RLGS STDS NEW TESTAMENT
RLGS STDS NEW TESTAMENT RELS 213
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RELS 213 NEW TESTAMENT FINAL REVIEW SPRING 2009 This Emil review and youtmid tezm review are to be a guide to help you prepare for the nal exam which is cumulative The exam may include essay truefalse matching andor short discussion 59 Know the outlines for every book of the Bible we have covered in this course Know the thesis statement for every book we covered as well Know the major terms and de nitions we ve discussed in this class Know the following chapters from F F Bruce s New Teslamml Hixloy Chapters 4 15 21722 28 and 30 Look for what is emphasized repeated related and comparecontrast comparisons in each chapter Know the following from class lecture Outline to 1 Corinthians I Chs1711 Whatis wrong with the church II Chs 12716 How to Correct the Problems Thesis statement The local church is a community of people who share the life of God are under the governing will of God and cooperate in the work of God Remember the NT de nition oflove 1 Corinthians 131John 316717 Major views on whether spiritual gifts are for today a HyperiCessationism eg Gene Getz b Cessationism eg Charles Ryrie c Cautious but Open View eg Wayne Grudem d Full Gospel Charismaticism Know three aspects or tenses of sancti cation Positional past tense progressive or experiential present tense glori cation future tense Know the difference between vivi cation and morti cation Be able to recognize and walk through the major models of sancti cation what are the similarities and differences a Wesleyan Perfectionism b Keswick Sanctification c Reformed model d Chaferian Sanctification What are the similarities and differences 2 Corinthians Personal letter defending Paul s ministry among the Corinthians and appealing to the faction in the church to reconcile themselves to each other I Salutation and Thanksgiving 11711 H Consolation Comfort in Ministry 112716 A The Conduct of Paul B The Character of Paul C The Appeal to the Corinthians D The Comfort in the Ministry Ill The Collection the Ministry of Giving 817915 lV Correction Vindication of Paul s Ministry 10171310 A Paul s Position B Paul s purpose V Personal Greetings Admonition and Benediction 1311714 Major Views of Infant Salvation A Universalism All children who die as infants will be taken to heaven Everyone will ultimately be saved B Born without Sin A children does not inherit sin nature from Adam they choose sin C Second Chance View When infants die they immediately mature and then are given the opportunity to receive salvation in Christ D All lnfants are the Elect All who die in infancy are saved E lnfants of Saved Parents are the Elect F lnfants are saved by Baptism of Desire If they desired baptism but were unable to attain it before they die they go to heaven G lnfant Regeneration View All lnfants who die will be regenerated because they have not willfully rejectedJesus Christ H Redemptive Work of Christ View All infants enjoy heavenly bliss because of the redemptive work of Christ on the cross 1 Infant Water Baptism View lnfants enter heaven through baptism Roman Catholicism asserts that infant baptism removes the stain of original sin J Foreknowledge View God as an omniscient being foreknew which infants would have believed had they lived long enough Know the de nition of the church The Universal and local church is a unique living organism consisting of all believers in Jesus Christ without distinction baptized by the Holy Spirit ofwhom Christ is the head for the sacred purpose ofworshipping God Thesis statement for Hebrews The author of Hebrews whether Apollos Paul Barnabas etc is saying that the more we appreciate the absolute supremacy and incomparable sufficiency ofJesus Christ the more we will persevere and live by faith in our daily activities faithfully trusting God results and eternal rewards l 114018 Theological Basis for Christ s Preeminence supremacy H 101971317 Practical Implications of Christ s Preeminence Purpose To address the doubts of those who were 394 m in their to Chti rianih A Be able to recall the five warnings ofHebrews 1 Don t drift awayregress 2 Don t Harden your heart 3 Don t spiritual degenerate apostasy 4 Don t willfully sin 5 Don t be unresponsive Prison Epistles Philippians Thesis statement Living the Christian life enables the believers to be triumphant in suffering service in Christ and in anxiety I Encouragement for Living the Christian life 11730 H Examples for Living the Christian life 217770 HI Exhortations for living the Christian life 31721 IV Enablement for living the Christian life 41723 V Conclusion 421723 A Understand why Keno sis is important to Christian thought B Be able to explain the following views of Kenosis 1 Christ emptied himself of divine consciousness 2 Christ emptied himself of the eternity form ofbeing 3 Christ emptied himself of the relative attributes of deity 90409 5 Christ emptied himself of the integrity ofinfinite divine existence Christ emptied himself of the divine activity Christ emptied himself of the use of the divine attributes Kenosis is simply the veiling of Christ s preincarnate glory Christ emptied himself of the independent exercise of the divine attributes James Get your life in line with what you believe James is more practical than doctrinal But the major theological issue issue inJaines is faith and works Games 214726 I II III IV V VI Introduction 11 Trials and True Religion 12727 Partiality and Vital Faith chapter 2 Controlling the Tongue 31718 Money 8 Patient Endurance 51719 The way back to living by faith 519720 Major interpretations of zz39li wit7M warex is dead in Book ofJaInes Refers to someone who no longer has saving faith Arminian If no evidence of fruit one may never have been saved or is no longer saved Refers to one who professes to be a Christian but has never exercised saving faith Strict Calvinistic it was never sincere faith since no fruit came out ofit Refers to one who is sincerely a Christian but is not choosing to live out his or faith fruit is an expected natural result of faith 1 8c 11 Peter A B C A I II III IV V VI B 1 Peter Stand firm in the true grace of God in the midst of suffering how to live as saints in a hostile world Hope in the face ofpersecution 1 Peter is dealing with opposition from without Salutation 1172 Call to Hope 13712 Call to Holiness 113210 Call to Submission 2117312 Call to Suffering 313419 Call to Service 51711 2 Peter Ful ll your responsibility as recipients of the true grace of God Peter is dealing with inward opposition within the church How to handle unwanted heresy I Salutation 112 4 Spiritual things 16 Condition of Believers vv3711 Authority of Believers vv 12721 Dangers to the Christian 21722 Prospect for the Christian 31716 Conclusion 316718 One of the most debated issues in 2 Peter is DidJesus Go to Hell Know the issue involves two central issues 1 Who are the spirits in prison 2 When did Christ preach to the Spirits in Prison I m not asking you to know all the major views we discussed in class I have an article on the subject on my website wwwprshockleyorg it is under Systematic Theology Eschatology and Book of Revelation A Be able to explain the timing of Predictive Prophecy 1 Preterism ful lled in 70 AD 2 Historicism presently being fulfilled 3 Futurism awaiting a yet future literal fulfillment 4 Idealism timeless spiritual fulfillment Know the major views of the Rapture 1 Midtribulationism Belief that Christ will return for the church in the Rapture in the middle of the future Tribulation 2 Partial Rapture view There will be more than one rapture based on one s spiritual condition spiritual condition vs carnal Christian condition 3 Pretribulationism Rapture of all in Christ before any aspect of the Great Tribulation begins 4 Prewrath Rapture view Place the rapture in the second half of Great Tribulation 5 Posttribulationist view See the rapture as occurring at the end of the tribulation and almost simultaneously with Christ s return Three Major Views of Millennialism 1 Amillennialism no literal future millennium 2 Postmillennialism Christ s return after an inde nite time of spiritual progress on earth 3 Premillennialism Christ s return ie Second Coming will usher in a literal 1000 year kingdom on earth E Outline to Book of Revelation See website prshockleyorg for chart on Revelation under biblical Studies tab I cannot express enough my appreciationfor having you in my class I lookforwaral to keeping in touch with you and hope thatyou will make your studies and life one of intellectual and moral excellence MIDiTERM EXAM REVIEW RELS 213 New Testament Literature I decided to not test you over past quiz answers or readings from Groothius or Bruce Test will be on Thursday on 6 March 2008 Be on time From Lecture 9 5 5 54quot What is a worldview A worldview is Jim 73 mm Zola 0 amquot 53121 5 150 the world 73 bi 3 pirlhre lml dire 0mquot duly demiom and anions it is a habituated way of seeing A person s worldview is essentially composed of seven elements God truth reality knowledge humanity ethics and evil A worldview is formed informally uncritically interigenerationally ie what is passed down from parents to children intraigenerationally ie organizations clubs or special interest groups that communicate ideas beliefs and activities and over time Seven Major Worldviews a Atheism No God exists beyond or in the universe b Polytheism There are many gods beyond or in the universe c Pantheism God is the universe d Panmtheism God is in the universe e Deism God is beyond the universe but not in it f Theism An infinite and personal God exists beyond and in the universe g Finite godism A nite God exists beyond and in the universe The Bible is unique for the following reasons a Unique in its Continuity b Unique in its Circulation c Unique in its Translation d Unique in its Survival 1 Through Time 2 Through Persecution 3 Through Criticism e Unique in its Teachings Through Prophecy 2 History 3 Character f Unique in Its Influence on Literature g Unique in its Influence on Civilization Theories of In spiration a Mechanical or Dictation Biblical author is a passive instrument in the transmission of the revelation of God The personality of the author is set aside to preserve the text from fallible human aspects 9 1 9 b Partial Inspiration Inspiration concerns only the doctrines of Scripture that were unknowable to the human authors c Degrees ofInspiration Certain portions of the Bible are more inspired or differently inspired than other portions d Intuition or Natural Gifted individuals with exceptional insight were chosen by God to write the Bible e Illumination or Mystical The human authors were enabled by God to write the Scriptures The Holy Spirit heightened their normal powers f Neoiorthodoxy The neoiorthodox view emphasizes that the Bible is not to be exactly equated with the Word of God because God does not speak in mere propositions God does not reveal mere facts about Himself He reveals Himself The Bible is not the substance of the Word of God but rather the witness to the Word of God It becomes the Word of God as the reader encounters Christ in his own subjective experience Moreover the Bible is enshrouded in myth necessitating a demythologizing of the Bible to discover what actually took place The historicity of the events is unimportant g Verbal Plenary Both divine and human elements are present in the production of Scripture The entire text of Scripture including the very words are a product of the mind of God expressed in human terms and conditions Two Major Models ofTextual Criticism 1 Know the Majority Text Tradition eg Zane Hodges 2 Know the Eclectic Reasoned Tradition eg Daniel B Wallace Manuscripts of Ancient Antiquity Comparison Chart Be familiar with the extant of NT Manuscripts in comparison to other works of antiquity in terms of the amount of manuscripts known and the time gap Iwill give this to you as a handout next week Know the following major theological terms a Prolegomena preliminary remarks these are the things you think about before you even do theolo Bibliology Study of the Bible Theology broad category for the study of God Theology Proper the study of God Himself Christology study of Christ Pneumatology study of the Holy Spirit Anthropology study of humanity Ecclesiology study of the Church Israelology study of Israel Trinity study of the Trinity Eschatology study of EndiTime events Soteriology study of Salvation Harnartiology study of sin Hermeneutics the science of art ofinterpretation PBHWquot 39P UFT EDPPET o Remember the historical views ofinterpretation hermeneutics in early Christianity between the School of Alexandria allegorical swamp3mmquot and the School ofAntioch literal 53mm singular Remember the de nitions of the various approaches discussed in reconciling discrepancies or Bible dif culties a The Abstract Approach eg B B War eld b The Harmonistic Approach eg Edward Young Louis Gaussen c The Moderate Harmonistic Approach eg Everett Harrison d The Errant Source Approach eg Edward Carnell e The Biblical Errancy Approach eg Dewey Beegle De ne Synoptic The word HsynopticH comes from two Greek words gm and opxexlmz39 meaning Hto see togetherH Essentially the synoptic problem involves all the dif culties that arise because of the similarities and differences between the Gospel accounts Matthew Marl and Luke have received the title HSynoptic GospelsH because they present the life and ministry ofJesus Christ similarly The content and purpose ofJohn39s Gospel are suf ciently distinct to put it in a class by itself It is not one of the soicalled Synoptic Gospels a When HGospelH is capitalized it typically refers to a book of the Bible whereas HgospelH not capitalized typically refers to the salvation message b Flowing from the Synoptic Problem we have the following methods used 1 Historical Criticism is a broad term that covers techniques to 1 date documents and traditions 2 to verify events reported in these documents and 3 to use the results in historiography to reconstruct and interpret a Remember some favored the view that Mark was one of the primal sources because over 90 percent of the material in Mark also appears in Matthew and or Luke Some posited another primary source quotQquot an abbreviation of the German word for source gin3 It supposedly contained the material in Matthew and Luke that does not appear in Mark 2 Form criticism studies literary forms such as essays poems and myths since different writings have different forms Form critics concentrate on the process involved in transmitting whatJesus said and did to the primary sources 3 Redaction critics generally accept the tenets of source and form criticism They also believe that the Gospel evangelists altered the traditions they received to make their own theological emphases They viewed the writers not simply as compilers of the church s oral traditions but as theologians who adapted the material for their own purposes 4 literary Analysis This approach analyses the Scriptures in terms ofits literary structure emphases and unique internal features It seeks to understand the Scripture as a piece ofliterature by examining how the writer wrote structured it It is an aspect of lower criticism 12 Thematic Overview of the Synoptic Gospels I II III IV V VI VII IX IX X The Introduction of the King Mark 11711 The Authentication of the King Mark 2 The Controversy over the King Mark 320629 The Instruction of the Twelve by the King Mark 630350 The Opposition to the King John 7 The Preparation of the Disciples by the King Mark 10 The Of cial Presentation of the King Mark 11712 The Preparation for the Death of the King Mark 131737 The Rejection of the King Mark 1415 The Resurrection of the King Mark 16 Thesis statement ofMatthew Matthew records kingly facts of the life and ministry ofJesus in order to demonstrate that He is the Christ a Major divisions of thought in Matthew 1 The Person of the King Chapters 14 2 The Platform of the King Chapters 57 3 The Power of the King Chapters 8710 4 The Progressive Rejection of the King Chapters 11725 5 The Passion of the King Chapters 26728 b Major Interpretations to the Sermon on the Mount 1 The Sermon on the Mount is the first of five major discourses that Matthew included in his Gospel Each one follows a narrative section and each ends with the same formula statement concerning Jesus39 authority cf 728729 The Sermon on the Mount has probably attracted more attention than any discourse in history 2 Major Interpretations of the Sermon on the Mount a Sociological Interpretation The purpose of the Sermon was to enable people to know what God required so that by obeying they might obtain salvation b A second approach to the Sermon is the sodagimview that sees it not as a guide to personal salvation but to the salvation of society c A third approach is to believe Jesus gave the Sermon primarily to convict His hearers about their sins They believe his purpose was also to make them realize that their only hope of salvation and participation in His kingdom was God39s grace This view is thepmz39lmlz39a approach d The ecclesiastical interpretation holds that the Sermon contains Jesus39 ethical teaching for the church Thus the Sermon is a religious system ofliving which portrays how transformed Christians ought to live in the world e The millennial interpretation sees the Sermon as applying to the future earthly messianic kingdom exclusive y Revelation 20 f The sixth view is that the Sermon presents ethical instructions forJesus39 disciples that apply from the time Jesus gave them until the beginning of the kingdom This is the interim approach to interpreting the Sermon Therefore the Sermon isprz39marz addressed to disciples those who identi ed with Christ s offer exhorting them to a righteous life in view of the coming earthly kingdom Thesis statement ofMark Mark was written to show thatJesus as the Christ and the Son of God was also the Son of Man who came to serve suffer and die 1045 a Two Major Divisions in Mark I The Service of Christ 114052 H The Sacri ce of Christ 11171620 Thesis statement of Luke Jesus is the perfect Son ofMan who is the Savior of the world As God s perfect Son ofMan before the GentilesJesus states His primary purpose in 1910 Fer the San ofMan 2395 tame to 5eek and to save that whit7 2395 ext Thesis statement ofJohn The Gospel ofJohn was written thatjea may aez39eve t7at jean 2395 t7e Clm39xt the San efGed and that believingjea may have life in Hi5 name N jem 205 7 a JOlent tm jesm did maey other in ZIYEPTEJWIM esz39x dixt ex whit7 are not written in tliz39x book 5 7 but these are written thatjea may We thatjemx 2395 t7e Cm39xt the San efGed and that aez39evz39ngjea may haveg in Hi5 name lm 2050 57 Three prominent words signs believe 8 life reveal John s theme b Seven Specific 373m carefully selected byJohn to fulfill the stated purpose believe life are used in this Gospel Changing water into wine 21711 Healing of the nobleman s son 446754 Healing of the paralytic 5179 Feeding of 5000 61714 Walking on water 616721 Healing ofblind man 91712 Raising of Lazarus from dead 111746 49 5959 Know the definitions to both the major theories of atonement and the major theories of the Resurrection ofJesus Christ a Views of the Atonement 1 Ransom to Satan Theory Origen Christ s death was a ransom paid to Satan to purchase captive man from Satan s claims 2 Recapitulation Theory Irenaeus Christ in life recapitulated all the stages ofhuman life in so doing reversed the course initiated by Adam 3 Dramatic Theory Aulen Christ is victor in a divine con ict of good and evil and wins man s release from bondage 4 Mystical Theory Schleiermacher Christ took on a human sinful nature but through the power of the Holy Spirit triumphed over it A knowledge of this will mystically in uences man 5 Example Theory Pelagius Socinus Abelard Christ s death provided an example of faith and obedience to inspire man to be obedient 6 Moral In uence Theory Bushnell Rashdall Christ s death demonstrated God s love which causes man s heart to soften and repent 7 Commercial Theory Anselm Christ s death brought infinite honor to God So God gave Christ a reward which he did not need and Christ passed it on to man 8 Penal Substitution Theory Calvin Christ s death was a vicarious substitutionary sacrifice that satisfied the demands of God s justice upon sin paying the penalty ofman s sin bringing forgiveness imputing righteousness and reconciling man to God Resurrection Occupied Tomb Theories 1 Unknown Tomb Charles A Guignebert The body ofJesus buried in a common pit grave unknown to his disciples Therefore the resurrection account arose out of the ignorance as to the whereabouts of the body 2 Wrong Tomb Kirsopp Lake The women came to the wrong tomb for there were many similar tombs inJerusalem They found an open tomb and a young man who denied that this wasJesus tomb The frightened women mistakenly identi ed the man as an angel and ed 3 Legend Early Form Critics The resurrection was a fabrication that evolved over a lengthy period to vindicate a leader long since dead 4 Spiritual Resurrection Gnostics Jesus spirit was resurrected though his body was dead 5 Hallucination Agnostics The disciples and followers ofJesus were so emotionally involved with Jesus messianic expectation that their minds projected hallucinations of the risen Lord Unoccupied Tomb Theories 1 Passover Plot High Schonfield Jesus planned to fulfill the Old Testament prophecies of both suffering servant and ruling king through a mock death and resurrection Joseph ofArimathea and a mysterious young man were coiconspirators The plot went bad when the soldier speared Jesus who later died The risen Lord was the young man 2 Resuscitation or Swoon Theory 18th Century Rationalists Jesus did not die on the cross he fainted from exhaustion The cold temperature and spices revived him 3 Body Stolen by the Disciples Jewish The disciples stole the body while the guards were sleeping 4 Existential Resurrection Rudolf Bultmann Marcus Borg A historical resurrection will never proved but it is not necessary The Christ of faith need not be bound to the historicalJesus Rather Christ is raised in our hearts 5 Historical Resurrection Orthodox Christianity Jesus was resurrected by the power of God He showed himself to his disciples and later ascended into heaven A miracle may simply be de ned as a special act of God that interrupts the natural course of events Or consider this de nition A miracle is an event so unique or unusual that given all the circumstances the best explanation is that God intervened directly N Winfried Corduan Know the three major arguments against miracles A lmprobability B Violation of Natural Law C Lack ofldenti ability and the one major argument used for Miracles A Improbability David Hume 17111776 1 Natural law is by de nition a description ofa regular occurrence 2 A miracle is by de nition a rare occurrence 3 The evidence for the regular is always greater than that for the rare 4 A wise man always bases his belief on the greater evidence B Violation of Natural Law Alister McKinnon 1 A miracle is a violation ofa natural law 2 But it is impossible to violate the actual course of events what is is what happens happens 3 Therefore miracles are impossible C Lack of Identi ability Former atheist now deist Antony Flew What is not identi able has no evidential value 1 A miracle must be identi ed distinguished before it can be known to have occurred 2 A miracle can be distinguished in one of two ways in terms ofnature or in terms of the supernatural 3 To identify it by reference to the supernatural as an act of God begs the question 4 To identify it in reference to the natural event robs it ofits supernatural activity 5 Therefore miracles cannot be known to have occurred since there is no way to identify them D Argument for Miracles If God exists then miracles are possible There are rational arguments and evidences used to argue for the belief that God exists eg cosmological arguments teleological arguments moral law law religious existential need historical resurrection ofJesus Christ experientialism etc Notwithstanding even if all the arguments and evidences fail to show that God exists that still does not mean that he doesn t exist Essentially there are four distinguishable aspects ofhistorical evidence most historians typically use to learn about past events 1 apparent memories eyewitnesses 2 the testimony of others either oral or written eg eyewitnesses primary and secondary documents 3 physical traces left behind that may point to the event in question eg archeology and 4 the application of scienti c principles or the application of critical interaction A The historian gathers data from these above sources B The historian then applies an array of criteria to help him or her to ascertain what actually occurred in the past to be sure certain criteria is considered more valuable than others 3 Early evidence is needed for a case to be welliestablished Eyewitnesses of that event is preferred hest relevant evidence or the rule of immetlz39agl 7 Multiple independent sources signi cantly strengthen the case Details are enhanced by the principle of embarrassment surprise or negative reports whereby the writer who has a friendly vested interested makes painful remarks concerning an event person andor himselfherself Antagonistic person or party recognizes the event or person investigated The event coheres with other attested historical events events persons and situational setting Finally the explanation proposed is scrutinized in order to see if the explanation sheds light on other known phenomena or investigated claims 3 C Coupled with this criteria to examine historical data the minimal approach places importance upon first and most of all remarkably or extraordinarily welliattested documents on several distinct grounds and second whether the material is classified as historical by the majority of critical scholars D Additionally let s keep in mind a complimentary and helpful tool offered by the atheist David Hume In order to test the credibility ofwitnesses Hume writes We entertain suspicion concerning any matter of fact when the witnesses contradict each other when they are but few or of a doubtful character when they have an interest in what they affirm when they deliver their testimony with hesitation or with too violent asseverations declarations 3 2 We can outline Hume s concerns into four questions Do the witnesses contradict each other a b Are there a sufficient number ofwitnesses c Were the witnesses truthful d Were they noniprejudicial 20 The message statement to the Book ofActs The Book ofActs a historical theologicalinarrativeirecord was written to give an accurately and orderly account of the development and spread of the first thirty years of Christianity by means of 1 David Hackett Fischer Historian s Fallacies Toward a Logic of Historical Thought New York Harper and Row Publishers 1970 p 62 An interesting insight is that Fischer places remains of a historical event above direct observations of it Regarding the importance of eyewitness testimony in ancient Greek thought see Emst Breisach Historiography Ancient Medieval and Modem Second Edition Chicago The University of Chicago Press 1994 38 2 David Hume An Enquiry Concernzng Human Understandzng ed by Chas W Hendel New York Liberal Arts 1955 120 the ministry of the risen Jesus Christ through the person and work of the Holy Spirit A Structure of Acts I Introduction 11724 II The Witness in Jerusalem 257837 III The Witness in Judea amp Samaria 844225 IV The Witness to the Uttermost Parts of the Earth 13172831 A historical flow to Acts 1 Early Christianity 11767 2 Church Spreads 687931 3 Church Spreads to Gentiles 93271224 4 Church Spreads to Asia Minor 12257165 5 Church Spreads to Europe 16672831 What are the 4 major interpretations of Acts 1035 Justi cation apart from faith in Christ Saved people in every nation can please God a b No justi cation apart from faith in Christ c d Unsaved people in every nation can be accepted by God What is one major signi cant difference between the Dutch Calvinism and Presbyterian Calvinism as discussed in class Image of God in Man is destroyed by the fall for the Dutch Calvinists whereas the image of God remains in man though extensively dainaged7 Presbyterian Calvinists Know the 5 major views ofwhat it means to be made in the image of God 1 2 3 Image 4 7 content personality function dominion community interpersonal relationships Image representation translated Hebrew preposition in Gen 126 is translated s as ra 5 Image er than as in holism multifaceted view that includes all the above The Book of Romans A Thesis statement of Romans Since God has graciously provided salvation for helpless sinners through His Son we should accept that sacri ce by faith amp express our gratitude by dedicating our lives to Him B Structure of Romans 1 The Need for God s Righteousness 117320 Sin 2 The Imputation of God s Righteousness 321521 Salvation 3 The Impartation of God s Righteousness Chapters 68 Sancti cation 4 The Vindication of God s Righteousness Chapters 9711 Sovereignty 5 The Practice of God s Righteousness Chapters 1216 Service C According to Budziszewski there are five witnesses for God s existence objective morality and truth Romans these are aspects ofnatural theology Witness of Creation Witness ofHuman Design Witness of Godward Longings Witness of Conscience Witness of Consequences 915991 Theories of Original Sin A Pelagianism B Arminianism C Calvinism Seminalism lmputation ofAdam s Sin Romans 512 2 Federalism lmputation ofAdain s Sin Romans 512 Theories on the Nature of Sin A Dualism Greek Philosophy and Gnosticism Man has a spirit derived from the kingdom oflight and a body with its animal life derived from the kingdom of darkness Sin is thus a physical evil the defilement of the spirit by its union with a material body Sin is to overcome by destroying the in uence of the body on the soul B Sel sh Augustus Strong Sin is selfishness ltis preferring one s own ideas to God s truth It is preferring the satisfaction of one s own will to doing God s will It is oving oneselfmore than God It manifests itself as sensuality unbelief and enmity to God C Pelagian Pelagius Adain s sin injured only himself Thus all persons born in into this world in the same state in which Adam was created They have knowledge of what is evil and the power to do all that God requires Sin therefore consists only in the deliberate choice of evil D Augustinian Augustine All persons possess an inherent hereditary depravity which involves both guilt and corruption We are offensive to God s holiness because of deliberate acts of transgression and the absence of right affections E Roman Catholic Church teaching and tradition Original sin is transmitted to all people We are born in sin and oppressed with the corruption of our natures This privation of righteousness allows the lower powers ofman s nature to gain ascendancy over the higher and he grows up in sin The nature of sin is stated as the death of the soul Sin therefore consists in the loss of righteousness and the disorder of the whole of nature F Evangelical Sin is a transgression of the law of God failure to conform to the standard of God a principle or state within humanity rebellion against God and wrongful acts toward God and humanity Views of Salvation Liberation Theology Deliverance from Oppression The means of salvation is politics and revolution Existential Theology A fundamental altering of our existence our outloolg and conduct oflife Obtaining authentic experience or being called by God or the gospel to one s true self and true destiny The means of salvation is by that person putting to death his striving for selfigratification and security apart from God place faith in God and be open to the future Faith is abandoning the quest for tangible realities and transitory objects Secular Theology Salvation is moving away from religion and learning to be independent of God coming of age affirming oneself and getting involved in the world The means of salvation is abandoning religion and the need for God and becoming selfisufficient and fully human This is accomplished through introspection affirmation and the practice of scientific eg antisupernatural in quiry Roman Catholic Theology Salvation is receiving grace from God through the church The means of salvation is receiving grace through the sacraments of the Church Evangelical Theology Salvation is the change ofposition before God from guilty to innocent The means of salvation is being justified by faith alone in the finished work of Christ alone and receiving the Holy Spirit of God in regeneration indwelling and sealing unto the day of redemption Major Views of Election 1 Arminianism The conditional choice of God which he determined who would believe based on his foreknowledge ofwho will exercise faith Election is the result of one s faith 2 Calvinism The unconditional and loving choice of God by which he determines who must believe Election is the cause of one s faith 3 Moderate Calvinism The unconditional and loving choice of God by which he determines who will believe Election is the cause of one s faith Basic Soteriological Terms to Know 1 Justification Being judiciously declared righteous before God 2 Regeneration Being brought to spiritual life from spiritual death by God by means of the Holy Spirit 3 Reconciliation The enmity between God and believer is reconciled 4 Propitiation God s wrath has been satisfied by the blood ofJesus Christ 5 Sanctification The work of God in developing the new life and bringing it to perfection It is the separation from the sinful and setting apart for a sacred purpose 6 Adoption The transfer of the believer from alienation from God to sonship ie into God s family Election The aspect of the eternal purpose of God whereby he certainly and eternally determines by means ofunconditional and loving choice who will believe Foreordination God s predetermination of all things that occur in his creation both events and a person s actions All things that happen external to God are determined by him and are certain Predestination Differs from foreordination in that the former concerns the determination of all things Whereas predestination relates speci cally to the determination of the elect and their conformity to the image of Christ Double predestination Speci cally relates to God s determination of the elect and the nonielect
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