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Date Created: 01/13/15
HD 320 Exam 1 Study Guide Ch 14 Chap 1 What is management The process of dealing withcontrolling things 4 challenges to knowledge management 1 Why is management so complex there are so many factors that go into management that can make it complex decision making resources available etc including key concepts of family resource management Key concepts interdependency of individuals dynamic environment changing conscious effort to meet basic needs of members and need to consider opportunities AND limitations Why is it hard to define family Families are in transition Their needs change as they grow older and in different situations How do families use resources families may substitute some resources for others depending on the situational variables if no time you pack a pb and j but if you have time you could get a feast for a lunch factors that affect the identification of resources Culture availability and accessibility Management is applicable to all life stages younger people compared to older people Trends related to life management Recognize existing needs Identify alternatives to fulfill identified needs Evaluate identified alternatives Select and implement alternatives Re ect and evaluate alternative selected U PP Pi Contextual in uences on management outside in uences that change the way the family thinks and behaves historicalex child care practices medical discoveries historical events GreekRoman cultures left info about family management families today acquire and use resources differently than in the past environmental the resources that are available also in uence management and how resources are used Geographic location or economic status can affect resource availability If resource limited then family may have to pay more culturalculture and diversity is an enormous impact on families Family experiences when you marry you bring experiencesvalues from your own family of origin important cultural in uence worldview 1limited number of common human problems Most families must match needs and resources to feed clothe educate and protect members 2 variability in solutions not limitless Every family different but there can be common factors between families 3 all alternatives of all solutions are present in all societies at all times but are differentially preferred Choices made by any family at any given time may differ from others bc cultural beliefs Multidisciplinary perspectives we depend on a variety of perspectives to understand the behavior of families Look at past research new research etc psych in ancient Greek psyche mean soul or mind Study of behavior and the mind sociology study of society with a focus on the study of social interactions of people groups and entire societies as whole social psychology field devoted to understanding how individuals impact the groups they associate with and how groups impact their individual members anthropology study of humanity Anthropologists believe culture is huge factor economics study of business and human behavior within existing structures of production distribution trade and consumption of goods and services biology study or science of living things They use biological research methods to understand how the environment and humans interact Chap 2 History of the family family is the most basic unit of society and the origins of family is unclear 18th century individuals dependence on head of household for basic needs 19th century religious and social groups experimented with different forms of family bonds polygamy preindustrial family economic unit may include nonfamily members to help care for kids after industrial revolution work no longer centered in home Family roles were more defined modern family breadwinner husband homemaker and children postmodern family families so diverse nowadays that comparison with those in past is impossible Definition of family Word family usually means the two parents the kids a dog Just a general term This can no longer be a definition used blood marriage adoption parents and kids under one household a family is an economic unit that strives to provide for the needs of its members 2 or more people who selfidentify as part of the family unit and are significantly attached to the unit members who are committed to maintaining that group over time Demographic changestrends in the family decrease in marriedcouple households increase in median age at first marriage decrease in average size of households increase in number of persons living alone elderly before marriage and after school CHANGES IN MARRIAGE TRENDS divorce rate has declined slightly since the high point in the 1980s American s are less likely to marry than in the past increase in number of unmarried couples fertility rates have declined increase in number of children in fragile families teens are more accepting of alternatives to marriage Functions of the family sense of belonging and emotional security provide for physical needs basic economic unit in society reproduction socialization of children 3 basic functionsresponsible reproduction economic support emotional security Structural Functional Theory Group membership lineal collaborative individualistic 3 primary expressions of group membership Lineal define family membership from a clan or group of related families chain of command Collaborativeconcept of team individualisticprimary emphasis on personal goals and autonomy apply to families yes because families work as a team as well as work in situations where they think about their personal goals There also is a chain of command in the family Theories what are they Why are they useful rooted in Bertalanffy s Systems Theory 1968 when something happens to one family member all members are affected mom loses job you win the lottery etc members are part of the group functioning as a system assumes that family actions impact larger social groups they belong to such as community and nationinterface where independent systems interact Between a family of three people there is 7 subsystems and many interfaces Terms boundarieslimits or borders between systems parents close their bedroom door fence in backyard They can be visible or invisible rules of behavior rules as a child family visitors learn the rules when they come too morphogenic systemsthose that are relatively open Pretty adaptive to change morphostatic systemsclosed to change They don t like new members or ideas coming in Feedback positive and negativeidea of getting information back Entropy a tendency towards disorder systems get chaotic Homeostasistendency to maintain balance Equifinalitydifferent circumstances can lead to similar results or similar outcomes Multifinalitysame circumstances can lead to a variety of outcomes or results Interface family members have individual motivations members barter personal resources within the family power bases develop within families based on resources available to exchange and needs of individual members looking within families at the process that creates and maintains the family unit qualitative and quantitative studies add to this theoretical framework families are unique creations identities emerge and shared symbols evolve impression management how families and members seek to present themselves to others if a family is fighting before going to a function they would not show it to others when they get there conspicuous consumption when someone in the neighborhood gets a new car research shows that others in the neighborhood will get a new car also rooted in Marx s 19th century works capitalism encourages exploitation theorists argue that con ict is natural and human there are unequal power bases in families resulting in competition compete for resources kids compete for parents attention coercion use of information to coerce people con ict political views simple things cleaning 1 humans are driven to want and to seek certain things 2 power is at the core of social relationships 3 groups have selfinterests to advance their own goals rooted in con ict theory because research on family was mainly done by males until the 1970s feminists believe that existing frameworks lacked the female perspective Gordon s 3 essential themes in feminist perspective 1 emphasis on female experiences 2 recognize that women are subordinate or oppressed in existing social arrangements 3 commitment to end that subordination rooted in human ecology the link between science and environment no formal set of theoretical propositions but suggest change and growth occur through experiences with outside systems new information from the outside brings change to the family relationships the family is closed to the ecosystem surrounding it to provide stability requires that the entire person within the series of external systems must be considered when a problem is presented Graph individual is in the center Next layer is the microsystem and mesasystem Microsystem is friends and family Mesasystem is the interactions between two or more of the connections in microsystem Next layer is exosystem which is connectionsinteractions between extended family people that you don t interact with on a daily basis Next layer is the macro system This includes politics culture economy etc outer layer is chronosystem which is how things change over t1me Family Strengths Framework focus shifts to what is right about a family emphasis on what is working well in any family rather than on solving problems once strengths are identified they provide a foundation for growth and change six major qualities 1 commitment to the family spending enjoyable time together spiritual wellbeing successful management of stress and crisis positive communication magic numbers 5 to 1 5 positives to one negative showing appreciation and affection to each other solely based in the discipline of family studies no broader applications to other social groups 2 major components ONUlPUJN time measured in stages family stage history the family is a dynamic system works well with traditional families current diversity of family structures is problematic to this framework unable to apply to different types of families Look at table 21 strengths and we messes of 3th Research Design quantitative vs qualitative quantitative methods data is collected with an instrument the search is for a correlation results are reported using numbers or percentages findings are generalized making assumptions on a society in general qualitative methods the researcher is the instrument the search is for a pattern results are reported using words or description findings are centralized but specialized particular group Can be more difficult to analyze Chap 3 What is management an ongoing process one decision leads to another matching resources and needs exibility and resourcefulness the more exible you are the better Evolution of management 4 eras Era 1 19001930s focus on health sanitation and hygiene households as units of consumption and production home management house 1918 Univ of Nebraska units families operate within a greater system Era 2 1940s1950s household equipment efficiency in completing household tasks saving wasted steps work simplification standardizing work units Era 3 1950s1960s family resource management family goals values standards resources decision making optimization of families helping them to be optimally the best that they can be less energy on work performance and more on understanding the family unity and its interaction with society Era 4 1970sl980s many long standing program in universities were threatened needed to show importance in terms of employment and social impact alignment with vocational education What was considered important in each era Contemporary movements IBusiness Striving to improve efficiency with emerging technology efforts to avoid depersonalization of employees stronger emphasis on how family impacts work quality lFamilyHome home economics has evolved and is forging a new identity family and consumer science family ecology family studies stronger emphasis on how employment impacts family quality of life Foundations of Family resource management basic premises microeconomic theory sociology systems theory family households as semiclosed systems family transforms energy information and matter into what is needed to fulfill needs and wants family is a decisionmaking unit requiring human and material resources to fulfill demands made book focused family ecosystem family as an energy driven organization inputs and outputs families have the decisions to make and a certain level of freedom in the process Common theme decisionmaking 5 step decision making Specific applications of management to family life time management a cultural concept multiple family members create con icting activities and commitments planning scheduling and prioritizing are key concepts for families family planning a cultural concept also ability to plan and control things of pregnancy and birth create behavioral shifts when how and how many pregnancybirth experiences are family decisions this ability to control has resulted in cultural shifts average are of women giving birth has increased family size has been impacted and reconsidered dependent care families that do choose to have children increase the need for resource management time money energy demands working parents childcare availability adequacy and expense elder care working adults often must arrange for care of their aging parents and relatives availability adequacy and expense are issues here also consideration j ob exibility and career management ex time exible hours and you can change your hours depending on you situations job sharing one job but two different people shared the one position leaves of absence opportunity costs what you have to give up in order to choose something else financial management managing the ow of monetary resources into and out of the family unit purposeful continual management of family s monetary resources key to sustainability and wellbeing of family socioeconomic differences families with financial security actively manage their money with a focus on longterm middleclass families focus more on shorter term savings and monthly cash ow families in poverty depend more heavily on cash very little focus on sav1ng Chapter 4 Distinguish between needs and wants what in uences our needs and wants the first step in decisionmaking is recognition of existing needs Need necessity Want not essential but desired Needs and wants are blurred by context time changes needsolder you get you think of things like retirement higher standards of living move wants to needs Computer cell phone microwave NEEDS AND WANTS ARE DETERMINED BY OUR OWN PERSONAL CHOICES in uenced by media commercials facebook ads social group new trends abundance or scarcity of resources 1 Selfactualization morality creativity spontaneity problem solving lack of prejudice acceptance of facts 2 Esteem selfesteem confidence achievement respect of others respect by others 3 LoveBelonging friendship family sexual intimacy 4 Safety security of body of employment of resources of morality of the family of health of property 5 Physiological breathing food water sex sleep homeostasis excretion In order to move up you have to at least meet the ones down below Bristow and Mowen four basic assumptions are made and theoretically justified 1 consumers seek to manage resources that enable them to function more effectively in their world resources include physical social informational and financial 2 individual differences will exist in the level of importance consumers attach to each of the four resources types 3 resources exist as part of an interrelatedinterdependent system each resource need type supports and is dependent on the other 4 time is a finite temporal space in which activities are performed Time is not a consumer resource How can we categorize needs and a description of each a useful way to analyze needs within family resource management is a broad categorization model economic needs physiological needs psychological needs ECONOMIC NEEDS Some of the things necessary for families to exist require an exchange of payment resource needed money to exchange for basic and higherlevel needs and wants income employment inheritance public assistance Medicaid WIC you don t pay for those ahead of time PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS as in Maslow s hierarchy there are basic life sustaining needs of all family members While money may be the primary exchange for obtaining food water and shelter the management of these things is a human resource nutrition health care hygiene PYSCHOLOGICAL NEEDS coping skills and planning skills are essential to both the physical health and mental wellbeing of family members SOCIAL NEEDS an individual s membership in a family is the first and most in uential affiliation experienced families are instrumental in ones development of selfworth social skills modeled and taught Within family unit s impact one s ability to function in larger social groups How has our perception of needs changed What factors continue to impact how the perceptions of our needs change circumstances unique situations faced by families over time impact need identification may be permanent of short term personality individual desires motivations and behaviors are expressed differently by family members even in very similar situations economic status individual and family economic status is uid in the US income can rise and fall over time abundance or scarcity of money Will change family consumption patterns examples technology evolving technology increases available information and resource identification access to technology opens many doors but also alters the individual s perception of What is necessary to participate in the technological revolution culture a slow changing entity shifts in demographics religious and political thought do impact culture that families draw from and contribute to cultural norms are passed from generation to generation change Within a generation Will alter the perceptions of future generations lifespan perceptions of needs change as we age and move through different life stages needs of adults vs needs of children gender Women and men have very different perceptions of needs together they create a balance that is helpful to family units varied perspectives also enhance the decision making process increases the number of possible solutions 091914 CHANGING PERCEPTION OF NEEDS intermediate needs advanced societies nutritional food and clean water protective housing nonhazardous work environment appropriate health care economic security safe childbearing security in childhood What is a needs assessment How can it be used in families Larger groups an important tool for communication of needs to the larger group a needs assessment should be representative of the population being served be current be used only for the population intended Human needs vs societal needs meeting individual or family needs does not automatically mean that the needs of society are fulfilled planned or artificial obsolescence purposeful dissatisfaction of consumers to drive new purchasing quality and safety concerns in product development use and disposal SUMMARY it s important to be able to recognize the difference between needs and wants Malow s Hierarchy of Needs and CREM help explain the family needs each family has a unique way of determining needs changing over time needs assessments are important tools human needs are impacted by social changes and expectations that result
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