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by: Ms. Alva McCullough


Marketplace > Texas A&M University > Biology > BIOL 112 > INTRODUCTORY BIOLOGY II
Ms. Alva McCullough
Texas A&M
GPA 3.79

Karl Aufderheide

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Karl Aufderheide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ms. Alva McCullough on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 112 at Texas A&M University taught by Karl Aufderheide in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see /class/226179/biol-112-texas-a-m-university in Biology at Texas A&M University.




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Date Created: 10/21/15
Lab 2 Evidence of Evolution 1 Systematics study of evolutionary relationships among organisms 2 Phylogenies models that show evolutionary history based on ancestry 3 Taxonomy naming and classifying of organisms a Domain 9 Kingdom 9 Bhylum 9 glass 9 Qrder 9 family 9 genus 9 Species i Donkey Kong Plays Cards Only For Green Stuff b Taxon an organism or a group of organisms that is named 4 Phylogenic terms a Monophyletic aka clade ancestor all descendants b Polyphyletic more than one ancestors c Paraphyletic ancestor some descendants 5 Unifying theories of biology a Cell theory i Organisms consist of one or more cells ii Cells can replicate b Gene theory i DNA is the blueprint for protein expression i DNA is the foundation of cellular structure and function c Theory of Inheritance i DNA may change through mutation or crossing over ii Independent assortment of chromosomes leads to unique combos of genes d Theory of Evolution i Unique genotype may result in survival advantage ii Those who reproduce more will contribute more to the next generation 6 Evolution a Species change over time b Species are related through descent from a common ancestor c Evidence i Fossil records 1 Tiktaaik 2 Nonextinct Coelacanth ii Biogeography 1 Isolated vicariance 2 Restricted gene pool 3 Evolution tends to go faster on islands 4 Don t have to be physical islands can be isolated in other ways iii Homologous 1 Related structures 2 Bat wing human hand horse hoof are all from common ancestor 3 Opposite of analogous not from the same ancestor a Fish tail vs Whale tail iv Vestigialstructures v Developmentalsimilarities 1 Chordates a Gill slits b Postanal tail c Notochord vi Molecular genetics vii Observation 1 Ex Corn livestock d Niche an organism s role in its environment predator insectivore etc e Competition when two or more organisms occupy the same niche i Limited resources food mates territory 7 Cladistics a A way to test phylogenies b Use cladograms c Ancestral vs derived character states i Can be molecular genetic or structural d Plesiomorphy ancestral condition e Apomorphy derived condition i Autapomorphy unique ii Synapomorphy shared f Parsimony cladograms with fewest changes is the best Lab 2 Evidence of Evolution 1 Natural selection process that occurs when fitter organisms pass more genes to next generation 2 Adaptation when a population undergoes natural selection to inherit favorable characteristics 3 Cladogram a branching tree that shows ancestry Population genetics 1 Population a group of interbreeding individuals 2 Gene pool all of the alleles present in a population and their relative proportions 3 Evolution change in gene frequency from one generation to the next 4 HardyWeinberg Equilibrium a Model for sexually reproducing population without evolution allelic freq constant b Assumptions 39 Large population No immigrationemigration iquot No mutation i Noselection lt v Random mating c Allelic frequencies p q 1 d Genotypic frequencies p2 qu q2 i p2 frequency of homozygous dominant AA ii qu frequency of heterozygous Aa iii q2 frequency of homozygous recessive aa e Genotypic freq can be calculated from allelic freq Without equilibrium f Genotypic freq can be extrapolated from allelic freq ONLY with equilibrium 5 Deviation from HardyWeinberg Equilibrium a Selection when an organisms phenotype affects its ability to reproduce b Genetic drift change in allelic frequencies due to randomly beneficial lucky mating i Magnified in small populations ii Leads to a loss of genetic variation c Genetic drift compounded by i A genetic bottleneck 1 Large part of the population dies decreased genetic variability ii The founder effect 1 A small part of original pop emigrates decreased genetic variability d Fixation when one allele reaches a frequency of 10 within a population 6 Survival of Deleterious Alleles a Deleterious alleles alleles that negatively affect an organism usually recessive lethal b Recessive refuge deleterious recessive alleles persist in gene pool as heterozygous c Heterozygote advantage heterozygote gt either homozygote genotype Ex sicklecell Sicklecell allele and malaria experiment 1 Malaria a Caused by unicellular Plasmodium parasite b Transmitted by female Anopheles mosquito c Symptoms are flulike and can result in major complications 2 Sicklecell aee HbS is a mutated form of normal hemoglobin gene HbA a Hemoglobin protein associated with RBC s and is transports oxygen through blood b Inherited via standard Mendelian genetics c HbSHbS results in malformation of RBC s sickle shaped i Resistance to malaria which infects human blood cells to continue its life d Phenotypes i HbAHbA normal NO malaria resistance ii HbAHbS sicklecell trait carrier resistant to malaria iii HbSHbS sicklecell anemia affected


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