in orbiting satellites c observing changes in satellite orbits d direct measurements in manned highaltitude balloons 41 The atmospheric layer in which we live is called the a troposphere b stratosphere c thermosphere d ionosphere e exosphere 42 The temperature of the tropopause a is close to the temperature at the earth s surface b is much colder than the temperature at the earth39s surface c has never been measured d is much warmer than the temperature at the earth s surface e is nearly the same as the sun s temperature 43 The instrument that measures temperature pressure and humidity at various altitudes in the atmosphere is the a barograph b radiosonde c aneroid barometer d altimeter 44 Warming in the stratosphere is mainly caused by a absorption of ultraviolet radiation by ozone b release of latent heat energy during condensation c chemical reactions between ozone and chloro uorocarbons d frictional heating caused by meteorites 45 In a temperature inversion a air temperature increases with increasing height b air temperature decreases with increasing height c air temperature remains constant with increasing height d it is warmer at night than during the day 46 The rate at which temperature decreases with increasing altitude is known as the a temperature slope b lapse rate c sounding d thermocline 47 Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide tend to go up and down throughout the course of a year a true b false 48 The main reason nighttime radio broadcasts can be sent over long distances is because a the low D level region ofthe ionosphere is weaker at night b there is less interference because many radio stations do not broadcast at night c radio stations put out more power 52 54 55 d radio waves propagate more ef ciently through cooler high density air The electri ed region of the upper atmosphere is called the a thermosphere b mesosphere c stratosphere d ionosphere e troposphere The ionosphere is an atmospheric layer that contains a high concentration of ions An ion is a another term for ozone b an atom or molecule that has lost or gained an electron c atomic oxygen d a radioactive element Most of the ionosphere is found in what atmospheric layer a troposphere b stratosphere c mesosphere d thermosphere The gas that absorbs most of the harmful ultraviolet radiation in the stratosphere is a water vapor b nitrous oxide c carbon dioxide d ozone e chloro uorocarbons Which of the following equations is correct a Weight mass gravity b Weight mass gravity c Weight mass x gravity d Weight mass gravity Meteorology did not become a genuine science until a Aristotle wrote Meteorologica b the invention of weather instruments c scientists discovered weather fronts d computers were invented e satellite data became available to the weather forecaster Which latitude belt best describes the middle latitudes a 20 to 80 56 b 10 to 35 c 20 to 35 1 40 to 700 e 300 to 500 the As altitude increases in the atmosphere air density decreases 7 decrease in air pressure a in a completely different way than b much less than c much more than d in much the same way as The word quotweatherquot is de ned as a the average of the weather elements b the climate of a region c the condition ofthe atmosphere at a particular time and place d any type of falling precipitation The wind direction is a the direction from which the wind is blowing b the direction to which the wind is blowing c always directly from high toward low pressure d always directly from low toward high pressure Meteorology is the study of a landforms b the oceans c the atmosphere d outer space e extraterrestrial meteoroids that enter the atmosphere A south wind a blows from the north b is any warm wind c blows from the south d is any moist wind Storms vary in size diameter Which list below arranges storms from largest to smallest a hurricane tornado middle latitude cyclone thunderstorm b tornado middle latitude cyclone hurricane thunderstorm c hurricane middle latitude cyclone thunderstorm tornado d middle latitude cyclone tornado hurricane thunderstorm e middle latitude cyclone hurricane thunderstorm tornado 65 66 A tropical storm system whose winds are in excess of 64 knots 74 mihr is a a thunderstorm b anticyclone c tornado d eXtratropical cyclone e hurricane Middle latitude storms are also known as a anticyclones b hurricanes c extratropical cyclones d tornadoes A towering cloud or cluster of clouds accompanied by thunder lightning and strong gusty winds is a a hurricane b trough c thunderstorm d tornado At night when the weather is eXtremely cold and dry a atmospheric pressure increases with increasing altitude b atmospheric pressure remains constant with increasing altitude c atmospheric pressure decreases with increasing altitude d atmospheric pressure rst increases then decreases with increasing altitude In the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere surface winds tend to blow and around an area of surface low pressure a clockwise inward b clockwise outward c counterclockwise inward d counterclockwise outward In the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere surface winds tend to blow and around an area of surface high pressure a clockwise inward b clockwise outward c counterclockwise inward d counterclockwise outward Where cold surface air replaces warm air the boundary separating the different bodies of an 1s a a parallel of latitude b a tornado c a cold front d a warm front The difference in altitude ie the thickness is greatest in the layer bounded by a 1 mb and 10 mb b 101mb and 110 mb c 1001 mb and 1010 mb d It s impossible to determine On a weather map sharp changes in temperature humidity and wind direction are marked by a a front b an anticyclone c a ridge d blowing dust Which of the following is MOST likely associated with fair weather a high pressure area b low pressure area c a cold front d a warm front 72 Areas of high atmospheric pressure are also known as a hurricanes b middle latitude cyclonic storms c troughs d tornadoes e anticyclones 73 Condensation is more likely to occur a when the air cools b when the wind is calm c when winds blow from the ocean over land d at night 74 Clouds often form in the a rising air in the center ofa low pressure area b rising air in the center of a high pressure area c sinking air in the center of a low pressure area d sinking air in the center of a high pressure area 75 Generally weather in the middle latitudes tends to move from to a west east b east west c north south d south north 76 Which relates to weather rather than climate a The average temperature for the month of January is 28 F b The lowest temperature ever recorded in Frozenlake Minnesota is 57 F c The foggiest month of the year is December d I like the warm humid summers e Outside it is cloudy and snowing than from any other natural disaster In an average year more people die from a lightning b earthquakes c tornadoes d ash oods and ooding e droughts At the 500 mb level the amount of oxygen inhaled in a single breath is iiii of that inhaled at sealevel a about the same b about onequarter c about one half d about threequarters Jupiter s Great Red Spot is a a huge crater b a huge spinning eddy c a huge volcano d a huge cloud of water vapor Winds and l 39 39 the 39 and 39 measured by a mercury barometer b stethoscope c ceilometer d radiosonde are routinely 82 Which of the following processes remove CO2 from the atmosphere a volcanic activity b deforestation c soil decay d photosynthesis 83 The horizontal extent of the ozone hole can sometimes exceed the size of the Antarctic continent a true b false 84 The ozone hole is an actual hole in the atmosphere a region of complete vacuum a true b false 85 Ozone in the stratosphere a is a health hazard for people with respiratory illnesses b protects life from harmful ultraviolet radiation c is one of the main ingredients of photochemical smog d both b and c 86 About if of the meteorologists and atmospheric scientists in the United States work in the eld of weather forecasting a onetenth b one half c threequarters d ninetenths 87 Rainfall intensity is measured by a radiosonde b anemometer c Doppler radar d ceilometer If you were to take a breath of pure oxygen from a tank you d be getting about if the amount of oxygen you d get by taking a normal breath of our atmosphere a one fth b half c twice d three times e ve times Standing at the top of a tall mountain a breath of air would contain a lot fewer molecules than a breath of air taken at sea level But the proportion of oxygen in the two breaths of air relative to the other constituents would remain the same a true b false If a time machine transported you to the early days of the earth s atmosphere before plants and animals existed on our planet you would not be able to survive for more than a few minutes 91 a true b false There is a lot of mixing and overturning of air in which of the following atmospheric layers a stratosphere b troposphere c mesosphere d none of the above As a radiosonde balloon ascends through the atmosphere the balloon a contracts b expands c maintains a constant pressure d none of these Meteorology is considered a branch of a mineralogical sciences b phenology c phrenology d atmospheric sciences 94 Heat waves are generally considered to be little more than a nuisance and are not responsible for considerable loss of life a true b false 95 Atmospheric storm systems can be a only a few meters wide b about a kilometer wide c several hundred kilometers wide d all ofthese Chapter 2 Energy Warming the Earth and the Atmosphere Multiple Choice Questions Which of the following provides a measure of the average speed of air molecules a pressure b temperature c density d heat A change of one degree on the Celsius scale is a change of one degree on the Fahrenheit scale a equal to b larger than c smaller than d is in the opposite direction of Which of the following is M considered a temperature scale a Fahrenheit b Kelvin c Calorie d Celsius The temperature scale where 0 represents freezing and 100 boiling is called a Fahrenheit b Celsius c Kelvin d absolute The temperature scale that sets freezing of pure water at 32 F is called a Kelvin b Fahrenheit c Celsius d British 6 If the temperature of the air is said to be at absolute zero one might conclude that a the motion of the molecules is at a maXimum b the molecules are occupying a large volume c the molecules contain a minimum amount of energy d the temperature is 0 F e the air temperature is 0 C 7 In the Celsius temperature scale what is the signi cance of the temperature increment of 1 C 7 a It is the freezing point of water b It is the boiling point of salt water c It is onetenth of the interval between the freezing point and the boiling point of water d It is onetenth of the interval between the freezing point and the boiling point of salt water e It is 1100 of the interval between the freezing point and the boiling point of water 8 Energy of motion is also known as a dynamic energy b kinetic energy c sensible heat energy d static energy e latent heat energy 9 Heat is energy in the process of being transferred from a hot objects to cold objects b low pressure to high pressure c cold objects to hot objects d high pressure to low pressure e regions of low density toward regions of high density 10 The heat energy released when water vapor changes to a liquid is called a latent heat of evaporation b latent heat of fusion c latent heat of ssion d latent heat of condensation 11 The change of state of ice into water vapor is known as a deposition b sublimation c melting d condensation e crystallization 12 When water changes from a liquid to a vapor we call this process a freezing b condensation c sublimation d deposition e evaporation 13 What is released as sensible heat during the formation of clouds a potential energy b longwave radiation c latent heat d shortwave radiation e kinetic energy 14 The cold feeling that you experience after leaving a swimming pool on a hot dry summer day represents heat transport by a conduction b convection c radiation d latent heat 15 The term quotlatentquot means a late b hot c light d hidden e dense 16 The processes of condensation and freezing a both release sensible heat into the environment b both absorb sensible heat from the environment c do not affect the temperature of their surroundings d do not involve energy transport 17 The transfer of heat by moleculetomolecule contact is a conduction b convection c radiation d ultrasonic 18 Which of the following is the poorest conductor of heat a still air b water c ice d snow e soil 19 The horizontal transport of any atmospheric property by the Wind is called a advection b radiation c conduction d latent heat e re ection 20 A heat transfer process in the atmosphere that depends upon the movement of air is a conduction d convection e radiation 21 The amount of heat energy required to bring about a small change in temperature is called the a radiative equilibrium b dead heat c speci c heat d latent heat 22 Snow will usually melt on the roof of a home that is a a good radiator ofheat b good conductor of heat c poor radiator of heat d poor conductor of heat 23 Rising air cools by the process of iiiii a expansion b evaporation c compression d condensation 24 The temperature of a rising air parcel a always cools due to expansion b always warms due to eXpansion c always cools due to compression d always warms due to compression e remains constant 25 The proper order from shortest to longest wavelength is a visible infrared ultraviolet b infrared visible ultraviolet c ultraviolet visible infrared d visible ultraviolet infrared e ultraviolet infrared visible 26 Sinking air warms by the process of a compression b expansion c condensation d friction 27 Heat transferred outward from the surface of the moon can take place by a convection b conduction c latent heat d radiation 28 How do red and blue light differ a Blue light has a higher speed of propagation b The wavelength ofred light is longer c Red light has a higher intensity d Red and blue light have different directions of polarization 29 If the average temperature of the sun increased the wavelength of peak solar emission would a shift to a shorter wavelength b shift to a longer wavelength c remain the same d be impossible to tell from given information 30 Solar radiation reaches the earth s surface as a visible radiation only b ultraviolet radiation only c infrared radiation only d visible and infrared radiation only e ultraviolet visible and infrared radiation 31 Electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between 04 and 07 micrometers is called a ultraviolet light b visible light c infrared light d microwaves 32 The sun emits a maximum amount of radiation at wavelengths near while the earth emits maximum radiation near wavelengths of a 05 micrometers 30 micrometers b 05 micrometers 10 micrometers c 10 micrometers 30 micrometers d l micrometer 10 micrometers 33 The blueness of the sky is mainly due to a the scattering of sunlight by air molecules b the presence of water vapor c absorption of blue light by the air d emission of blue light by the atmosphere 34 Which of the following determine the kind wavelength and amount of radiation that an object emits a temperature b thermal conductivity c density d latent heat 35 Often before sunrise on a clear calm cold morning ice frost can be seen on the tops of parked cars even when the air temperature is above freezing This condition happens because the tops of the cars are cooling by 7 a conduction b convection c latent heat d radiation 36 One micrometer is a unit of length equal to a one million meters b one millionth ofa meter c one tenth of a millimeter d one thousandth of a meter 37 Evaporation is a 777i process a cooling b heating c can t tell it depends on the temperature d cooling and heating 38 If you want to keep an object cool while eXposed to direct sunlight a put it inside a brown paper bag b wrap it in black paper c wrap it in aluminum foil with the shiny side facing inward d wrap it in aluminum foil with the shiny side facing outward 39 Which of the following has a wavelength shorter than that of violet light a green light b blue light c infrared radiation d red light e ultraviolet radiation 40 If the absolute temperature of an object doubles the maximum energy emitted goes up by a factor of if a 2 b 4 c 8 d 16 e 32 41 At which temperature would the earth be radiating energy at the greatest rate or intensity lt7 32 4 O o 11 e 105 F 42 How much radiant energy will an object emit if its temperature is at absolute zero a the maximum theoretical amount b none c the same as it would at any other temperature d depends on the chemical composition of the object 43 Most of the radiation emitted by a human body is in the form of a ultraviolet radiation and is invisible b visible radiation but is too weak to be visible c infrared radiation and is invisible d humans do not emit electromagnetic radiation 44 Clouds never form by a sublimation b condensation c evaporation d deposition e both sublimation and evaporation 45 The sun emits its greatest intensity of radiation in a the visible portion of the spectrum 9957 9957m b the infrared portion of the spectrum c the ultraviolet portion of the spectrum d the Xray portion of the spectrum Air that rises always a contracts and warms b contracts and cools c expands and cools d eXpands and warms 47 radiation while the sun s radiation is The earth s radiation is often referred to as often referred to as radiation a shortwave longwave b shortwave shortwave c longwave shortwave d longwave longwave 48 If the earth s average surface temperature were to increase the amount of radiation emitted from the earth s surface would and the wavelength of peak emission would shift toward wavelengths increase shorter increase longer decrease shorter decrease longer 49 10398 10396 106 103 A football eld is about 7 i micrometers long 50 The earth emits radiation with greatest intensity at infrared wavelengths radio wavelengths visible wavelengths ultraviolet wavelengths 51 quotA good absorber of a given wavelength of radiation is also a good emitter of that wavelength quot This is a statement of a StefanBoltzmann s law b Wien s Law c Kirchhoft s Law d the First Law of Thermodynamics e the Law of Relativity 58 Which principle best describes why holes develop in snow around tree trunks a Snow is a good absorber of infrared energy b Snow is a good emitter of infrared energy c Snow is a poor re ector of visible light d Snow is a poor absorber of visible light e Snow is a poor absorber of ultraviolet light Which of the following statements is not correct a Calm cloudy nights are usually warmer than calm clear nights b Each year the earth s surface radiates away more energy than it receives from the sun c The horizontal transport of heat by the wind is called advection d Good absorbers of radiation are usually poor emitters of radiation Without the atmospheric greenhouse effect the average surface temperature would be a higher than at present b lower than at present c the same as it is now d much more variable than it is now The earth s atmospheric window is in the a ultraviolet region b visible region c infrared region d polar regions The atmospheric greenhouse effect is produced mainly by the a absorption and reemission of visible light by the atmosphere b absorption and reemission of ultraviolet radiation by the atmosphere c absorption and re emission ofinfrared radiation by the atmosphere d absorption and reemission of visible light by clouds e absorption and reemission of visible light by the ground Suppose last night was clear and calm Tonight low clouds will be present From this you would conclude that tonight s minimum temperature will be a higher than last night39s minimum temperature b lower than last night s minimum temperature c the same as last night s minimum temperature d above freezing Which of the following is known primarily as a selective absorber of ultraviolet radiation a carbon dioxide b ozone c water vapor d clouds 59 Low clouds retard surface cooling at night better than clear skies because a the clouds absorb and radiate infrared energy back to earth b the water droplets in the clouds re ect infrared energy back to earth c the clouds start convection currents between them d the clouds are better conductors of heat than is the clear night air e the formation of the clouds releases latent heat energy 60 At night low clouds enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect weaken the atmospheric greenhouse effect are often caused by the atmospheric greenhouse effect have no effect on the atmospheric greenhouse effect 9957 61 Which of the following gases are mainly responsible for the atmospheric greenhouse effect in the earth s atmosphere oxygen and nitrogen nitrogen and carbon dioxide ozone and oxygen water vapor and carbon dioxide 9957 62 Of the gases listed below which is M believed to be responsible for enhancing the earth s greenhouse effect a chlorofluorocarbons CFCs b molecular oxygen 02 c nitrous oxide N20 d carbon dioxide C02 e methane CH4 63 The combined albedo of the earth and the atmosphere is approximately 77 percent a 4 b 10 c 30 d 50 e 90 64 According to the StefanBoltzmann law the radiative energy emitted by one square meter of an object is equal to a constant multiplied by its temperature raised to the 777 power a negative third b zeroet c fourth d tenth The albedo of the moon is 7 percent This means that a 7 percent ofthe sunlight striking the moon is re ected b 7 percent of the sunlight striking the moon is absorbed c the moon emits only 7 percent as much energy as it absorbs from the sun d 93 percent of the sunlight striking the moon is re ected If the present concentration of CO2 doubles in 100 years and climate models predict that for the earth s average temperature to rise 5 C what gas must also increase in concentration a nitrogen b oxygen c methane d water vapor 67 68 69 70 71 The albedo of the earth s surface is only about 4 percent yet the combined albedo of the earth and the atmosphere is about 30 percent Which set of conditions below BEST eXplains why a high albedo of clouds low albedo ofwater b high albedo of clouds high albedo of water c low albedo of clouds low albedo of water d low albedo of clouds high albedo of water According to Wein s displacement law the wavelength at which maXimum radiation occurs a is inversely proportional to the temperature b is proportional to the temperature c is inversely proportional to the pressure d is proportional to the pressure Clouds infrared radiation and visible radiation a absorb absorb b absorb re ect c re ect re ect d re ect absorb An increase in albedo would be accompanied by in radiative equilibrium temperature a an increase b a decrease c no change d unstable oscillations On the average about what percentage of the solar energy that strikes the outer atmosphere eventually reaches the earth s surface e 70 percent If the amount of energy lost by the earth to space each year were not approximately equal to that received a the atmosphere39s average temperature would change b the length of the year would change c the sun s output would change d the mass of the atmosphere would change If the sun suddenly began emitting more energy the earth s radiative equilibrium temperature would 7 DO 79 a increase b decrease c remain the same d begin to oscillate Sunlight that bounces off a surface is said to be from the surface a radiated b absorbed c emitted d reflected The major process that warms the lower atmosphere is a the release of latent heat during condensation b conduction of heat upward from the surface c absorption ofinfrared radiation d direct absorption of sunlight by the atmosphere Atmospheric concentrations of N20 and CH4 contribute 7 albedo a signi cantly b little if to the earthatmosphere The atmosphere near the earth s surface is quotheated from belowquot Which of the following is NOT responsible for the heating a conduction of heat upward from a hot surface b convection from a hot surface c absorption of infrared energy that has been radiated from the surface d heat energy from the earth s interior The earth s radiative equilibrium temperature is a the temperature at which the earth is absorbing solar radiation and emitting infrared radiation at equal rates b the temperature at which the earth is radiating energy at maXimum intensity c the average temperature the earth must maintain to prevent the oceans from freezing solid d the temperature at which rates of evaporation and condensation on the earth are in balance Perspiration cools the body by a advective heat transfer b radiative heat transfer c conductive heat transfer d latent heat transfer 80 Charged particles from the sun that travel through space at high speeds are called a radiation b the aurora c solar wind d solar ares In the earth s upper atmosphere visible light given off by excited atoms and molecules produces a ares b the solar Wind c the aurora d prominences 82 The aurora is produced by a re ections of sunlight by polar ice elds b fast moving charged particles colliding with air molecules c burning oxygen caused by the intense sunlight at high altitude d the combination of molecular and atomic oxygen to form ozone e scattering of sunlight in the upper atmosphere On a clear night the best place to see the aurora would be a at the magnetic north pole b northern Maine c northern Washington d Colorado e Alaska The luminous surface of the sun is known as the a chromosphere b thermosphere c corona d photosphere e exosphere Sunspots a appear darker than the rest of the sun s surface b are cooler regions on the sun s surface c are located in regions of strong magnetic elds d reach a maximum on the sun approximately every 11 years e all ofthe above The aurora are seen a in the Northern Hemisphere only b in the Southern Hemisphere only c in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres at high latitudes d in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres near the equator 8 D 94 95 Suppose you are outside in very cold temperatures wearing a winter coat that is quite effective at keeping you warm Which of the following is true a The coat is the source of the heat that keeps you warm b Your body generates the heat that keeps you warm c The coat prevents your body s heat from escaping to the surrounding air 1 Both a and c are true e Both b and c are true A f C Points A and C are a l b 12 c 13 d 14 F G wavelength apart Sunlight passes through a thicker portion of the atmosphere at a sunrise b noon c sunset d night e both sunrise and sunset When a plate of hot food is left on the table for awhile it cools by a advection b radiation c latent heat energy release 1 speci c heat A red shirt a selectively absorbs red wavelengths of visible light and scatters the rest b selectively scatters red wavelengths of Visible light and absorbs the rest a b C d 3096quot 057 d 6 9906 Chapter 3 Seasonal and Daily Temperatures Multiple Choice Questions 1 During the winter in the Northern Hemisphere the quotland of the midnight sunquot would be oun at high latitudes at middle latitudes c near the equator d in the desert southwest on the West Coast 2 During the course of a year the sun will disappear from View near the North Pole on what date June 21 September 23 December 23 January 1 March 21 3 aylight summer solstice winter solstice vernal equinox autumnal equinox In the Northern Hemisphere which of the following days has the fewest hours of 4 During an equinox a the days and nights are of equal length except at the poles at noon the sun is overhead at the equator c the earth is not tilted toward nor away from the sun all ofthese 5 Indian summer would most likely occur during the month of October December June August Which of the following BEST describes the weather conditions necessary to bring Indian summer weather to the eastern half of the United States a a cold front moving off the New Jersey coast b a strong slowmoving low pressure area just east of Virginia c a strong slow moving high pressure area offthe southeast coast d a strong fastmoving low pressure area over Georgia 11 e a cold front that stretches from South Carolina to Texas During the winter solstice in the Northern Hemisphere a astronomical winter begins in the Northern Hemisphere b the noon sun is overhead at 235 S latitude c at middle latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere this marks the longest night of the year d all ofthese Which latitude below would experience the fewest hours of daylight on Dec 22 a 600 S b 200 S c 0 Equator d 20 N e 600 N Considering each hemisphere as a whole seasonal temperature variation in the Southern Hemisphere is iii that in the Northern Hemisphere a greater than b about the same as c less than Where are the days and nights of equal length all year long a at 665quot b nowhere c at 235 d at the Equator In the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere on June 22 the sun a rises in the east and sets in the west b rises in the southeast and sets in the southwest c rises in the northeast and sets in the northwest d rises in the northeast and sets in the southwest e rises in the southeast and sets in the northwest Which of the following helps to eXplain why even though northern latitudes experience 24 hours of sunlight on June 22 they are not warmer than latitudes further south a Solar energy is spread over a larger area in northern latitudes b Some of the sun s energy is re ected by snow and ice in the northern latitudes c Increased cloud cover re ects solar energy in the northern latitudes d Solar energy is used to melt frozen soil in the northern latitudes e all ofthese The geographical pattern of average air temperature near sea level is 7 homogeneous in the southern hemisphere as compared to the northern hemisphere a less b more The sun is directly overhead at MeXico City latitude 19 N a once a year b twice a year c four times a year d never The northfacing side of a hill in a mountainous region in the US tends to a receive less sunlight during a year than the southfacing side b grow a variety of trees that are typically observed at higher elevation c be a better location for a ski run than the southfacing side d have snow on the ground for a longer period of time in Winter compared to the southfacing side e all ofthese On what day would you eXpect the sun to be overhead at Lima Peru latitude 12 S a August 15 b December 22 c February 4 d March 10 e April 21 The maximum in daytime surface temperature typically occurs 77 receives its most intense solar radiation a before b after c exactly when 7 the earth Radiational cooling typically occurs a during the afternoon b at night c during the late morning The strongest radiation inversions occur when a skies are overcast b skies are partly cloudy c skies are clear d precipitation is falling 27 When it is January and winter in the Northern Hemisphere it is Southern Hemisphere a January summer b January winter c July winter d July summer and in the The most important reason why summers in the Southern Hemisphere are not warmer than summers in the Northern Hemisphere is that a the earth is closer to the sun in January b the earth is farther from the sun in July c over 80 percent ofthe Southern Hemisphere is covered with water d the sun s energy is less intense in the Southern Hemisphere For maXimum winter warmth in the Northern Hemisphere large windows in a house should face a north b south c east d west Thermal belts are usually found a on valley oors b on hillsides c on mountain tops To protect fruit trees from frost it is important to keep the air as still as possible a true b false During a radiation inversion wind machines a bring warm air down toward the surface b lift cool surface air to higher altitudes c miX the air near the ground d all ofthese The main reasons for warm summers in middle latitudes is that a the earth is closer to the sun in summer b the sun is higher in the sky and we receive more direct solar radiation c the days are longer d all of these e b and c only Our seasons are caused by a the changing distance between the earth and the sun b the angle at which sunlight reaches the earth c the length of the daylight hours d all of these e b and c only Incoming solar radiation in middle latitudes is less in winter than in summer because a the sun39s rays slant more and spread their energy over a larger area b the sun39s rays are weakened by passing through a greater thickness of atmosphere c the cold dense air lowers the intensity of the sun s rays d all of these e a and b only Using sprinklers to prevent crop damage from cold air works best when a the air is fairly humid b the air is fairly dry At the North Pole the sun will rise above the horizon on and set below the horizon on a June 22 September 23 b September 23 December 22 c March 21 September 23 d June 22 December 22 e March 21 December 22 The earth is tilted at an angle of 235 with respect to the plane of its orbit around the sun If the amount of tilt were increased to 40 we would eXpect in middle latitudes a hotter summers and colder winters than at present b cooler summers and milder winters than at present c hotter summers and milder winters than at present d cooler summers and colder winters than at present e no appreciable change from present conditions The latitude at which there is a yearly balance between incoming and outgoing radiation is about if Although the polar regions radiate away more heat energy than they receive by insolation in the course of a year they are prevented from becoming progressively colder each year by the conduction of heat through the interior of the earth concentration of earth s magnetic eld lines at the poles circulation of heat by the atmosphere and oceans the insulating properties of snow release oflatent heat to the atmosphere when polar ice melts Do057 Suppose you drive to and from work on a street that runs east to west On what day would you most likely have the sun shining directly in your eyes While driving to and from work a summer solstice b Winter solstice c autumnal equinox d during the summer months The term norma refers to weather data averaged over a at least a day b several months c one year d thirty years In July at middle latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere the day is with each passing day a less than 12 hours getting longer b less than 12 hours getting shorter c more than 12 hours getting longer d more than 12 hours getting shorter long and is In meteorology the word insolation refers to a a wellconstructed energyef cient home b the solar constant c incoming solar radiation d an increase in solar output During the afternoon the greatest temperature difference between the surface air and the air several meters above occurs on a a clear calm afternoon b clear Windy afternoon c cloudy calm afternoon d cloudy Windy afternoon The greatest variation in daily temperature usually occurs a at the ground b about 5 feet above the ground c at the top of a highrise apartment compleX d at the level where thermals stop rising 42 In most areas the warmest time of the day about 5 feet above the ground occurs a around noon b in the afternoon between 3 and 5 pm c in the early evening after 6 pm d just before the sun sets Everything else being equal the lowest air temperature on a winter night will occur above a a surface covered with vegetation b surface covered with snow c bare surface d surface covered with water The lowest temperature is usually observed a at the time of sunset b near midnight c several hours before sunrise d around sunrise e several hours after sunrise In clear weather the air neXt to the ground is usually the night and than the air above during the day a colder warmer b colder colder c warmer colder d warmer warmer than the air above during Suppose yesterday morning you noticed ice crystals frost on the grass yet the minimum temperature reported in the newspaper was only 35 F The M likely reason for this apparent discrepancy is that a temperature readings are taken in instrument shelters more than 5 feet above the ground b the thermometer was in error c the newspaper reported the wrong temperature d the thermometer was read before the minimum temperature was reached for that day e the thermometer was read incorrectly Assuming that the night will remain clear calm and unsaturated the predicted minimum temperature is 32 F Suddenly the wind speed increases and remains gusty throughout the night The minimum temperature will most likely be a about the same as predicted but will occur earlier in the night b higher than predicted due to the release of latent heat c much lower than predicted due to radiational cooling d higher than predicted due to mixing At what time during a 24hour day would a radiation temperature inversion best be developed a at sunset b near sunrise 0 toward the end of the morning d between 3 and 5 pm when the air temperature reaches a maximum 52 The lag in daily temperature refers to the time lag between the a time of maximum solar radiation and the time of maximum temperature b time of minimum temperature and the time of maximum solar radiation c minimum and maximum temperature for a day d minimum and maximum solar energy received at the surface for a given day e sunrise and sunset Ideal conditions for a strong radiation inversion are a clear calm dry winter night b clear calm moist summer night c cloudy calm moist winter night d cloudy windy moist summer night e clear windy dry summer night Thermal belts are a pockets of warm air resting on a valley during the afternoon b pockets of cold air resting on a valley oor at night c warmer hillsides that are less likely to experience freezing conditions d cold belowfreezing air found at the top of a mountain The primary cause of a radiation inversion is a infrared radiation emitted by the earth39s surface b infrared radiation absorbed by the earth s surface c solar radiation absorbed by the earth s surface d solar radiation re ected by the earth s surface e infrared radiation absorbed by the atmosphere and clouds The deepest radiation inversion would be observed a at the equator any day of the year b in polar regions in winter c at the top of a high mountain in winter d on a desert in winter e in a deep valley during the summer A radiation inversion is most commonly observed a when it is raining b during the afternoon c at sunset d just above the ground e in the upper atmosphere On a clear calm night the ground and air above cool mainly by which process a evaporation b re ection c convection d conduction e radiation Which of the following can be used as a method of protecting an orchard from damaging low temperatures during a radiation inversion a orchard heaters b wind machines c irrigation cover the area with water d all ofthese In a hilly region the best place to plant crops that are sensitive to low temperatures 1s a on the valley oor b along the hillsides c on the top of the highest hill d in any dry location Orchard heaters and wind machines are most useful in preventing damaging low temperatures from occurring neXt to the ground on a clear windy nights b cloudy windy nights c cloudy snowy nights d clear calm nights e rainy nights Lines connecting points of equal temperature are called a isobars b isotherms c thermals d thermographs In summer humid regions typically have maximum temperatures than drier regions a smaller lower b smaller higher c larger lower d larger higher daily temperature ranges and One would eXpect the lowest temperatures to be found neXt to the ground on a a clear damp windy night b cloudy night c clear dry calm night d clear dry windy night e rainy night If tonight s temperature is going to drop into the middle 20s F and a fairly stiff wind is predicted probably the best way to protect an orchard against a hard freeze is to assume that cost is not a factor a use helicopters b use wind machines c sprinkle the crops with water d put orchard heaters to work e pray for clouds Wind machines can prevent surface air temperatures from reaching extremely low readings by a blowing smoke over an orchard or eld b increasing the evaporation rate from fruits and vegetables c mixing surface air with air directly above d reducing the rate of cooling by evaporation e increasing the likelihood of condensation on fruits and vegetables An important reason for the large daily temperature range over deserts is that a there is little water vapor in the air to absorb and re radiate infrared radiation b the lightcolored sand radiates heat very rapidly at night c dry air is a very poor heat conductor d free convection cells are unable to form above the hot desert ground e the ozone content of desert air is very low Which of the following statements is are true If you travel from Dallas Texas to St Paul Minnesota in January you are more likely to experience greater temperature variations than if you make the same trip in July Annual temperature ranges tend to be much greater near the ocean than in the middle of the continent If two cities have the same mean annual temperature then their temperatures throughout the year are quite similar d All ofthese are true w 57 0 Two objects A and B have the same mass but the speci c heat ofA is larger than B If both objects absorb equal amounts of energy a A will become warmer than B b B will become warmer than A c both A and B will warm at the same rate d A will get warmer but B will get colder The largest annual ranges of temperatures are found a at polar latitudes over land b at polar latitudes over water c at middle latitudes near large bodies of water d at the Equator e in the Northern Central Plains of the United States Two objects have the same temperature Object A feels colder to the touch than object B This is probably because the two objects have different a thermal conductivities b densities c speci c heats d latent heats Which of the following is used as a guide to planting and for determining the approximate date for harvesting crops a growing degree days b heating degreedays c cooling degreedays d mean annual temperature Which of the following is used as an index for fuel consumption a growing degreedays b consumer price index c heating degree days d mean annual temperature Which of the following is M a reason why water warms and cools much more slowly than land a Solar energy penetrates more deeply into water b Heat energy is mixed in a deeper layer of water c Water has a higher heat capacity d A portion of the solar energy that strikes water is used to evaporate it e It takes more heat to raise the temperature ofa given amount of soil 10 C than it does to raise the temperature ofwater 10 C Over the earth as a whole one would expect to observe the smallest variation in temperature from day to day and from month to month a at the North Pole b in the center ofa large land mass c along the Paci c coast of North America d high in the mountains in the middle of a continent e on a small island near the equator How many heating degreedays would there be for a day with a maximum temperature of 30 F and a minimum temperature of 20 F Assume a base temperature of 65 F a 65 b 45 c 40 d 35 e 10 How many cooling degreedays would there be for a day with a maximum temperature of 95 F and a minimum temperature of 65 F Assume a base temperature of 65 F a 30 b 25 c 20 d 15 e 0 Suppose peas are planted in Indiana on May 1 If the peas need 1200 growing degreedays before they can be picked and if the mean temperature for each day during May and June is 70 F in about how many days will the peas be ready to pick Assume a base temperature of 40 F a 30 b 40 c 70 d 120 In calm air the air temperature is 10 C if the wind speed should increase to 30 knots with no change in air temperature the thermometer would indicate a a much higher temperature than 10 C b a much lower temperature than 10 C c a temperature of10 C d a temperature of 30 C The air temperature is 45 F the wind is blowing at 30 MPH and the wind chill temperature is 15 F These conditions would be equivalent to a a 15 F air temperature and 0 MPH winds b a 30 F air temperature and 45 MPH winds c a 30 F air temperature and 15 MPH winds d a 15 F air temperature and 30 MPH winds Hypothermia is most common in a hot humid weather b cold wet weather c hot dry weather d cold dry weather A thermometer that measures temperature and records it on a piece of chart paper is a a minimum thermometer b thermistor 82 c thermograph d maximum thermometer The windchill factor a relates body heat loss with wind to an equivalent temperature with no wind b indicates the temperature at which water freezes on exposed skin c takes into account humidity and air temperature in expressing the current air temperature d tells farmers when to protect crops from a freeze e determines how low the air temperature will be on any given day Which of the following is usually a liquidinglass thermometer a radiometer b thermistor c electrical resistance thermometer d minimum thermometer e thermograph A thermometer with a small constriction just above the bulb is an a maximum thermometer b minimum thermometer c electrical thermometer d thermocouple e bimetallic thermometer When would be the BEST time to reset a minimum thermometer a just after the time ofminimum temperature b just after the time of maximum temperature c just before sunrise d just before sunrise e around noon When a liquid thermometer is held in direct sunlight a it will accurately measure the air temperature b it will measure a much higher temperature than that ofthe air c it will measure a much lower temperature than that of the air d it will measure the temperature of the sun rather than the air Which of the following instruments obtains air temperature by measuring emitted infrared energy a radiometer b bimetallic thermometer c electrical resistance thermometer d thermistor e thermograph 88 The thermometer most likelx to contain alcohol is the 777777 a bimetallic thermometer b radiometer c maximum thermometer d thermograph e minimum thermometer The thermometer that has a small dumbbellshaped glass indeX marker in the tube is a a bimetallic thermometer b maXimum thermometer c electrical thermometer d thermocouple e minimum thermometer An ideal shelter for housing a temperaturemeasurement instrument should be a white b black c in the shade d both white and in the shade e both black and in the shade During summer near the North Pole the sun is above the horizon 77 in the mid latitude s a for a longer period oftime than b for a shorter period of time than c for the same amount of time as On the summer solstice the altitude of the noonday sun is highest a near the north pole b in the mid latitudes ofthe northern hemisphere c in the midlatitudes of the southern hemisphere d near the south pole The annual variation of earthsun distance is 77 seasonal weather changes a a major in uence on b irrelevant to c caused by It s March 23 and spring has just begun in 21 Lexington Kentucky b Sao Paolo Brazil 97 winter c Perth Australia d Johannesburg South Africa Longer days are generally associated with a less insolation b fewer heating degree days c more insolation Which of the following latitudes is closer to the earth s aXis 0 N More solar radiation is received at the a earth s surface b top ofthe atmosphere c north and south poles In the northern hemisphere the number of hours of daylight begins to shorten after a spring equinox b summer solstice c autumn equinox d Winter solstice At any given time if a onefourth b onethird c one half d twothirds 7 of the earth is illuminated by the sun In the middle latitudes meteorological winter generally starts if astronomical a before b after c at the same time as 100 101 skies 102 103 In the northern hemisphere northfacing hillsides have a iii growing season than southfacing hillsides a shorter b longer In the northern hemisphere a solar panel should be placed on the side of the roof facing a east b west c north d south With forced convection the forcing is caused by a soi b radiosonde c solar radiation d wind Maximum daily temperatures under hazy skies are typically if than those under clear a greater b less A strong radiation inversion is more likely to occur on a a warm windy night b cool windy night c rainy night with light winds d clear night with light winds Water heats up i and cools off 77 than land a more quickly more quickly b more quickly more slowly c more slowly more quickly d more slowly more slowly
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