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by: Queenie Schumm


Queenie Schumm
Texas A&M
GPA 3.84


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This 25 page Study Guide was uploaded by Queenie Schumm on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to OCNG 251 at Texas A&M University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see /class/226075/ocng-251-texas-a-m-university in Oceanography at Texas A&M University.




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Date Created: 10/21/15
Introductory Oceanography OCNG 251 MidTerm Study Guide Part 2 4 Atmosphericcirculation The atmosphere is extremely dynamic 9 system driven by solar heating Composed of different air packets at different temperatures mazes commama wcum m ZONE Lowmssuns 10 W LO39PR S JIE zous mennmz ZONE canvasesIce DNEAGENCE m HEATVNG o as my coon o m Figure 19 Warm gas expands lowering density and leading to pressure differences 9 wind mama m2 am an EEE gas 322 Snap pram uranium I Low pvsssma STRONG quot39 a a 2w IWMILES wmus 39 H H a mu Iw mamaEns Figure 20 Right panel Air flows from high pressure to lowpressure areas and with greater strength across steeper pressure gradient isobars closertogether Left panel Formation ofhigh and low pressure systems over the continental USCanada Highpres5urt w1th wmd dlrectlon and strength 1nd1cated tone Because ofthe unbalance in the earth radiation budget see Figure 18 in Guide I the intertropical zone warms air and generates a lowpressure system at the equator whereas the high latitude zones cool air and generate highp ressure zones The ideal air ow under that situation would look something like Figure 21 Figure 2 1 Idealized air flows pattern from high pressure high latitudes to lowp ressu re areas equato r HIghprnsmr zone c SIMPLE AIR CIRCULATlON ON A NONROTATING EARTH However gt The Earth rotates upon lts axls pales Carlalls farce Fiallrn m H L m the north hemlsphere and ta the left m use sauth hemlsphere leads ta a spllttlng afthe large clrculatmn cells as deplcted m gure 23 N Fianrn 1 l H l e rth andmldr39 a uh r a hl hnr hr hhes Ju h l ulamlhlta deserts under areas of hlgh pressure m m m mm Iww w 39ww alr wr39 39 m w aa W Ympk apmm H O saws w s Lv Namieavx IID E Is E ma Isrrw Imw ww 39 saww ww 39 H 15 WE WE mr 4 Winds Lines of equal almospherk pvessure Low and high pvessure designated L and H Figure 23 Surface wind patterns resulting from highlow pressure cells in the atmosphere Constant regional winds result the most notable ofwhich are the easterlies east to west from 30 to equator and the westerlies west to east from 30 to 60 latitude We will see a little later that the unbalance in the earth heat budget leads to heat redistribution linking winds and ocean circulation In particular surface oceanic circulation results from 1 Prevailing winds differential heating at surface and in atmosphere and 2 Earth39s rotation 9 This produces prevailing currents and heat transfer High Heat Capacity Delayed Response Time 9 Evaporation is the largest transfer ux ofenergy heat from the ocean to the atmosphere nannwam heal lrarupm un W lalllu e Figure 24 Global heat redistribution from equator to high latitude The oceans redistribute heat from low to midlatitudes The atmosphere redistributes heat from mid to highlatitudes Hurricanes are important phenomena that lead to major transfers of heat and moisture form equatorial re ions to mid to highlatitudes Hurricanes are commonly formed by easterly waves in the tropical latitudes ofmost ocean basin except the south Atlantic In the Atlantic the waves are kinks in the African Easterly et a strong wind that blows over the Atlantic from the West African coast The ea m 1y v a c ui gel uung uldl mu v c w a d Overthe warm waters of the Atlantic the thunderstorms embedded in the easterly wave can grow into a hurricane underthe right conditions Rule ofthumb gt Ifhurricanes form before 409W then get tend to miss the USA gt Ifhurricanes form beyond 709W then there is a greater chance that they ll hit the USA 1 r 39 Figure 25 Regions of hurricane formation around the globe Note that hurricane typhoons and cyclones are L 39 39 A r quot39 t e region in which they ccur quotBased on a range ofmodels it is likely that future tropical cyclones typhoons and hurricanes will become more intense with larger peak wind speeds and more heavy precipita ion associated with ongoing increases oftropical sea surface temperaturesquot IGPCC Hurricane incidence amp Intensity Univ of Colorado El Ni o inverse gt S i western Africa direct gt SST Atlantic direct 5 Surface ocean circulation Wind is moving air Air g ter frictional drag Ifwinds are prolonged the frictional drag generates a current gt Only a small fraction ofthe wind energy is transferred to the water surface Because ofthe large wind circulation patterns depicted in Figure 23 surface ocean circulation also shows major central loops gyres in ocean basins Figure 26 am wRFAcsrwnza cumm mum Figure 26 Global surface ocean circulation showing major gyres in each ocean basin Note that the gyres turn clockwise in the north hemisphere and counterclockwise in the south hemisphere make sure you can explain why Once water molecules in the surface film are set in motion they exert a frictional drag on the water molecules immediatelybeneath them getting these to move as we Motion is transferred downward into the water column gt Speed diminishes with depth friction gt Direction changes with depth coriolis swarms cumm wma quot 5mm Ne Wlwr quotimport Nu may runs an n 9m a mavle n EKMAN swam IN THE NORTHERN HEMlSPHERE Figure 27 Ekman spiral whereby the integrated transport in the surface ofthe water column 50100 m at most occurs perpendicularto the direction ofthe wind This transport is to the right ofthe wind in the northern hemisphere and to the left ofthewind in the southern hemisphere The Ekman spiral thus leads to the actual transport ofwater to the center of each oceanic gyre Figure 28 This transport actuallyleads to a quotmound formation at the center ofsuch gyres Figu re 2 9 East West wind wind Map View VVinds 7t 44 4 W man transport Wterlies Trade Winds a STACKING OFWATER IN CENTER OF OCEAN Figure 2 8 Transfer ofwater to the center of oceanic gyres Here the example shows an ocean basin in the north hemisphere westerlies are to the north ofthe easterlies Stee slo e P P Gentle slope GU Stream V Canary Current GEOSTROPHIC FLOW AROUND THE NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN Figure 29 quotMoundquot formation in oceanic gyres Note that the mound is not symmetric but rather displaced towards the west of the basin This is due to the intensification of the circulation and narrowing of the western current from the effect of the earth rotation vorticity The most well known example of an oceanic gyre and western intensification current is the one from the North Atlantic Figure 30 The western current is called the Gulf Stream and transfers vast amounts ofwater and heat from the intertropical zones to the midlatitudes En Wm wmdl wind Wencrly winds Ynde wind a FLOW RATES IN THE NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN Figure 3 0 Left panel North Atlantic gyre with uxes of water transferred units are in Sverdrupts 106 m3sec Right panel colored satellite imagery ofheat transport along the Gulf Stream in the western North Atlantic Along the eastern boundary of ocean basins the currents are not intensified weaker effect of vorticity and wind direction tends to move water away from that coastal region Ekman transport is then responsible for the movement of water away from the coast generating a drawing of water from the bottom to ll the missing water at the surface Figure 31 Although most regions in the eastern sections of ocean basins are susceptible of upwellings ocean bordering continents with high mountain ranges on their western edge eg Nort and South America show stronger upwellings due to the channeling of the wind along the coast Figure 32 Water moving offshore due to Coriolis effect a Upwelling Figure 3 1 Wind blowing pink arrow parallel to the coast and thus generating a transport 90 to the right north hemisphere That movement away from the coast generates a pump of deeper water that upwells to the surface PACIFIC OCEAN a MEAN ST or mzmmm mm m coAsrAL quELuNG k ssr mtva nuxmc EL mm Figure 32 Top panel Surface ocean currents are shown in color redyellows for hotwarm and bluegreen for coldcool The cold water green coloring on the western side ofNorth and South America are intensified by both the transport ofwater from high latitudes gyre circulation and from deeper water upwelling formation Bottom panel upwelling formation along the Peruvian coast Notice that the wind now is moving northward and that Ekman transport displaces water to the left ofthe wind current south hemisphere On the left hand side sea surface temperatures are shown and demonstrate lower temperatures than what is normal for tropical surface waters 6 Deep ocean circulation When warm water reaches the high latitudes and cools it releases vast amounts ofheat to the atmosphere ofthe region and thus supplying energy to balance the regional heat budget of earth As water cools its density increases and it sinks forming deep water masses convection ofwater to the deep ocean Figure 33 Deep water formation occurs in high latitudes such as subpolar seas in the north around Iceland Greenland and the subArctic seas in the south in Weddell Sea in Antarctica IO ns g Heating Cooling g 395 f i 9 i k 9 5 i 5 N O a D LU Surfaceflow Figure 33 Cooling ofwa er 1n 1g a 1 u e zones genera mg convec lon and deep water formation Surface layer O 5 7 a 2 lt 0 E 3 E 4 5 3939rquot1 3939f 39 rquotr 39f 60 N 30 N 0 30 S 60 S Latitude c DENSITY STRUCTURE OF THE OCEANS Figure 34 Ideal density formation at high latitudes and formation of deep water masses underlying warm light water at the surface The interface between surface and deep waters is called the pycnocline quotdensity differencequot layer The density structure ofthe ocean is thus in uenced by cooling in high latitude regions and salinity increases due to specific conditions such as increased evaporation in some ocean basins One such basin is the Mediterranean Sea which undergoes substantial evaporation and ends up having as a result a higher salinity than the Atlantic Mediterranean water ows out of the Gibraltar Straight into the surface of the Atlantic the Gibraltar Straight see picture on the right is only a few 100 meters deep As Mediterranean water ows into the Atlantic it encounters lighter less saline water and thus sinks until it reaches a point of stable density basically surrounded by water of the same density at about 1000 m depth Water masses with specific density characteristics forming in specific ocean basins under specific temperature and salinity condin39ons will thus ow into regions of the ocean and stabilize as a function of their density densest water will be at the bottom whereas lightest water will be found at the surface Because the Arctic Ocean and its surrounding subArctic seas Greenland Sea Norwegian Sea Barent Sea etc consn39tutes a much larger water volume than the Antarctic seas eg Weddell Sea most of the deep ocean is filled with dense water originating from the North Atlantic Figure 35 The most important water mass in the deep ocean is thus called the North Atlantic Deep Water mass NADW Other major water masses filling the deep ocean are the Antarctic lntermediate Water mass AAlW which is generated from the melting of iceberg released from the Antarctic ice caps These iceberg oat north with surface currents until they reach areas of warm water and end up melting The cold water resuln39ng from this iceberg melting is denser than the surrounding warm waters and thus sinks Since the water is relan39vely fresh few salt in ice it is not as dense as the water from the NADW and thus the AAlW stabilizes between the surface warm water layer and the NADW The second Antarctic water mass is that formed along the Antartic continent from intense cooling of the water Antarctica being a continent is the coldest place on earth This water mass the Antarctic Bottom Water AABW is thus the densest and sinks below the NADW Because the volume of water that generates this water mass is relatively limited with respect to that of the Arcn39c it only lls a small part of the deep ocean Figure 35 Greenland Mediterranean Waler Iceland Central Water EON SD 40 30 20 10 U 10 20 30 4O 50 60 70 BOS Latiiude Figure 35 Density structure of the North Atlantic with major water masses North Atlann39c Deep Water NADW owing southward from the Arctic region The Antarcn39c lntermediate Water AAlW and Antarctic Bottom Water AABW ow northward The Mediterranean water mass ow westward and extends only across the North Atlann39c Similar density sn39uctures are observed in the Pacific and Indian Oceans though the direction of ow for the NADW in these oceans is not north to south but south to north after reaching the South Atlantic the NADW circles Antarctica and ow northward in the Indian and then the Pacific Oceans See Figures 36 and 37 for density structures ofthe Pacific and Indian Oceans repectively SALNTY P5878 um m m Figure 36 Density structure ofthe Pacific Ocean Note here that density is not graphed but salinity up and temperature down left in small The major green water mass is constituted mostly by the NADW deep underneath in pink in the temperature graph you39ll find the AABW TY P5878 DEPTH M rpmn 3901 mer Ml yum wmm Wu Minn Figure 37 Density structure ofthe Indian Ocean Note here that density is not graphed but salinity up and temperature down left in small The major green water mass is constituted mostly by the NADW deep underneath in pink in the temperature graph you39ll find the AABW Deep water formation thus occurs in high latitude regions as presented in Figure 38 IN E UN in IWW nlrw W39W WW fw WE WE WE IN monk 39 h w M NH 1 mm rm mm W mm mm m W W W M m m Waxy m mmm Maw 7 WW mw PM wow Figure 38 Source of deepwater formation in dark green with water mass direction of ow 7 Global ocean circulation The global ocean circulation is thus alink between surface waterloops and deepwater mass movements The overall quotconveyor belt circulation takes a few hundred years 500 years but is not static over time circulation can accelerate or decelerate depending on climate conditions andorwaterbalances For example the large addition offreshwaterto the surface Nor h Atlantic could decrease the densification ofsurface water in the North Atlantic and thus slow down the entire deepwater circulation which itselfcould also alter the speed ofsurface returning currents Hence the global ocean circulation links all oceans to each other and depends on atmospheric circulation and wind patterns The entire structure of earth sphericity seasonality uid envelopes in the atmosphere and ocean rotation ofthe earth presence of continents affectthe redistribution ofheat from its zones ofsurplus intertropical zones to its zones of deficits high latitudes w M mm a mumsmwmm m m mammal Introductory Oceanography OCNG 251 MidTerm Study Guide Part 1 This half session dealt with the construction of all conditions responsible for the observed global circulation patterns in the World Ocean In a sense we started the course from the very end trying to build an ocean and understanding its physical structure the water part in this case The objective ofthe entire session is to understand the concept behind Figure 1 below 2m BrooksCole a dwlslun ufThumsun Leamlng Inc Warm shallow wrrents D cm and saw deep Areas of deep waterform auon Figure 1 General circulation pattern of the ocean Surface currents are indicated in red while deep currents are presented in blue In Figure 1 one can see that there is a link between surface circulation red and deep circulation blue Of course to conserve mass there must be a link between these wo circulation patterns Areas of quotdeep water formationquot will transfer water from the surface to the deep ocean whereas water returns to the surface via zones of upwelling Transfer from the surface to the deep ocean will occur due to densification increased density of surface water mostly through cooling but also through some increased salinity during ice formation and salt concentration in seawater Upwelling will occur through physical transfer from current formation Ekman circulation in eastern ocean basins and as water is pushed up continental slope like when the North Atlantic Deep Water is pushed up the slope of the Antarctic continent These features are all shown in Figure 1 with areas of deep water formation as purple dots North and South Atlantic and areas of upwelling with bluetored arrows eastern regions of ocean basins Also note that surface currents are characterized by circular patterns called gyres in each oceanic basin for each hemisphere Atlantic and Pacific each have 2 gyres whereas the Indian has only 1 The entire purpose ofthe first session was thus to bring all the elements necessary to comprehend the processes responsible for the ocean circulation illustrated in Figure 1 These elements are Systems and cycles Specifically how mass and energy cycle through different section of a system from the micro to macroscales In this section we emphasized notions of reservoir ux sourcesink residence time steady state as well as positive and negative feedback mechanisms Physical properties of water and in particular how temperature and salinity affect the density of seawater We also focused on heat capacity to explain the temperature changes different media experience ie atmosphere vs ocean continents vs oceans etc when subjected to a gain or loss of heat Heat budget of the earth particularly with respect to the unbalance in incoming short wave radiations and outgoing long wave radiations that is observed in intertropical vs high latitude zones Atmospheric circulation as it is driven by that same unbalance in the earth heat budget and affected by the earth s rotation 9 Coriolis The interplay of these processes then leads to global as well as seasonal wind patterns eg easterlieswesterlies and monsoons respectively Surface ocean circulation driven itself by the wind drag of constant winds and affected by coriolis vorticity and geostrophic forces Except for the effect oflocal winds the general surface ocean circulation follows the atmospheric High Low distribution pattern with circular motion gyres in each ocean basin The circulation is clockwise in the north hemisphere and counterclockwise in the south hemisphere Deep ocean circulation driven by density formation in high latitude zones Surface water can undergo large increases in density due to an interplay of salinity and temperature changes When warm water cools its density increases markedly Similarly when water increases in salinity its density increases as well The cooling of surface seawater in northern latitudes eg subArctic seas and around Antartica leads to an increase in its density and thus vertical transfer of water towards the deep ocean Similarly during sea ice formation the expulsion of salts from the forming ice results in brine formation increase in salinity in sea waters and thus an increase in the water density These processes lead to deep watermass formation each with specific density conditions that help or prevent their mixing in the deep ocean Global ocean circulation The surface and deep ocean circulations are tied at both quotendsquot where surface water cools at high latitudes to form deep waters and where deep waters are upwelled towards to surface mostly on eastern boundaries ofoceans to reintegrate the surface circulation loops and eventually reach the cooling sites for another cycle On average a full ocean circulation cycle takes several hundred years to complete 500 yrs but this quotmixing speed is variable and can accelerate or decelerate depending on the rate of deep water formation cooling salinity changes and upwelling wind strength atmospheric pressure oscillation Earth climate balance The relationship between atmospheric and ocean circulation help redistribute heat from zones of surplus radiation intertropical zones to zones of deficit high latitudes In low latitudes the majority of the heat transfer occurs through ocean circulation whereas atmospheric circulation is responsible for most of the heat transfer in mid to high latitudes Event such as hurricanes are rapid and natural quotpressure valve processes that transfer large amounts of heat from the intertropical zones to midlatitude regions 1 Systems and cycles Some Definitions Transport and transformation processes within definite reservoirs Carbon Rock Water Cycles Reservoir box compartment M in mass units or moles An amount of material defined by certain physical chemical or biological characteristics that can be considered homogeneous 02 in the atmosphere carbon in living organic matter in the Ocean ocean water in surface water masses FIuX F The amount of material transferred from one reservoir to another per unit time per unit area The rate of evaporation ofwater from the surface ocean the rate of deposition of inorganic carbon carbonates in marine sediments the rate of contaminant input to a lake or a bay Source Q A ux of material into a reservoir Sink S A ux of material out ofa reservoir Budget A balance sheet of all sources and sinks ofa reservoir If sources and sinks balance each other and do not change with time the reservoir is in steadystate M does not change with time If steadystate prevails then a ux that is unknown can be estimated by its difference from the other uxes Turnover time The ratio of the content M of the reservoir to the sum ofits sinks S or sources Q The time it will take to empty the reservoir if there aren t any sources It is also a measure of the average time an atommolecule spends in the reservoir Cycle A system consisting of two or more connected reservoir where a large part of the material is transferred through the system in a cyclic fashion Feedback All closed and open systems respond to inputs and have outputs A feedback is a specific output that serves as an input to the system Negative Feedback stabilizing The system s response is in the opposite direction as that of the output An example given in class is the increased re ection of solar radiation albedo from upper level clouds Increased heat 9 evaporation 9 clouds 9 increased albedo 9 lowered incoming radiation 9 decreased overall heat Positive Feedback destabilizing The system s response is in the same direction as that of the output An example given in class is the increased trapping of infrared radiation from lower level clouds Increased heat 9 evaporation 9 clouds 9 increased IR trapping 9 increased overall heat We also sent some time on the concept of residence time a concept we will be using also in the second section of this course to explain the salt composition of seawater and biogeochemical cycles Residence Time is a high probability that a certain fraction ofa substance atoms or molecules forming the reservoir M will be of a certain age mean age of the element when it leaves the reservoir The residence time ofwater in the atmosphere is very short 1020 days The residence time ofwater in the Oceans is much longer 4OOO years However the residence time in different components of the atmosphere and oceans and therefore the time of exchange between these different reservoirs vary widely AT MO SPHERE Advantages of Cycle Approach 39 Provides overview of uxes reservoir contents and turnover time 39 Gives a basis for quantitative modeling 39 Helps to estimate the relative magnitudes of natural and anthropogenic uxes 39 Stimulates questions such as Where is the material coming from where is it going next 39 Helps identify gaps in knowledge Disadvantages of Cycle Approach 39 Analysis by necessity superficial Little or no insight into what goes inside the reservoir quotblack box 39 Gives false impression of certainty Often at least one of the uxes is derived from balance considerations maybe erroneous 39 Analysis based on average quantities that cannot always be easily measured because of spatial and temporal variations as well as other factors 2 Physical properties of water Water molecule Dipole 9 Uneven charge 9 Hydrogen bonds DNA anyone 9 Higher energy requirement for change of state solid to liquid liquid to gaseous than similar molecules Make sure you can explain the figure below I00 0 Measured values x Expected values A 50 r S Sulfur g Ho Se Selenium 0 Te Tellurium g 0 H Hydrogen l Boiling 1 H Te E temperatures 2 50 x king x empemwres IOO 39 39 D 50 IOU 50 Molecular weight moles b MELTING AND BOILlNG TEMPERATURES OF WATER Figure 3 Melting and boiling temperatures for water and a series of molecules with similar chemical composition The structure ofthe water molecule thus leads to very high energy requirements for changes of state Latent Heat in particular for changes between liquid to gaseous state In the figure below the heat required to for changes in phase state are illustrated as horizontal lines This demonstrates that heat has to constantly be supplied to water for his change of phase without however resulting in any change of temperature Latent heat is just that and change in heat without a change in temperature Note the much more important heat requirement for vaporization 580 calgram than for fusion 80 calgram Also note that this heat transfer is reversible meaning that 540 cal of heat is released to the atmosphere when 1 gram ofwater vapor condensed rain and 620 cal ofheat is released when 1 gram ofvapor solidifies snow Latent heat is thus an important component ofthe earth heat redistribution process eg evaporation in intertropical zones and condensation in mid to high latitudes Latent heat 0 vaporization 120 e 540 calgram Temperature C o 20 100 200 400 600 780800 3273 MW Heat in caloriesgram Figure 4 Heat and temperature changes in water across its phase change continuum We also spent some time on the concept of Heat Capacity Heat capacity is defined as the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram ofa substance by 1 C 0 More energy is required to raise the temperature of a substance with high heat capacity 0 At constant energy inputs the substance with lower heat capacity will show a higher increase in temperature 0 High heat capacity substances can store large amount ofenergy We used the concept of heat capacity to explain major differences in temperature observed between continents and oceans This was then applied to explain the three following figures Emu m mma t omnm 05m mth 4 at M at m it Am a Net a 39 Figure 5 Seasonal temperature curves at San Francisco green and Norfolk blue Both cities are located on the same latitude Hence differences are not due to solar radiation difference Instead the moisture in the air in San Francisco transported from the Paci c through westerlies maintains the air temperature more stable over winter to summer seasonal changes In contrast the lack of moisture in the air at Norfolk winds blow about land before reaching Virginia is responsible for much larges seasonal changes in temperature O T i I VcA 7 R V E r kinkgrmwsmumm Day Night Thermal contrast hydrostatic balance pressure drops faster with height in colder air create pressure gradients Mass continuity completes the circle Figure 6 Daily wind patterns in coastal regions The winds are generated by pressure differences in the atmosphere which are themselves the result of heat capacity differences between land and water H I Cher2pm Cherra uni X Dry L We p I Fquot v Bay or Bay or i Banga J Bengal J i l y i l W s l South Scum J China L 3 A 4 55 I N alWnmr Monsoon N 1hSummarMonsmn Winter Summer Thermal contrast acting on a seasonal time scale can also create pressure gradients to cause flow from land to ocean in winter and from ocean to land in summer Figure 7 Seasonal wind patterns in some coastal regions The winds are generated by pressure differences in the atmosphere which are themselves the result of heat capacity differences between land and water Change in Temperature but not in Heat Adiabatic change Water is slightly compressible in the deep ocean where the weight of the water column induces a high pressure This induces friction and thus higher kinetic energy 9 increase in temperature In situ temperature temperature measure on site in situ The utilization of in situ temperature can give the wrong impression that the water column in unstable lighter water warmer in deep water masses Temperature in deep water masses Temperature Change ul Phase Density by 27 in die liquid state 9 Water expands about 939 N1 mm m quotc Density temperaturexlx l r r u r We n u r corrected for pressure in pressure effec 0 1 025941 0000 e 1 x1000 25 94 No units39 u 1 water of different salinity S and temperature T To omarrr die Figure 9 Sigma39T values for 103 m2 r uuuar T in col r for are water m maintain are same density TemperatureSalinity TS Diagrams In TS Diagrams Figure 9 salinity S is represented on the X axis while temperature T is represented on theyaxis The sigmaT 01 lines indicate conditions ofsimilar densities The movement from the upper left to the lower right is a direction of increased density the largest shift in density occurs when the movement is perpendicular to the OT lines Poinf D is denser than point B lSalmlly 0001 0 32 33 36 38 A30 7 257 l WarmIowlatilude seawalal 5 C Warming leads to higher change in Temuevaiuve Cr Figure 9 TS Diagram Note A drop of5 C in warm water 2 5 C generates a greater increase in density than a similar cooling in cold water 5 C In short the more perpendicular to the OT lines the change is the more intense the change in density Plotting actual values ofT and S on such a TS Diagram will give you the number ofwater masses in the water column and their specific T and S characteristics Temperamm Vs Deplh Sallnily vs Deplh Silwly we 35 Tamnenlure 39c M M 5 s 5 1 Figure 10 Depth profiles oftemperature and salinity for a station in the North Atlantic 39 2 Si 45 541 139 Eyar39y bend represents a hewwater39 mass Figure 11 TS Diagram for the station shown in Figure 10 Surface water is the lightest and thus appears at the top of the diagram Heaviest water appears at the bottom of the diagram As stated in the figure every quotbendquot in the curve denotes a water mass that does not mix with water above and below Caballing When two water masses of similar densities merge points a and bin Figure 12 below the combination of their temperatures and salinities results in densi cation 9 vertical advection of water Figure 12 TS Diagram showing the effect of cabaling The water in c a 5050 mixture of water a and b is denser than the two original water masses Light Autotrophs with a few exceptions depend on energy from sunlight As do land plants marine plants use chlorophyll and other pigment to capture the visible light from the sun to perform photosynthesis As solar radiation strikes the surface of the Ocean a large fraction of it is re ected back to the atmosphere dependent on the angle ofthe sun39s rays and the smoothness of the water surface The amount that enters is ultimately absorbed by water molecules 65 ofvisible light is absorbed within 1 m depthl 9 Absorbed energy manifests itselfas heat elevating the temperature ofthe surface water Wavelength nm 500 an 5mm Aphmic Ion ti nm nznumemr one billiamh ala meter 3LIGHTABSORPTION1NTHE OPEN OCEAN Figure 13 Spectrum oflight absorption with respect to water depth Absorption is greatest at longerwavelength In clearwater only 1 ofsurface energy remains at 100 m in coastal waters with lots ofparticles light doesn39tpenetrate more than a few meters 3 Heat budget ofthe earth Based on the temperature ofthe sun and the earth and on physical laws of radiation Stefan Boltzmann s and Wien slaws the sun emits radiation mostly in the visible to ultra violet UV whereas the earth emits mostly in the infrared IR spectrum These differences in radiation wavelengths are crucial to explain the earth actual vs theoretical average temperature Based on the solar radiation that earth receives per unit area the theoretical temperature ofthe earth should be 18 C But the actual temperature of earth is much higher than that 15 C The 33 difference can be explained by what is called the greenhouse e fect In short gases in the atmosphere eg water C02 CH4 CFCs N20 are relativelytransparent to shortwave radiation meaning theylet these pass through whereas they absorb longer wavelength radiation Figure 14 illustrates this process The substantial absorption of IRback radiation by the earth atmosphere thus permits the earth to retain heat within in fluid envelope and thus warm beyond the theoretical value determined by solar radiation alone Figure 15 UV Infrared Fl 4 100 1 Visible s 5 O ow 3945 g 50 TOTAL 0 ATMOSPHERE 2 I I 01 03 05 07 1 5 10 15 20 Wavelenuth bml Fi ure 14 Proportion oflight absorption in the earth atmosphere with respect to radiation wavelength There are two quotwindowquot oftransparency The atmosphere is nearly transparent to Visible and near UV radiation majority of solar radiation whereas it absorbs strongly in the UV from 03 and near IR water C02 CH4 CFCs N20 The second window is in the IR and permim some long wavelength radiation to escape the earth39s atmosphere ouigammenergy I Dmgolngl nnurgy l g y z 39 2 4 239 l m u nmmar numbd Incoming Incoming e I J nainvnnmay mummy 4 v Yamp 13quot men 1m we 59er alwmmui gmnhausa mm gmhnnnuso Minn 1 imwu W Figure 15 Warming ofthe earth bysolarradiation alone left and through the combination of solar radiation and greenhouse effect right E mm umnm 3 mama munmu mma a mum In W an s MIWED W39 luv a mum mam mummy mum Mm C Figure 16 Although average temperatures Vary seasonally and spatially the earth39s overall T 9 s quot e rn to space he same amount of energy it changes only slightly over the years mu absorbed Total energy input 100 units per unit time Note Albedo is the fraction ofthe sun radiation that is re ected back to space without being incorporated in the heat budget of earth Two conditionsprocesses affect the amount of solar radiation and therefore the incoming energy source different regions ofthe earth receive Sphericity and Seasonality Sphericity below Ifthe Earth were a disk with its surface perpendicular to the rays ofsunlight each point on it would receive the same amount ofradiation However the Earth is a sphere and its surface tilts with respect to the incoming rays of energy with the regions furthest away aligned in parallel to the radiation and thus receiving no energy at all Atmosphere H hazg Q 5 K i g C d Seasonality right The Earth39s aXis is tilted in relation to the plane of the ecliptic the SunEarth plane that cuts through both centers Higher latitudes thus receive incoming radiation with different angles through the seasons very low angle in the winter and close to 90 in the summer Tropic of Cancer Antarctic Circle The effect of seasonality and sphericity is illustrated in the figure below where short wave incoming radiation is maximum in high latitude summers july in the north hemisphere and anuary in the south hemisphere and constant at the equator La tudeltTime Distribution 039 Incoming Solar Hadialion at Ihe Top of the Atmosphere qi r 7 m Tropic of Capricorn Norm Pole c SON Lamuue o Souih Pole 505 an Oct Time a year Based on ERBE data Units are Wm2 Because ofthese geographical and temporal variations in short wave incoming radiationlong wave radiation also show similar variations IR The figure below illustrates these geographical and temporal differences mmnnnn mm m mun u 7 m en s m an yarE vm mm mm 90w saw 30w 7 u m t a z w39E 1er are m w mm mw mm m a39 Longitude mugrub Jan m m m m me am 139 1 m lawmakladac39 ye2j Figure 17 Long wave radiation for the earth Left hand panel January Righthand panel une These figures show graphically that the there is an equator to pole change in incoming radiation 9 AHeating as well as a seasonal change in incoming radiation 9 Alleating The earth heat budget is thus apparently unbalanced with the intertropical region apparently continuously gaining heat and the high latitude regions apparently continuously losing heat Figure 18 However because the intertropical zones do not heat continuously or the high latitude regions do not freeze continuously then heat transfer from zones ofheat surplus to the zones ofheat deficit must occur This is the founding condition thatleads to circulation patterns in the fluid envelopes of earth atmosphere and ocean mil i munnxeccneu 0quot 39 u Hmnbonlnsi 39 st Qb Qb quot as m y Hm I y Hm lmndm D a l f and m 3M WAKE l 7L4 L71 L Figure 18 Short wave Q5 minus long wave Qb radiation for the earth


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Jim McGreen Ohio University

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Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

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"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


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