INDN & ORNTL RELIGIONS
INDN & ORNTL RELIGIONS RELS 304
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HUMA Exam 3 Review Daoism and Confucianism Chapter 9 ative Chinese Religion and Daoism The Basic Elements of Chinese Religion 0 O dest continuous culture in world India Mesopotamia and Egypt earlier but did not survive o Dmasties o Hsia dynasty 22051766 bc 0 Shang dynasty 17661122 bc 0 Chou dynasty 1122249 bc I zu amp Con icius lived during the second half of this dynasty 841249 bc I Taoism Daoism amp Confuciani 0 Both originated along the Yellow River 5 0 Early Chinese Religion 0 Mixture of nature worship amp reverence for ancestors o Mythological traditions I Myth story of relationship between gods and humans Characteristics 0 Animism r ancestor worship I Everything is aliveancestor worship 0 Souls of departed enter into natural objects rivers mountains or hover above land 0 Great ones have souls that enter sky M hic Ancestors o Fuxi Fu Hsi Serpentbodied I Emperor and originator extraordinaire I Taught early inhabitants of China how to o domesticate animals 0 use iron in making hunting and shing implements 0 fish with nets 0 write with pictograms o o forecast with Eight Trigrams play musical instruments that he invented o Shen Nung I Oxheaded Divine Farmer I Invented oxdrawn carts I Taught people agriculture and medicine 0 Huang Ti Yellow Emperor I Most famous of all in a ertimes I Invented 0 war 0 building with bricks uilt temple 0 vessels ofwood and clay 0 calendar and 0 money I Principal wife introduced the people to silkworm culture 0 Yu Ch ao I Taught men to build houses 0 Sui Jen I Taught how to make fire 0 Cosmogonies o Gong Gong Kung Kung I Square earth supported at its comers the bowllike heavens on 4 pil ong Gong knocked one pillar out of position so that the bowl of the heaven tipped toward one side 0 0 Nu Gua Nu Kua I C e down to rescue fashioned 4 pillars out of the legs of a tortoise amp lifted the heaven back to where they belonged I Took mud and created human beings molded some wcare amp some haphaz dly 0 Pan Gu P an Ku I Cosmic man I Formed earth and sky out of primal chaos that resembled an egg I Transformed himself 9 times a day 0 Grew 10 feet a day 0 Sky became 10 feet higher and earth ten feet thicker Lived for 18000 years I when he die 0 remains fell apart and formed Five Sacred Mountains of China 0 head Tai T ai Mountain in the East 0 body Song Sung Mountain in the Center 0 right arm Heng Mountain in the North 0 left arm Heng Mountain in the South 0 two feet Hua Mountain in the West eyes fell out andbecarne sun and moon fat streams hair plants breath winds and clouds oooooooooo lt E n 3 g sweat rain insects ies which stuck to his bodywere transformed into people Shape of Earth and Sky 0 Flat and motionless o Bowed heavens above 0 the processes of heaven and earth are a display of indamental regularity and harmony of operation 0 China was central place on earth s surface I China Middle Kingdom I Emperor s palace and imperial altars to heaven and earth stood at heart of China Yin r Yang Two interacting energy modes exist within every obj ect the yang and the yin 0 Everything that exists is constituted by the interplay of these two modes of energy and has characteristics of each I hen something dies it s the female power taking over yin I When something grows it s the male power taking over yang o Zou Yan Tsou Yen Major representative of Chinese school of philosophers devoted to yinyang interaction 400200 bce I Concentrated on interaction of yin and yang in the 5 elements earth wood metal re and water 0 Yang I Male 0 Active 0 Warm o D 0 Bright 0 Procreative o Expansive I Seen in 0 Sun 0 Anything with heat in it 0 South side ofahill 0 North side of a river 0 Male properties of all kinds 0 Fire I Men 0 Heavenly 0 Of great worth I Shen o Heavenly spirits o Yin I Female 0 Energy mode in a lower and slower key 0 Fertile and breeding 0 Dark 0 Cold 0 o Mysterious 0 Secret 0 Recessive principle I Seen in o Shadows o Quiescent things 0 North side ofahill o Shadowed south bank of a river I Women 0 Earthly 0 Of less account I Gui kuei o E y sp rits o A single object at one moment may show yin characteristics and at another become a yang object a arne with energy When aperson dies I n or shensoul spiritual souljoins the ancestral spirits as one ofthem o The seat of the mind and conscience I Po p o animating soul is destined to sink into the ground when the body disintegrates a er death Ha warmed and quickenedthe body heart stomach liver ect 39Ihe Dao Tao o Harmony and orderliness displayed in heaven and earth are the result of the cosmic presence ofthe Dao Dao of the universe is eternal Dao away or aroad the cannel ofariver the wa t Dao the stande procedure of things the correct method of their operation or behavior Dao the concept at which they arrived by way of answer The way in which the universe runs must have existed before the universe itself did I First the preordained Plan the proper Wayto I Then the physical universe going that wa 0 State of complete harmony was obtained in the Golden Age when legendary and perfect Emperors Yao and Shun ruled their subjects by knowing ampfollowing the Dao ooooo Chinese emperors 0 Son of Heaven Crops in the fields amp law and order among people were dependent on sacri ces performed by emperor o Excelled all others in the De Te I inherent power and virtue 0 Only one who could give a sacrifice its greatest worth Earth Worship 0 Soil mound she I Mound of earth symbolizing the fertility of the soil raised in every village surmounted by a tree or placed in a sacred grove 0 Worship of Heaven 0 Di Ti Shang Di Shang Ti Ruler on High I Shang upper I Di ruler I Ancestral figure I Located in the upper regions of the sky I Needed divination to communicate o Tian T ieniHeaven I The abode of the Great Spirits the heavens or sky where the higher spirits dwelt o Tian Zi Tien TzuiSon of Heaven emperor I Emperors name because of close relation to Heaven 0 They worshiped heaven on the peoples behalf at regular annual ceremonies 0 Forms of Divination 0 Time of the Shangs fav method of divination I cr 39 ome spot on a tortoise shell or a piece of bone position it above a ame and have diviners read the cracks that appeared 0 Time of the Zhou dynasty a er 1100 bc I Cracks were seen to conform to in and yang lines found in the Bagua Pa Kua or Eight Trigrams o All ofthe possible combinations ofbroken and unbroken lines arranged in sects ofthrees within an octagon wthe yinyang symbol in the center to represent creation U roken line 7 is the yangyao I epresents the male of positive principle 0 Broken line is the yinyao I Re resents the female or negative principle 0 Combined in all possible pairs these trigrams compose 64 hexagrarns each representing further aspects ofthe universe Moving W ter and Moon KanK an Thunder ZhenChen Earth KunK un Mountain GenKen Fire Sun Lightning Li Wind and Wood Sun Heaven or Sky QuianCh ien o Collected Water DuiTui I Stalks of milfoil or yarrow plant dropped to ground yielded designs that could be seen to conform to one or another of the Eight Trigrams 39 39 rs read them divined the present state of things then predicted the iture Interpretations became standard ampwere put into the Yi Jing or Book of Chan es I ext has been thought to provide clues to waxing and waning of yin and yang both in the process of the universe and the history of man collectively and individually OOOOOOO wlt9wewv 0 3m and 2quot centuries bce I Interactions of yin and yang in the 5 elements water fire wood metal and earth connection were reviewed for clues to coming good or ill when om ns eare 0 Subsequent centuries to modern times aving a geomancerdiviner of earth signs read the indications in the ow of air and waterfengshui at a certain spot house of grave there I Medium sit wtray of sand and stick write characters in sand while in a trance I Palmistry I Astrology o The Worship ofLocalized Spirits hinese believed all nature is alive with spirits of many different kinds 0 Early Hen dynasty put spirits into 2 classes hen Q Yang in character 0 good Animate heave the arable earth the sun the moon the stars the wind the clouds rain thunder fire mountains rivers seas trees springs stones and plants 0 Ancestors also shen Yin in character bad Unpredictable yin powers of the universe Affect human fate in manifold wa s Make night and darkness everywhere terrorsome unless u had a lantem 0 New Years Day I General housecleaning of dangerous spirits by 0 Nailing peach branches ect to doors andgates Peach blossoms full of shen potencies 0 Using bonfires torches candies lanterns amp firecrackers to scare off the gui during festivals o Ancestor Veneration Anc stors I conceived as living and powerful spirits I vitally concerned about the welfare of their living descendants I a able of punitive anger is displease 0 Relationship of living and dead was interdependent d depend on living for maintenance of the strong bond tying them to the living through prayers and sacrifices I living depend on dead ancestors actively promote the prosperity of the family if properly provided for by living 0 Funera Customs o Burials were momentous and expensive 0 Ancestors ofwealthy families were buried wbronze vessels and hunting weapons and sometimes wdogs horses and human attendants I uman sacrifice gradually discontinued considered barbarous 0 Pottery and straw or paper were substituted 0 Observances in the Home 0 Ancestral shrine was center of family life I Contained wooden tablets inscribed wnarnes of ancestors I Food sacrifices proposals of marriage approval of marriage plans and announcements were all done in front of shrine I anyone believed to have abandoned or betrayed family was outcast and at death became luckless hungry ghosts unhonored and unsung o Famin and State 0 Confucius I Made it his life mission to restore the rightful authority of the state over its citizens o Communist leaders I Disapproved of familyabovegovernment idea 0 Education I Pictured ancestor veneration as superstitious I Discouraged observance of traditional rites 0 Cultural Revolution ncreased appreciation of the family as a transmitter of fundamental moral values 0 Sages in ancient times I Responsibility for domestic harmony falls upon the wife o The Grading of Social and Religious Functions in the Ancient Feudal Era al system graded hierarch o Mencius Mengzi ideal feudal system Ruled by sageking ruling over kingdom divided into square areas divided into 9 fields outer ones cultivated by single families central one cultivated by all for overlord I Emperors nobles officials and common people were subject to detailed rules of conduct governing their interrelations and duties The Peoples of the South Lao people old Known by Chinese as aborigines I Religion 0 concerned wold gods spirits of rivers hills and stars and spirits of the dead 0 Religion of rural peop e 0 Wu shamans were human leaders attracted the spirits or visited them in trance states induced by dancing drugs and incantations Daoism A o 39 39 39 39 39 from their faith r o The Decay of the Feudal System 0 22221 bciperiod of 500 years of gradual decay of feudal system and replacement by less rigid organization of societ I Allowed men of lowly rank to climb to positions of political importance and break up the aristocracy of hereditary vassal lords I Agricultural serfs became owners of their own fiel s Rise of money economy merchants appeared in villages and attained wealth o Warring States Period 200 year period of violent civil disorders that culminated decay of feudal system I Emperor Shi Huang Di completely unified China 0 Royal families of all the states were brought down into ranks of common people feudal system ended o The Rise ofthe Schools Daoists I had nothing to do with any political system requiring a high degree of centralization o Legalists I attacked the feudal system andwanted it done away with o Confucians I wanted feudal system to be restored in a rationalized and idealized form 0 Mohists I wanted return to oldtime religion and cultivation of a universal benevolence that would seek the welfare of all people 0 Two Great Traditions o 2 traditions for ways of seeing and doing things outlasted all the rest I fucianism 0 Found key to the meaning of things in human relations I Daoism 0 Found key to workings of Nature 0 Daoist philosophy Daojia Taochia the type of thought found in the Dao De Jing o Daoist religion Daojiao Taochiao o A mixture of magic and religion with deep roots in the past Daoism As A Philosophy DaoIJia e Le aozi o The Old Master 0 Believed by Daoists to be father of Daoist philosophy 0 Little is known about him some believe he never lived I Born in state of Qu in 604 bce Was curator of imperial archives at capital city ofLoyang Questioned wisdom of having any sort of government Thought the search for knowledge itselfwas vain it led to a perversion of the simplicity in which people are meant to live Resigned from position as official and returned to his own house Fled to west to leave the world of deluded societycorrupted people behind him Gate keeper at western pass persuaded him to write down his philosophy pposedly composed Dao De Jing or Treatise of the Dao and Its Power then le and was never heard of again 0 Authoritative scholarship is convinced that he did not write the Dao De Jing it came much later o The PreDaoists o archists who rejected civilization 0 Attempted to find the course Dao that nature prescribes for those who wish to be right superior and happy 0 Yang Zhu Yang Chu I Lived at the end of the 53911 and beginning of 43911 century I Problem how to preserve his life whole undam I Concluded that following nature turning his back on society and cultivating his own personal life was the only true good I Each one for himself I Valued his own life above even the sum of all external things I Cardinal principle 0 not allowing outside things to entangle one s person o Shen Dao Shen Tao Resolved to discard knowledge Be impartial and nonpartisan Adopts an easygoing unobtrusive manner Have no anxiety for the morrow Let events just take their course wo interfering gowiththe owattitude I The wise man who has acquired the secret of the good life follows the inevitable and simply moves with things The Philosophy of the Dao De Jing o o o o ccepts the theory that when things are allowed to take their natural course they move with a wonderful perfection and harmony I The Daoeternal way of the universe is not hindered in its smooth operation What is the Dao It is wrapped in cosmic mystery and reaching for it is groping through mystery into deeper mystery I The whole world has emerged from the Dao s unactualized essence or unrealized potentiality nonbeing I It is the sole source ofthe active power De in all existent things Dao De Jing I Sees human society as being overly dominated by yang traits and emphasizes counterbalancing yin values I The following categories are extolled o nbeing o The chief aim of human existence must be to attain fullness of life by present harmony with the Dao I person can attain the highest wellbeing only by arriving at conformity with it o Quietness The Dao is quiet 0 Heaven earth and people may safely resign themselves to the Dao and experience complete fulfillment of being 0 Low position Female takes the lowest place and may be compared with a deep valley toward which all streams flow Female is never aggressive and yet accomplishes all things 0 Reversion The process of reversion and return is so universal and constant in all things that all natural process is marked by the sameness of coming into being reaching maturity and reverting to nonbeingdeath I All things go back to their common origin ultimately they all blend into one 0 People who do not follow the Dao may have temporary success but there is an invariable law in things If any movement goes to its extreme of development it has to execute a return or reversion o Oneness with Nature s a sage one comes to an awareness of the identity of oneselfwith the One Dao One yields oneself to Nature the Dao and does not struggle to assert oneself aggressively nor strive for a sharply distinguishable identity I One humbly seeks union with the All Encompassing as the rst condition ofwellbeing o Spontaneity o sage behaves naturally responding spontaneously to the present moment The study of Dao begins with philosophy I 39 the ultimate reality And concludes as religion may I be in complete accord with this reality The Ethics ofthe Dao De Jing O o 0 Central consideration may be expressed in 2 sentences ne positive I One negative Positive terms I The principle is that one must exhibit within oneself the procedure of the Dao and be characterized by 0 its quietude ofpower 0 its production without possession 0 action without selfassertion 0 development without domination Wuwei in Negative Te ms Principle Do not meddle with the smooth course of nature going on its blessed way I It is wise to practice wuiwei o nonaggression nonmeddlesome action The Affirmative Powers of Wuwei I n one practices the restraint ofwuwei virtues will follow 0 Kindness sincerity and humility Mystical Invulnerability o The 0 Dao De Jing suggests that the Daoist sage possessed a magical power which provided invulnerability to the attack of fierce beasts or violent people and immunity to the assaults of death through being in accord with the Dao When one is possessed of the Dao one lives long and during life is exempt from decay Theo of Government According to the Dao De Jing O o The Essa s of Zhuan 5 ssezfaire I Noninterference by government in the lives of citizens is the one way to peace and freedom Ideal community I Small villagestate quiet selfcontained and always keeping at home within its tiny boundaries I People should live in their natural state avoiding sophistication and enjoying existence while eating and drinking making love and tilling the soil all without aggression War Weapons however beautiful are instruments of ill omen hate il to all creatures He who has Tao will have nothing to do with them unless driven to use force in selfdefense Chuan zu Zhuangzi Zhuang Zhou I Most famous of philosophical Daoists except for Laozi himself I Lived during 43911 century c I Popularized the teachings of his presumed master I Wrote 33 essays 0 Gave Dao centrality o Doctrine of transformations of the Dao Zhuangzi s Relativism o absolute truth and absolute good are unknowable I all things are equal in their right to be and act I ery creature has its own dao and de and these are right for it 0 There is no standard or uniform way of doing things no truth of right to which all creatures must conform I ach creature should be true to its own dao and de not to another s Zhuangzi s Image of a Sage 0 Sage a truly natural person Wise persons make their spiritual home in the Dao in which all things lose their distinction and merge into one The final goal is the ecstasy of absorption into the sustaining omnipresent Dao this by a Chinese kind of yoga ne cannot push one s way into this ecstasy it must come of itself in utter spontaneity I When it comes it changes the one who has experienced it The artificial and illusory self has now been eliminated and the heavenly had taken Jll possession ge cultivates an air of stupidity to keep people from disruption one s aloofness from the ten thousand things ofwhich the world is m ose o o o 0 Sa co p The Serene Philosopher o Zhuangzi lived without worry or fret I When his wife dies he sat on ground singing and beating time on a metal bowl 0 Zhuangzi s philosophic pride I rty not distress I The scholar who possesses knowledge of the Principle Dao and its action is never in distress o Zhuangzi was offered the post of minister while fishing on the bank of the river Pu I I too will wag my tail in the mu o Primitivism o Zhuangzi s thesis I None of the forms and institutions of social life under the Zhou culture did anything but confuse people about their natural equality and thus corrupt their native integri y Daoism as Magic and Religion DaoIJiao 0 Two Kinds of Daoism o Philosophical Daoists I Sought to come to terms in this life with the process of the universe I They accepted and identified themselves with o The alternations of yin and yang 0 Live and death 0 Being and nonbeing o Differentiation and unity I They attained present harmony with the underlying Way of things 0 Immoralityseeking Daoists xian Daoists I Xian persons who have sought and attain immortality Sought in addition the health and long life personal and individual immoratality by taking advantage of the process of the universe the Dao t produce within themselves an immortal self a spiritual embryo that would survive the death of the bodyiall of this by one or more of the following metho s d o lchemy 0 Breathing exercises o Hygiene 0 Diet 0 Communal religious rites 0 Help ofthe gods 0 Longevity and Immorality in the Classic Texts o Dao D J39 I Suggested that anyone who possesses the secret ofthe Dao becomes immune to the attack of armed men and wild animals I He who attains Tao is everlasting o Zhuangzi I Mythological Emperor Fuxo o Obtained Dao andwas able to steal the secrets of eternal principles I The Yellow Emperor o Obtained Dao and soared upon the clouds of heaven I Nanpo Tzek uei to Nu Tu 0 After abolishing the past and present he was able to enter there where life and death are no more 0 Blessed Isles and Elixir Alchemy o Shi Huang Di the First Emperor I was persuaded by magicians to outfit several expeditions to find Pengilai o the Blessed Isle where a mushroom that conferred immortality was to be found andwhere mortals who imbibed its drug became immune o a 0 Emperor Wu Di Wu Ti of the Han dynasty I Ur e by geomancer Li Shaojun to apply himself to the alchemy furnace to learn the formula for eatable gold from the spirits I Advised to perform the ceremony of fengshan on Tai Shan the sacred mountain and he would not die anymore 0 Hygiene and FiveElement Coordination 0 Follow dietary and hygienic means to spiritualization Goal to prevent the body s decay and to obtain longevity if not immortality o Sympathetic harmony of humans and Nature was based on similarity of elements every part having the same structure of basic nature as the whole A person 39 39 miniature universe that quot 39 39 39 The five physical organs of human beings and the fives directions five human relationships five colors ect I When people understand the universe they understand themselves in their essential being 0 en one aligns oneselfwith universal processes one experiences health keenness ofmind and longevity or even immorality w o e in their psychological makeup correspond to the universe s five elements five 0 Breath Control 0 Goal to become aligned with the rhythms of the universe 0 By it one quieted the body s turmoil and reached a state as pure and free from tension as an embryo in the womb and state of embryonic respiration I An experienced adept could breath not only through the nose but through the mores of the body and thus inhale moonbeams subtle spiritual presences and exhalations of heavenly bodies like the mood and the stars 0 Dietary and Sexual Restraints Dietary controls Give up meat and the five cereals rice millet wheat barley and soybeans they clogged up and poisoned the body I Give u wine Live on fruits berries and roots or tubers 0 Sexual restraints I the Way of Yin o Aimed to return the semen at the moment of ejaculation back to the body where mixed with breath it could ascend to the brain and repair i 0 Goal to enhance the body s natural vitality prolong life andhelp develop within oneselfan immortal spiritual self or embryo o Daoist Societies Wu Dou Mi Dao o u Dou Mi Dao the Five Pecks of Rice Way I Organized by Zhangling or Zhang Daolin o Migrated from eastern to western China and founded a secret society 0 Was personally ordained by Laozi who appeared to him out of the spirit world 0 Discovered the potion of immortality a power il elixir of life 0 Prolonged his life by use of his elixir to the age of 122 years 0 Ascended alive to heaven from the top of DragonTiger Mountain on the back of a tiger 0 Zhang Daoling was elevated to the heavenly rank of Celestial Master Goal through faith healing to attain health and longevit Devoted itself to alchemy and the cultivation of the Daoist meditative trance Members had to pay a fee of five pecks of rice annuall Accepted women in the ranks of parish leadership Liberationers Zhang Daoling was elevated to the heavenly rank of Celestial Master Each successor of Zhang Daoling was thought to be his reincarnation The line of Celestial Masters has continued unbroken for seventeen centuries to the present time o The Yellow Turbans Daoist sect headed by Zhang Jue Chang Chueh and his two brothers Held the whole of the Yellow River for a time in the 2quot century ce 0 Sacred Texts 0 Over 1000 sacred texts I Ex the Book of the Great Peace The Book of the Yellow Court The Transcendent Jewels Scriptures o Daoist Magic Ge Hong Hong I scholar who wrote the book the Bat Puizi 0 Book on magical matter 5 I At 81 years old a friend came over to visit him and found only his empty clothes he had achieved immortality o Bao Puzi I Describes charms for o rendered one invulnerable to warlike weapons 0 making oneself invisible o changing one s shape atwill o freeing oneself from all bonds 0 raising and transporting oneself through space 0 A Philosophical Revival NeoDaoism e renascence of philosophical Daoism that occurred during the years ofthe breakup of the Later Han dynasty and the following Three Kingdoms and Six Dynasties 2003 00 ce I Resulted in reissue of the Daoist writings of the legendary Liezi an older contemporary of Zhuangzi 0 Religious Daoism in Its Later Forms Trinities of beings I Tai Yi the Ultimate Oneness I Tian Yi Heaven I Di Yi Earth 0 God of the Stove or Kitchen I A dressed by alchemists when they went to the alchemy fumace 0 Official recognition of the religion aspects of Daoism I mperor Huan ordered for the first time official offerings to Laozi and the building of a temple in his honor Emperor Tai Wu Di gave Daoism imperial recognition in the Northern Wei em ire Emperor Li Shimin gave Daoism such a favored position that candidates for the civil service were examined in the Daoist religious texts Response to Buddhism Deified Sage Emperors en Buddhism swept across China and into Korea the Daoists began to imitate the power il faith brought from India 0 Laozi 7 Emperor of Mysterious Origin 0 Yu Huang the Jade Emperor M Daoism Today 0 olo Institutionalized Lao Tzu Deified by imperial decree in 165 ce Three Pure Ones I Jade Emperor Resides on Jade Mountain Tao Chun or Ling Pao T ien Tsun Lives in Middle Heaven and manipulates the yin and yang Honorable Tao Heaven s Mystic Jewel I L zu Lives in Lower Heaven expounding doctrine law 0 The Eight Immortals 12791368 ce I h ngli Ch uan Symbol is the fan Found the formula for transmuting metals and thus achieved importality o 0 Lu Yen 0 Symbol is the sword Became immortal through scholarly and ascetic practices 0 o A magician who rides a donkey that he can fold up like a piece ofpaper Origami Lan Ts ai Ho A woman who entertained other immortals by playing her ute 0 Chang Ku 0 Han Hsiang 0 Symbol is a basket of peaches symbolizing immortality Ts ao Kuochiu Symbol is castanets Ku Symbol is the lotus blossom Shopkeeper s daughter who became immortal by living on powdered motherofpearl and moonbeams 0 She appears to men oating on clouds Li T iehkuai 0 Ho Hsien o o A beggar with an iron staff 0 God of the Hearth or Stove Tsao Shen I Kitchen spirit who sits in the chimney comer invisible but watches all that the family does 0 Guardians of the Door Men Shen I At the New Year their paper images in military garb and carrying swords or spears are attached to the two halves ofthe front door to ward off evil spirits during the coming year 0 City God Chen Huang Worshiped in almost every Chinese city for five centuries of cially Adopted by the religion makers of the Tang dynasty Worship made an official requirement in the 143911 century For three decades after coming to power in 1949 the communist government of the People s Republic of China derided Taoism as superstition and dra ed many practitionerspriests exorcists diviners into military service and laborbattalions o 1 80s Restraints on Taoist institutional life were relaxed and in some instances nvernmem Wu 4 quot L for restoring r 0 63m Celestial Master of the Daoist Church ed from China to Taiwan when the Communists took over the mainland I 000 Daoist temples in Taiwan by 1997 0 Religion and magic are here combined and together survive Chapter 107 Confucius and Confucianism The Man Can u 0 An 1 clus a ects the famous collection of his sayings by his disciples O The Bureaucrat 0 Biography 0 Came from a poor but respected family in Lu mice LUI I been 39 39 vvilu ed from the state of Song to Lu when arevolution overthrew the ducal house Father died shortly after his birth Trained to be a gentleman by his mother Lifelong student of poetry and historical tradition of ancient China and developed interest in Chinese classical music At age 15 he was determined to become a scho ar Good sportsmanship Scho ar teens ooooo Late Accepted a minor govemment post as a collector of grain and livestock due as taxes to the Duke of Lu Contracted a nottoosuccess rl marriageibrining of a son into the world to carry on the family line d in mid twenties Retired from public life for twentyseven months Undertook role ofateacher offering instruction in I istory poetry govemment moral conduct amp music encouraged students to find moral and metaphysical meanings in the Yi Jing the Book of Changes believed that his principles could be made effective in improving the decadent social system only if he and his disciples took office in the higher echelons of government 55 yrs oldhe le Lu with some ofhis disciples I andered in vain for 13 years from state to state seeking a post under some government Kuang mobbed and imprisoned Pu surrounded and forced to accept armed protection obliged to escape on foor into Zheng vited by Duke Ai in 484 bc to return home came home y spent last years ofhis life compiling materials he used in his teaching into the famous Con rcian Classics Shi Jing Shu Ching Book oinstory Shi Jing Shih Ching Book ofPoetry Li Ji Li Chi Book ofRites Yi Jing I Ching Book of Changes I hu Qiu Ch un Ch ie Annals of Spring and Autum Died in 479 bce expressed discouragement about his own career disciples determined to carry out his political and social aims mother die o o o 0 Song 67 years old was cordially in Supposedl oo o The Teachings of Confucius o esent Estimate of the Sources Classics are not directly from Confucius hands I His purpose was to point out the lessons contained in them I are not a source of Confucius original ideas 0 Details of Con icius own teaching have come to us through his disciples their recollections and interpretations are found in the Four Books The Analects Lun Yu 0 A collection ofthe sayings of Con icius and some ofhis disciples 0 Most important source of material about him I The Great Learning Da Xue Ta Hsueh 0 Originally chapter 39 of the Li Ji 0 Designed to serve as the basis of the education of gentlemen in general princes in particular 0 First text studies by schoolboys in classical Chinese education I The Doctrine of the Mean Zhong Yong Chung Yung Originally chapter 28 of the Li Ji 0 Philosophical presuppositions of Con ician thought Dealt particularly with the relation of human nature to the underlying moral order of the universe I The Book of Mencius 0 Collection ofwriting and sayings of the most original of the earlier Confucian thinkers 0 Book Burning and Textual Problems Duke Zheng Cheng or Quin Shi Huang Di or First Emperor I ttempts to establish a new order were obstructed by traditionalists and conservatives mainly Confuciantrained schoolmasters and officials I 213 bce ordered the famous Burning of the Books 0 rpose was to standardize the thinking of the common people I Died 3 years a er he issued the decree Recopied in a new scri t I Old Text school vs New Text school 0 The Ethical Principles of Confucius Ethical thought of Confucius spring from a double realization I The China of his day was disturbingly corrupt I The moral condition of the country was not beyond redemption 0 Social practices had grown corrupt because people had failed from moral causes to live by ren jen I he will to seek the good of others I The motivating force in the moral life 0 Li Propriety Assumptions Underlying Li I Li is of vital importance in ordering and regulating the principal human relationships Relationships between 0 uler and subject 0 Father and son 0 Husband and wife 0 The eldest son and his younger brothers 0 Elders and juniors or friends I Goal to obtain a cosmic harmony between humankind earth and heaven and thus put into actual operation among human kind the Dao or the will of Heaven 0 Li as Shu Reciprocity I The rule or practice for all one s life Reciprocity Shu o What you do not want done to yourself do not do to others 0 L fhuman relationships I Shu fellow feeling or mutual consideration I Four things in the moral life of man 0 Serve my father as Iwould expect my son to serve me 0 Serve my sovereign as I would expect a minister under me to serve me 0 Act towards my elder brother as I would expect my younger brother to act towards me Be the first to behave towards friends as I would expect them to behave towards me I Repay kindness with kindness but repay evil withjustice 0 Human Character Ren Jen o Con icius primary purpose was to persuade all people to cooperate in securing the general good 0 True virtue lay in the expression 0 ren I the will to seek the good of others 0 wanted government to be by ren I demanded that government be for the people demanded that feudal lords be responsive to the needs of the people at large 0 The Five Great Relationships 0 The 10 Yi appropriate attitudes I Kindness in the father Filial piety in the son Gentility in the eldest brother Humility and respect in the younger Righteous behavior in the husband Obedience in the wife en n rulers Lo alty in ministers and sub39ects o If these ten attitudes are generally present in society then the highest priority 1i will be actualized and perfect harmony will reign between all individuals 0 Filial Piet Xiao Hsiao source of all virtues every father must seek to produce virtue in his sons by being himself the best example of it the duty of a son is to obey his father in all things while he lives and to honor and still obey him in all things a er he is dead filial relatio ship the type and symbo 0 al all lifeenriching and wisdomconserving subordination to leadership ofthe old and wise I By the principle of lial piety the whole world can be make happy and all calamities and dangers can be averted oooo o 05 g o 1 n a N r n E 1 1 O r o E 1 1 Political Philosophy 0 People being at heart good are responsive to good in those to whom they look for leadershi If a country had none bug good rulers for a hundred years crime might be stamped out and the death penalty abolished Good Character Makes Good Governance o The good life is a spiritual rather than a legal attainment o Awellordaine state ot be legislated into existence it grows out of a contagious spirit of good will and earnestness in welldoing o ooperative good will makes law u necessary The Rectification of Names en mi n i e ining ideal social roles carefully and then shaping people to fit them The Superior Man Junzi Chuntzu o A man ofhigh birth a gentleman 0 Superior Man displays the 5 Constant Virtues I Selfrespect 0m 5 quot 0 1 o m m vo ence o Embodies in his conduct a Golden Mean among men 0 Lives by a superior lawia law of proportion and equilibrium in acting on his inner motives and of mutuality and fellow feeling in regard to others The Golden Mean Zhong Yong Chung Yung o The use ofthe moral sentiment well balanced and kept in perfect equilibriumithat is the true state of human perfection Religious Teaching His careful adherence to the established religious ceremonies ofhis time was an example that until this century was considered the official Chinese ideal 0 Whatever seemed contrary to common sense in popular tradition and whatever did not serve any discoverable social purpose he regarded coldly Doing the Will of Heaven 0 When one practices the moral law one does the will of Heaven 0 If you have committed sins against Heaven you haven t a god to pray to o Con icius felt that his message to his times was one that carried etemal significance because it had its origin in the moral order of the world The Saying of Confucius a How pleasant it is to repeat constantly what we are learning How happy we are when some friend returns from a long trip To remain unconcemed though others do not know of usithat is to be Great Man Tseng Ts an once said DailyI exarnine myself on three points Have I failed to be loyal in my work for others Have I been false with my friends Have I failed to pass on that which I was taught While his father lives observe a man s purposes when the father dies observe his actions If for the three year of mourning a man does not change from the ways of his father he may be called filial I am not concerned that a man does not know me I am concerned that I do not know of him At fteen I thought only of study at thirty I began playing my role at forty I was sure of myself at fifty I was conscious of my position in the universe at sixty I was no longer argumentative and now at seventy I can follow any heart s desire without violating custom When Chungsun Chih asked about filial duty the reply garne Let the sole worry of your parents that you might become ill Yen Yen asked about filial duty Today when people call a man filial they mean that he is supporting his parents But he does as much for his dogs and horses If he does not show respect for his parents how is he differentiating between them and the animals If while being a student of the past a man also understands the new things which surround us he may be used as a teacher Great Man is no robot Learning without thought brings ensnarement 39Ihought without learning totters It is indeed harm il to come under the sway of utterly new and strange doctrines Only two kinds ofmen do not change idiots and sages Somebody once remarked to Confucius Why aren t you working in the government It is said in The Writings of Old Filial duty Just let there be filial duty Then there will be kindliness toward brothers and this in turn will spread to the administration This too is to be working in the government Why must one actually hold office in order to work in the govemmen To live in the company of Menattheirbest is the finest thing possible How can a man be considered wise ifwhen he has the choice he does not live in such surroundings He who is solely Manhoodatitsbest will know which men to like and which ones to hate If you are only halfheartedly bent upon being Manathisbest you will hate no one If you have learned about System in the morning you may let yourself die that same evening I cannot discuss things with a gentleman who while devoted to System is at the same time ashamed of poor clothes or bad food Do not worry about not holding high position worry rather about playing your proper role Worry not that no one knows of you seek to be worth knowing The Master s doctrine consists solely of loyalty and reciprocity As you serve your parents you should remonstrate with them only slightly If on doing so you find that you are set in having your own way be even more respectful and do not thwart them Even though this overwhelm you with toil do not become angry wi em While your parents live do not wander far The parents ages must always be known both as a source ofjoy and as a source of dread When strict with oneself one rarely fails Great Man seeks to be slow of speck but quick of action I transmit but I do not create I am sincerely fond of the ancient I would compare myself to our Old P eng who was fond of the good old days I shall always teach even if but a pittance be offered me I do not instruct the uninterested I do not help those who fail to try IfI mention on corner of a subject and the pupil does not deduce therefrom the other three I drop him The Masterwas cautiuu in 39 39 39 39 39 battles and illness The Master rarely spoke of profit his attachment was to fate and to Manhoodatitsbest A hemp hat was required by the rites of old but today everyone uses silk I follow the majority The rites require that one bow at the foot of the steps but today everyone bows at the top and this is presumption Though it is contrary to the majority I continue to bow at the foot Am I wise man No but if a lowly person asks me a question in complete ignorance I tell him all I know about it from beginning to end Isn t it true that some shoots do not survive while others survive but produce no grain Juniors are to be respected How do we know that they will not be our equals in the future If at forty or fifty however they have achieved no reputation they need no longer be respected Put loyalty and reliability first Have no friends inferior to yourself If you have faults do not fear selfimprovement Wisdom has no doubts Manhoodatitsbest has no concerns Courage is without fear If the mat is not straight he does not sit on it When his fellow villagers hold a feast he leaves immediately after the elderly have gone When his stable was burned the Master returned home from the palace and inquired Was anyone injured He did not ask about the horses When a friend died homeless Confucius would say Entrust the ineral to me He would not lie down in such away as to resemble a corpse When at home he lived informally Whenever his bowl was filled at a feast he would always blush and rise to thank his host At a sudden clap of thunder or a gust ofwind he would always flush When away from home act as respectfully as you would toward an important guest In hearing cases I am like everyone else The important thing however is to see to itthat there are no cases Great Man develops the virtues in others not their vices Petty Man doesjust the opposite Wisdom is to know what one knows and what one does not know Manathisbest Humility magnanimity sincerity diligence and graciousness If you are humble you will not be laughed at If you are magnanimous you will attract many to your side If you are sincere people will trust you If you are diligent you will be successful If you are gracious you will get along well with your subordinates By rites we certainly don t mean gems and silks And by music we certainly don t mean bells and drums These are merely the extemals Only women and Petty Man are hard to have around the house If you become close to them they turn noncompliant If you keep them at a distance they turn resentful It is all over for the man of forty who is held in aversion Shinto O O O HUlVIA 304 Final Exam Review Chapter 11 hinto the native religion of Japan a reverent alliance with supramundane realities encountered in Japanese life in nature society and the home for the Japanese love their land with great constancy a love of the country as a whole and of each part of it existing less in abstract idea than in an aesthetic love of things and laces The Background of Shinto Background 0 Term Shinto is derived from the Chinese shendaa meaning the way of the higher spirits of gods I Equivalent in Japanese is Kaminamichi or the kami s way I Kami gods or deities beings possessing sacred power or superior potency filled with a numinous or charismatic force Early Sacred Literature 0 O Ojlkl I 712 CE I Chronicle of Ancient Events I a history of Japan from the creation of the world to the middle of the seventh century Nihongi or Nihon Shoki I 720 C E I Chronicles of Japan Kogoshui I 806 CE I Gleanings from Ancient Stories I Defense of the practices of ancient priestly families connected with Shinto Engishiki I An important compendium of Shinto traditions in fifty parts the first ten of which contain the norito I Lists of ritual prayers or litanies for various ceremonial occasions the models of prayers in all Shinto shrines Manyoshu I Collection of old and new poems 4000 in number compiled toward end of 8d1 century The Tale of Genji I Lady Murasaki s long novel dealing with the sensuous beautyoriented court at Kyoto in its early years The Shinto M h The Primal Progenitors The Japanese islands are a special creation of the gods I Primal Chaos separated into Heaven amp Ocean I 6 generations of various gods appeared in the heavenly drift mist only to disappear without event I Deity MasteroftheAugustCenterofHeaven o Amenominakanushinokami o Recognized in all other religions and philosophies as the unchanging foundation of all things the great Life of the Universe I PleasantReedShootPrinceElderDeity I DeityMudEarthLord I DeityOhAwfulLady 73911 generation 2 deities came and produced the Japanese islands and their inhabitants the primal male and fem ale I Izanagi the MaleWholnvites I Izanami the FemaleWholnvites Their heavenly associates commanded them to make consolidate and give birth to the Japanese islands They came on the Floating Bridge of Heaven rainbow when they reached its lower end they pushed down lzanagi s jewled spear into the muddy brine and stirred it about until the uid below them became thick and glutinous the brine that dripped down from the end of the spear was piled up and became an island They stepped down onto the island and came together lzanami bore from her womb the 8 great islands of Japan 83911 Generation Then they had 35 deities the last one KaguTsuchi FireBurnn q n M 1 Deity D w p mama 11 r I A fiery heatgod who at his birth fatally burned his mother I lzanami died and went to the Land of Yomi I the underworld I lzanagi hacked up KaguTsuchi with his sword I Flying fragments produced other deities Pollution and the Deities of Cleansing 000000000000 0 O lzanagi followed lzanami to the Land of Yomi to try to get her to return to the upper world with him but he was too late She had begun to decompose and was unsightly She asked him not to look at her He lit the end tooth of the comb he used to keep his hair in place and saw her lying before him swarming with maggots He fled back and she screamed Thou has put me to shame She sent the Ugly Females of Yomi to pursue him but he fought them off She sent 8 Thunder Deities generated in the decay of her own body and 1500 warriors of Yomi but he fought them off She herself decided to chase him He picked up a rock that would have taken 1000 men to lift and blocked up the pass of the underworld with it They exchanged angry farewells from opposite sides of the roc lzanagi was covered in pollution so we went down to the ocean to bathe his august person 3 major deities were born from this washing ceremony I The filth from his left eye produced Amaterasu or Amaterasu Omikami I HeavenShiningGreatAugustDeity I The goddess of the sun I Temple at Ise the holiest shrine in Japan I The filth from his right eye produced Tsukiyomi I HisAugustnessMoonNight Possessor I The moongod I The filth from his nostrils blowing his nose produced Susanowo I BraveSwiftTmpetuousMaleAugustness The stormgod He threw away his staff girdle and the rest of his apparel and each turned into a diety Quarrels between sun goddess and her unruly brother the storm god I 2 interpretations I The unending contest between sun and storm cloud contrasting the cleansing orderly sun with the pollutions of stormy disor er I Amaterasu represents the people of the southern district of Yam ato and Susanowo the settlers in lzumo I Amaterasu and a Myriad of Other Kami O Amaterasu became concerned about the disorder of the islands below so she commissioned her grandson Ninigi to descend to the islands and rule them for her I She said The LuxuiantReedPlainLandofFreshRiceEars shall be the land which thou shalt rule I He ruled from the southernmost island of Kyushu Amaterasu s greatgrandson J immu Tenno set up his capital on the central Japanese island Honshu I The first divine human emperor of Nippon I Embarked from Kyushu on a conquest of the province of Yamato in 660 BCE The leading families of Japan and the whole Japanese people descended from the minor deities residing on the islands I he emperor of Japan is a descendant in an unbroken line from the sungoddess Amaterasu and the islands of Japan have a divine origin and so also the Japanese people Japan I is regarded as full of gods and goddesses polytheism I the Land of the Gods I Deities estimated to number some eighty myriads or even some eight hundred myriads Deities I DeityMetalMountainPrince ampDeityMetalMountainPrincess I Born from vomit Wind deities I Prince of the Long Wind I Lady of the Long Wind God of lightning I Terrible Swift Fire Deity God of thunder I Fierce Thunder Male Deity God of rain I Fierce Rain Chief General mountain god I Dark Mountain Possessing Deity Fertility deities I High August Producing God I Divine Producing Goddess Rice god or grain goddess I Inari 0 Sometimes shown as bearded man but also known as a goddess o The messenger of lnari is the fox and heshe is sometimes depicted as a fox 0 Regarded as patron of the sword smiths and of general traders o Comes down from hisher mountain home in the spring and returns in the autumn I Seven Gods of Luck or Good Fortune Shinto Folklore Pots for hire Hotei o Buddhist god with huge stomach I Stomach symbolizes contentment good nature and Hotei s large soul Jurojin 0 god ofLongevity 0 always shown in the company of a crane a tortoise or a stagieach represents contented old age 0 has a white beard 0 drinks sake in moderation is never drunk 0 carries a shaku A sacred staff or baton on to which is fastened a scroll containing the wisdom of the wor Fukurokuju or fukurokujin 0 His luck combines longevity and wisdom 0 Very long and narrow head often longer than his legs 0 Body is exceedingly short 0 Did not originate from Japan 0 Was a Chinese philosopher and prophet during his earthly life Ebisu 0 God of Luck 0 Hard worker 0 Sets example of honest labor 0 Patron of tradesman and fishermen o Carries a fishing rod and a tai seam bream Bishamon God of Luck I god of wealth for Chinese 0 Dressed in full armor carrying a spear in one hand and a miniature pagoda in the other These two objects show that he is intended to combine missionary zeal and the warrior attributes Daikoku 0 God of Wealth The guardian of the farmers Goodnatured and cheerful Carries a mallet which can grant wishes made by mortals Sits on a couple of rice bales Carries his nonvegetable treasure in a sack slung over his back Rats are sometimes shown eating rice from the bottom of his bales I His good humor and wealth are such that he doesn t care OOOOOO Benten 0 Goddess with many myths surrounding her Associated with the sea Most of her shrines are by the sea or on islands Pictured riding or accompanied by a sea serpent or dragon Represents the arts and general feminine deportm ent Favorite musical instrument is the biwa A string instrument not unlike the mandolin in shape 00000 I Dankuro badger who lived in a cave Took a large supply of cooking utensils from a castle that was captured Dankuro would lend them to humans for use at family celebrations for free If pots and pans were not returned to his cave though he would never lend them out again One borrower failed to return a bowl so Dankuro stopped lending the goods from the castle caused destruction in the fields around and set fire to a pile of firewood at the entrance of the cave Dankuro and the pilfered cooking utensils were never seen again I Richard M Dorson describes Dankuro story as a variant of another about a kappa who attacked a horse A Kappa attacked a horse and tried to pull it down into the pond in which it lived The horse tried to kick itself free and the water from the kappa s head was spilled and its strength was gone I The kappa clung on and was dragged back to the horses stables I The owner was mad at the kappa but forgave in because it would lend bowls to him for free whenever he wanted to entertain o Bowls were always found in the stable yard the night before a feast and removed again from the yard when they had been used 0 A neighbor stole a set of utensils from the yard after the owner of the horse had put them outside and the kappa never produced any of its sets again on hire or on loan 0 The badger and the rabbit I Robert J Adams the translator of Keigo Seki s Folktales of Japan I says about the story Kachi Kachi Mountain 0 88 versions of the story in Japan 0 Three common motifs I The badger being malicious I Humans being able to converse with the animal kingdom I Animal transformation A man caught a troublesome badger Dankuro tied it up and asked his wife to make soup of it Badger pleaded with wife to let it lose promised to help her with her cooking She untied it It killed her and took on her physical appearance dressed itself in her clothes and made soup of her carcass He gave the soup to the husband and he ate it The badger turned back into its real form and mocked the unhappy man for having eaten his own wife and then ran awa A rabbit friend of the couple heard about it and determined to take revenge on the badger It persuaded the badger to carry a bundle of sticks up a mountain Rabbit set fire to the buddle Badger thought sound of burning twigs was the Kachi Kachi bird I There is no such bird the word is onomatopoetic for clicking or snapping Badger was severely burned Rabbit put a paste of hot pepper on badger s back to help its healing I White Hare of Oki was similarly tricked Rabbit persuaded badger to build a boat of clay to catch fish Rabbit went with badger in a dif boat Clay softened and badger tried to escape boat Rabbit hit badger with an oar and killed it leaving its body to oat away down the river O 0000 00 0000 O 0000 o Malicious cats Boys hunted daily with a bow and 10 arrows I Mother persuaded him to take an extra arrow I Caught nothing all day I As moon rose he indulged in moon gazing Noticed a 2quot moon appear in the sky demonic moon Shot all his arrows at it one after the other 10 rebounded 1 caused 2nd moon to emit fearful screech followed by a crash in the undergrowth oy ran to place and found dead cat w1 139h arrow in its body Shinto In Medieval And More Recent Times I The Family Model I The Guest Model I Confucian and Buddhist Influence on the Elite I Mixed Ryobu Shinto I he Revival of Shinto as a Separate Religion I I I H Shinto Classical Scholars Motoori The Restoration of 1868 The Constitution of 1889 and the Sate Cult I Buddhism Disestablished State Shinto to 1945 I Western Ideas and Agnosticism in Japan Efforts to Revise the Myth Shinto as National Ethics State Shrines Before 1945 The Grand Imperial Shrine at Ise I The OHarai Purification Rite Shinto And The Warrior The Bushido Code o Bushido I way of the warrior or the warriorknightway I A system of propriety preserved in unwritten law and expressing a spirit and ideal of behavior I A code of ethics for samurai I a blend of I Shinto national pride I Buddhist ideas on selfcontrol I Confucian moral teaching I Feudal habit of life s spirit of unquestioning obedience to superiors and sense of honor I 8 attitudes of the Bushido ethical code I Loyalty 0 First to the Emperor and second to the lord whom one more immediately serves I Gratitude o The spring of a right life is not duty but gratitude I Courage 0 Life itself is to be surrendered gladly in the service of the lord I Justice 0 Not allowing any selfishness to stand in the way of one s duty I Truthfulness o A knight scorns to tell a lie in order to avoid harm or hurt to himself I Politeness A strong man is polite in all circumstances even to an enemy I Reserve 0 No matter how deeply one is moved feeling should not be shown I Honor 0 Death is preferable to disgrace 0 Knight always carried two swords a long one to fight his foes and a short one to turn upon his own body in the case of blunder or defeat I Suicide was the accepted form of atonement for failure or misjudgment I Harakiri a ceremonial method of disembowelment carried out coolly and deliberately according to rule without any expression of emotion I Jigai form of suicide for women in which they cut their jugular veins I The Example of The FortySeven Ronin o Asano Takumi no Kami a lord was repeatedly insulted by a superior 0 He aimed a dagger at his tormentor and m1sse 0 He was condemned to commit harakiri and his castle and all of his goods were confiscated by the state 0 After he killed himself his samurai retainers became ronin I Men cast adrift by the death of their lord but in duty bound to avenge him 0 The court official who ordered the harakiri was the object of their vengeance 0 He stayed in his castle surrounded by guards o The leader of the ronin adopted a ruse to throw the enemy off guard I He embarked on a career of drunkenness and debauchery too craven to do his duty by his dead lord o The court official s spies heard about the drunkenness of the ronin leader and a less strict watch began to be kept in the castle finally half the guard was sent away The 47 ronin came together on a snowy night and storm ed the castle and captured the enemy of their dead lord The ronin told him to perform harakiri The enemy lord was too afraid to do it The ronin leader cut off the enemy lord s head with the same dagger that his lord used to kill himself They washed the head and took it to their lord s grave to offer it to his spirit The government sent word that the ronin should atone for their crime by committing harakiri themselves 0 They all did and are peerless exemplars of the Bushido spirit I Bushido and the Modern Warrior 0 General Nogi I heard in 1894 that war with China has been declared and left home for the front instantly without stopping to say goodbye to his wife I became the military hero if the RussoJapanese War 0 Emperor Meiji s death in 1912 I Old general and his wife committed suicide harakiri and jigai believing that the act made possible their personal attendance on their sovereign in the next world 0 Lieutenant Sakurai I Crippled in the siege of Port Arthur during RussoJapanese war I Wrote book called Human Bullets I Gathered his men around before one assault and passed a cup of water among them saying This water you drink please drink as if at your deathmoment OOOOOO o suredeath band and went into battle determined to give their lives in the attack or fight with complete disregard of personal safety until they should either conquer or die 0 Kamikaze volunteer pilots I Flew explosiveladen aircraft into American naval vessels in World War II o Mishima I Ordered his private army to restore national purity and the military spirit I Sacrificed him self in a harakiri protest suicide 0 The deeds listed above are a distortion of the original spirit of the warrior way I They were not to throw their lives away in unthinking bravado I They were to make their lives count to the utmost in preserving the security of home and country I They should make their lives last as long as possible 0 One exception to the rule I Unbearable humiliation or disgrace justified honorable persons in committing harakiri I A warrior was expected to commit harakiri when captured in battle or unsuccessful in carrying out an important mission 0 Memorial day in Japan I Shinto priests say liturgies before soulinviting altars I Special shrines in which the spirits of the heroic dead are invited to reside during the ceremony to receive homage o Yasukunijinja Shinto shrine in Tokyo where a national annual ritual is perform ed in honor of the army and navy dead PreWorld War II Ethnocentric Rationale 0 Publications by professors in various departments of the imperial universities fed the military ardor of the warrior I One wellknown professor argued for religious nationalism declaring that I Shinto us the faith at the basis of all religions it is the religion of all religions I Proof for his claim was found in the opening sentences of the Kojiki o The lst deity mentioned Amenominakanushinokami the Deity Who Is the August Lord of the Center of Heaven is the god who has been recognized in all other religions and philosophies as the unchanging foundation of all things the great Life of the Universe 0 Shinto continues to nourish the Japanese consciousness of national identity in folklore and in many rituals of everyday life 0 Few modern Japanese make Shinto the center of an ideational system or worldview Shrine Shinto Today 86000 shrines are maintained by a nationwide Shrine Association supported by private funds and voluntary gifts I Typical village shrine o Occupies a low knoll o Rectangular space hedged about by a sacred fence 0 Fence has an opening in the exact center of one side torii I Shinto atewa o The torii and the fence may be draped with a strand of special rope used to mark sacred sites and objects I Shimenawa I A garland of twisted straw from which tassels and gohei shapes hang 0 Path from torii to another torii to the haiden I Outer shrine which is the sanctuary for worship I Small building with a bell hung under its eaves 0 Beyond the haiden is the honden I Inner sanctuary I Worshiper does not enter 0 The honden houses the shintai god body I The chief treasure of the shrine I A precious object that is never allowed to be seen I Symbolic of the superhuman I Often called the spirit substitute I Carried once a year during the annual village festival in the mikoshi I A shrine on wheels I The Festivals 0 Matsuri Japanese festivals o 5 gosekku festivals I New Year Festival First Moon s Festival I Beginning midnight on December 31 and lasting 3 days I Feast of the Seven Herbs the Nanakusa I January 7 I In honor of the ancient custom of eating a rice gruel flavored with herbs I After this people feel the New Year has finally begun and they can resume their ordinary work I Girls Festival CDolls Festival I Third day of the third month March 3quoti I Boys Festival Tangonosekku I Fifth day of the fifth month May 5 11 Festival of the star Vega I Seventh day of the seventh month July 7 11 I Chrysanthemum Festival I Ninth day of the ninth month September 93911 Domestic And Sectarian Shinto Shinto in the Home Festivals for Girls and Boys Sectarian Shinto The New Religions Sects Founded by Women Continuing Growth of New Religions Humanities 3047500 De nitions of Religion o eligion beliefs and worship people s beliefs and opinions concerning the existence nature and worship of a deity or deities and divine involvement in the universe and uman life Religion particular system a particular institutionalized or personal system ofbeliefs and practices relating to the divine Personal beliefs of values a set of stronglyheld beliefs values and attitudes that somebody lives by Obsession an object practice cause or activity that somebody is completely devoted to or obsessed by Paul Tillich 0 Religion is man s ultimate concern 0 David Bradley 0 Religion usually has to do with man s relationship to the unseen world to the world of spirits demons and gods Also has to do with salvation o Martineau 0 Religion is the belief in an ever living God that is in a Divine Mind and Will ruling the Universe and building moral relations with mankind Schleiermacher The essence of religion consists in the feeling of absolute dependence upon a being higher than ourselves o Kant 0 Religion is the recognition of all duties as divine commands Lyon 0 Religion is a lifestyle William James 0 Religion is that which demands our ultimate allegiance or that which involves our beliefs about God or what we consider sacred Div ons of World Religions o Religio ginating in Central Africa South America North Asia and the Paci c Island Primitive religions o 200 million followers 0 Characteristics I Emotional awareness how you feel is very important I Panpsychism Everything is alive hitting car door a erjarnming nger in it I Mana there s a life force in ever hing o Animism beliefthat there are separate individual souls in everything I Tabu I Fetish lucky charm or coin I Magic an attempt to coerce natures forces to do man s bidding I Sharnan medicine man or woman 0 Religions originating in the fertile crescent Near Eastern Western 39sm Zoroastrianism Parsis Christianity Islam Bahai Sikhism o 1 A billion followers 0 Characteristics Matter is real materialistic take an offering We live only one life time We are judged based on one lifetime and go to a heaven or hell Evangelistic Repent today Hur Intolerant in theory other groups will not be saved Natural manwoman is bad sinful or disobedient stiffnecked 2 de nitions of sin Deliberater do what is bad because it is bad 0 M e errors disobe God I Doctrinally orientated with major complete scriptures o Religions originating in India 39nduism Jainism Hinayana Buddhism Mahayana Buddhism Zen Buddhism Larnaism Sikhism 0 Over eight hundred million followers 0 South Asia 0 Characteristics Reincarnation based on life livediKarma Darma Highest goal is to escape rise above rebirth reach a level of union with Brahman Experience oriented not doctrinally orientedithe doctrine is not as important as the experience Many views about gods from atheism to polytheism to pantheism Tolerant in theoryidon t worry about converting other people bcz they will be reincarnated I Experientially oriented with uid cannon of scriptures o Religions originating in East ia o Tao Con icianism Shinto Zen Buddhism 0 1 billion followers 0 China Japan Southeast Asia 0 Characteristics Space is real Time is real No creator Godino real doctrine about God Nature worshi Ancestor worshipihonor ancestors living and dead Natural man is goo Pragmatically and societal orientated with uid collection ofwise sayings and religious authorities to interpret sayings Origins ofReligion UPAN Sir Edward Tylor The Ghost Theory wrote the book Primitive Culture I 1866 I I book exploring origins of religion Max Muller Animisrn 0 Beginning ofmodem study of reli ion 1875 7 Primitive people personified or ascribed life and human characteristics to the forces ofnature such as the sun the moon storms and the sky Sir James G Frazer Magic The Golden Bough The origin of religion is found in the attempt by primitive people to control the world ofnature and the unseen world as well by magic I a ic an organized attempt to coerce nature s forces to do man s bi ing 0 Problem sliding scale between science and religion 0 Major problem Jesus was a scapegoat I rimitive people chose leaders and then killed them because they bore all their sins 0 As science increases religion decreases I imitive people didn t understand the rainbow so they made up the story of Noah s Ark Andrew Lang Primitive Monotheisrn o All humankind at 39 quot Bishop Robert Henry Codrington Mana ana the supernatural power which resides is all things and motivates all the life activity 0 The Melanesians Studies of Their Antropology and FolkLore I I research in Asian Area Sigmund Freud Wish fulfillment projection ofthe father image and expression of neuroses based on the guild inherent in repression of infantile sexual fantasies 0 Wish fulfillment I We create a god that punishes evil and rewards good because it fulfills our wishes 0 Projection ofthe father image I We create an allpower Jl god to replace dumb dad create a void age 12 Carl Jung Racial archetypes Religion gives us ways to succeed and stay alive 0 It keeps us from doing dangerous things because we have an unconscious fear of dying Rudolf Otto The Idea of the Holy Paul Tillich The confrontation with Nonbeing and the resulting Courage to Be to encounter nothi g 0 in1 God thenr r sin Jl gradually developed 0 Relative form is Fate absolute form is Death I Moral 0 Relative form is Guilt absolute form is Alienation I Spiritual 0 Relative form is Emptiness absolute form is Meaninglessness 0 Religion has to types of courage I Courage to be a part 0 The church political party family nation ect I Courage to be apart from 0 Jesus walked lonesome valley you have to walk alone too Martin Buber I and Thou o 203911 century Jewish theologian who wrote the book I and Thou 0 When my thou meets your though the Eternal Thou is there I If you really want to meet god love another person or animal ect I You find god by having an unlimited love for another person 0 3 types ofknowle ge I Transjective and interpersonal dialogue I Subjective concentrating on your feelings I Objective treating aperson as an object Karl Marx and Lenin Communism Religion is nothing more than an institution 0 It is away for the rich to control the poor Introduction Vedas I Oldest and most sacred scriptures of India I The origin oinndu fai I Highestwritten authority of Hindu faith I To Hindus they are the expression of divine truth 0 Any other scripture is only valid if it agrees with the Vedas It can expand upon them 0 It may develop them But it must not contradict them 0 They are infinite and eterna o ey are that perfect knowledge which is God According to Vedas one must have a master or Guru 0 Function of good Hindu teacher is twofold He explains the scriptures I e spirit as well as the letter 0 Teaches by his life I His daily acts his most casual words and even his silence 0 Purpose of studying the scriptures Purify and Enrich the Soul 0 Firsthand experience of God o Katha O Isha Kena 000 0000 0000 I Four Vedas o Rik o Sarna o Yajur o Atharva I Each Veda is divided into 2 parts 0 ork O 0 Made up of hymns Instructions regarding rites and ceremonies Rules of conduct 0 Knowledge Concerned with knowledge of God the highest aspect of religious truth Called the Upanishads I Meanings of Upanishad sitting near devotedly 0 secret teaching 0 Teachings are only for those who are spiritually ready to receive and pro t by it 0 Knowledge of Godi fBrahman that f ignorance and leads to the supreme goal of freedom I 108 Upanishads have been preserved 0 Only 16 recognized by Shankara as authentic and authoritative uoted 6 in his commentary on the Brahma Sutra Wrote elaborate commentary on the other ten I Katha o o o I I I I I I I I No one knows who wrote them or when they were written I They are homogeneous Differing conceptions found in them but not distributed differences are in all of them I They are the work of saints and seers o uthors reported insights which came to them in thought or vision Unique form 0 Nowhere is there a logical beginning or logical end 0 Attention paid to wholes not parts THE secret of immortality is to be found in puri cation ofthe heart in meditation in realization of the identity ofthe Selfwithin and Brahman without For immortality is union with God Nachiketa s father gave him to the King of Death He waited at the King of Death s house for three days King of Death showed hospitality by giving Nachiketa three boons That his father recognize and welcome him back To learn the re sacri ce Death was so pleased that he granted Nachiketa an extra boon and renamed it the Nachiketa Sacri ce I To know t e supreme secret regarding which men doubt o The man who has learn ed that the Self is separate from the body the senses and the mind and has rlly known him the soul of truth found the source and dwelling place of all felicity OM this syllable is Brahman This syllable is indeed supreme He who knows it obtains his desire He who knows it knows Brahman He who has discrimination whose mind is steady and whose heart is pure reaches the goal and having reached it is born no more Brahman is the end ofthejoumey Brahman is the supreme goal He is the immortal Self Knowing him one knows all thin s When all the senses are stilled when the mind is at rest when the intellect wavers notithen say the wise is reached the highest state This calm of the senses and the mind has been de ned as yoga He who attains it is freed from delusion The Lord dwells in the heart of all things Without the Self there is no life ey who devote themselves to both life in the world and meditation by life in the world overcome death and by meditation achieve immorality 39Ihey who worship both the body and the spirit by the body overcome death and by the spirit achieve immorality THE power behind every activity ofnature and of man is the power of Brahman To realize this truth is to be immortal Brahman is not the being who is worshiped of men He who realizes the existence of Brahman behind every activity of his beingiwhether sensing perceiv The gods won a victory over the demons and thought that it was them who beat their enemies not Brah I ahman saw their vanity and appeared before them But they did not recognize him Fire Wind and Indra all went to nd out who the spirit was ing or thinkingihe alone gains immorality man ndra came Uma God the Mother came in his place and told Indra that the spirit was Brahman I The god of re the god ofwind and Indra approached nearest to Brahman and were the rst to recognize him so they excelled the other gods dra approached nearest and was the first to recognize him so of all gods Indra is supreme The secret knowledge ofBrahman o Austerity o selfcontrol 0 performance of duty without attachment I the limbs o The Vedas I The soul 0 Truth o Prasna o Kusesha Satyakarna Gargya Kousalya Bhargava and Kabandhi approached the sage Pippalada seeking the truth of the supreme Brahman o Pippalada told them to practice austerity continence and faith for a year and return with their questions I K dhi How did the creatures come into bein o The Lord of beings meditated and produced Prana the primal energy and Rayi the giver of form 0 Pr a is the sun 0 Rayi is the moon Prana and Rayi uniting form the month I Bhargava How many several powers hold together this body Which of them are most manifest in it Which is the greatest o lements which compose the bod Ether 0 Air 0 Fire 0 Water 0 Earth 0 Prana divides himself to hold the body together and support it 0 Sense organs Sp eech 0 Mind 0 Eye experience what is outside how does he hold together the body the senses and the mm o Prana is born ofthe Self Prana himself dwells in the eye ear mouth andnose Apana 2m Prana rules the organs of excretion and generation Sarnana3m Prana inhabits the naval and governs digestion and assimilation Vyana439h Prana in the nerves UdanaS39h Prana leads the virtuous man upward to higher birth sin il man downward to lower birth and the man who is both virtuous and sin il to rebirth in the world of men Gargya when a man s body sleeps who is it within that sleeps and who is awake and who is dreaming Who then experiences happiness and with whom are all the sense organs united 0 Only the Pranas are awake in the body and the mind is led nearer to the Self I Satyakarna If a man meditate upon the syllable OM all his life what shall be his reward a er death 0 By virtue of a little understanding of OM a man returns to earth a er dea o By virtue of a greater understanding of OM he attains to the celestial sphere o y virtue of a complete understanding of OM he learns what is known only to the seers and reaches Brahman Sukesa Where is the Self 0 Within the body dwells the Self o 16 parts of the universe stuff 0 Kousalya ofwhat is Pranabom how does he enter the body how does he live there a er dividing himself how does he go out how does he d o Mundaka Atharva is Brahman s rst born son Brahman revealed the foundation of all knowledge the knowledge ofBrahman to Atharva Atharva taught this same knowledge to Agni Agni taught Satyabaha Satyabaha taught Angiras Angiras taught Sounaka I Two kinds ofknowledge higher and lower 0 Lower is knowledge ofthe Vedas phonetics ceremonials grarnmer etymology metre and astronomy 0 Higher is knowledge of that by which one knows the changeless reality 000000 0 Mandukya o The syllable OM is Brahman it is the universe 0 OM is one with the Self o The Selfhas 4 aspectsiAUM I I lThe universal person the collective symbol of created beings in his physical nature 0 A Vaiswanaraiwhoever knows Vaiswanara obtains what he desires and becomes the first among men 2 dthe universal person in his mental nature 0 ai39asaiwhoever knows him grows in wisdom and is highly honoerd 3 d39Ihe universal person in drearnless sleep 0 M Prajnaiwhoever knows all things 4mpure and unitary consciousness it is the Self OM o eness ofthe world and of multiplicity is completely obliterated Whoever knows OM the Self becomes the Self o Chandogya o 3 requirements of dut I Sacrifice study almsgiving I usterity I Life as a student in the home of a teacher and the practice of continence o Satyakarna Jabala 100 sick cows 1000 cows bull fire swan and loon taughthim to know Brahman I North east south west 4 cardinal points form a foot of Brahman I Sky heavens ocean are portions of him and form a foot of him I Fire moon lightning are parts ofBrahman and form a foot of him I Brea hearing mind are parts of Brahman and form a foot of hi 0 Upakosala becarne student of Satyakarna I 2 ears I Satyakarna went on trip and Upakosala taught by beings other than men ky is Brahman and Bliss is Brahman o Skylotus ofthe heart 0 Bliss bliss of Brahman 0 Everything was transformed and deified he true nature of all things revealed o Svetaketu taught by Upakosala In the beginning there was Existence One only without a second 0 He the One thought to himself Let me be many let me grow forth Thus out ofhimself he projected the universe and having projected out of himself the universe he entered into every being All that is has its self in him alone I All things have their self in Him alone He is the truth He is the subtle essence of all He is the Self The subtle essence you do not see n the subtle essence all things have their existence I The body dies when the Self leaves itibut the Self does not die I To obtain true knowledge man must meet with an illuminated teacher I When a man s speech is merged in his mind his mind in his breath his breath in his vital heat his vital heat in the Supreme Being then he does not know them 0 Narada taught by Sanatkumara He who knows the Self overcomes grief o Meditate on name as Brahman 0 Speech higher than name 0 Mind is higher than speech 0 Mind is the chief inner organ of the Self and the means to happiness Will is higher than mind Discriminating Willis higher than Will 0 alyze past experiences to rightly will in the present Concentration higher than Discriminating ill Those who reach greatness here on earth reach it through concentration 0 Insight higher than Concentration 0 Understand this world and the other worlds through insight I Meditated on Brahman as power as food as water as re as ether I Meditated on Brahman as memory as hope and as the principle of life I Asked to know ofthe Infinite Reality 0 Only in the in nite is therejoy 0 In nite is immortal nite is mortal 0 In nite rests in the Sel He who knows meditates upon and realizes this truth ofthe Self nds that everythingiprimal energy ether re water and all other elementsi mind will speech sacred hymns and scripturesiin eed the w o e universeiissues forth from it 0 As large as the universe outside even so large is the universe within the lotus of the heart 0 The lotus of the heart is the true city of Brahman 0 Those who have realized the Self and its right desires nd permanent happiness everywhere I Whatsoever such a knower of Brahman may desire straightaway it is his and having obtained it he is exalted of men 0 Brahman the Self the eternal Truth is within our reach but concealed by a veil of illusion o Continence I Man worship the Lord by continence I Realizes the Self and lives in quiet contemplation through contincence I The world ofBrahman belongs to those who practice Continence o The gods and Demons both heard this truth andwanted to seek a er and realize the Self I Prajapati taught Indra from the gods and Virochana from the demon o Virchana departed without analyzing or discriminating and without truly comprehending the Self He returned to the demons and taught that the body alone is to be served ad that he who worships the body and serves the body gains both worlds this and the next this is the doctrine ofthe demons o Indra went back 3 times and finally learned 0 This body is mortal always gripped by death but within it dwells the immortal Self This Self when associated in our consciousness with the body is subject to pleasure and pain and so long as this association continues freedom from pleasure and pain can no man nd But as this association ceases there cease also the pleasure and the pain 0 Rising above physical consciousness knowing the Self to be distant from the senses and the mindiknowing it in its true lightione rejoices and is ee Brihadaranyaka The world existed rst as a seed which as it grew and developed took on tarnes and forms I n someone breaths we know it as breath speaksspeech ect I They are all only names related to his acts and I He who worships the Self as one or the other does not know him I Man should worship Brahman as the Selfand the Self alone I Man should worship the Self alone as dear the obj ect of his love will never perish I If a man worship Brahman thin ing Brahman is one and he another he has not the true knowledge I The Law is the Truth theLaw andthe Truth are one o Gargya and Ajatasatru argya son of Valakra good talker says he can teach Ajatasatru of Brahman wishes to know the Self I jatasatIu king of Varanasi teaches Gargya of Brahman the Truth of Truth 0 Yagnavalkya husband wishes to give up the world and begin life of renunciation will divide property between wives teaches Maitreyi about the Self o Maitreyi wife wishes to know about the way to immorality I By knowing the Self through hearing re ection and meditation one comes to know all things I Nothing is different from the Self everything is the Self I There is no existence apart from the Self I For all beings the one center is the Self I The Etemalipure consciousness in nite and transcendent I Where there is consciousness of the Self individuality is no more I The Selfis incomprehensible undecaying unattached and unbound o The Self is the honey for all beings and all beings are the honey for the Self I rahman is the soul in each he is indeed the Self in all He is all 0 Because he dwells within the lotus of the heart he is known as Purusha 0 There is nothing that is not surrounded by him nothing that is not filled by him He assumed all forms to reveal himself in all forms 0 He the Lord is revealed in all forms through his Maya 0 Brah an i e elf o Janaka King of the Videha gave a thousand cows to whoever claimed to be the wisest O Yagnavalkya claimed to be the wisest others asked him questions to test him then Janaka asked to be taught I Aswala Svetasvatra Brahman presides over time space and all apparent causes This universe is a W o o The Maya 0 By what means can the worshiper overcome death 0 Knowledge ofthe identity between worshiper the fire and the ritual word leads one beyond death Artabhaga 0 When on gives up his body do his perceptive faculties along with his mind go with him 0 they merge the final cause the Self Ushasta 0 Which Self is within all This thy Self which is within all Anything that is not the Selfperishes Kahola 0 Which Self is within all 0 This thy Self which is within all Anything that is not the Selfperishes Uddalaka o What is the inner thread whereon this life the next life and all beings are strung together The subtle principle of life 0 Who is the Inner Ruler who controls from within this life the next life and all beings The Self the Immortal Gargi 2 questions ifable to answer no one can ever defeat o In what is woven warp and woo Th 39 woven warp and woof in the ether In whom is that ether woven warp and woo o sharaithe changeless Reality I Unseen but is te seer I Unheard but is the hearer I Unthinkable but it the thinker I Unknown but is the knower Janaka o The word is Brahmaniwhat is the abode and support of this WordiBrahman The organ of speech is its abode o Ether the primal cause of the universe it its eternal support What is knowledge word is knowled e The primal energy is Brahman what is its abode and support th is its abode o Ether is its support 0 Sight is Brahmaniwhat is its abode and support The eye is its abode Ether is its support Hearing is Brahman what is its abode and support 0 The ear is its abode Ether is its support 0 The mind is Brahman what is its abode and support The mind is its abode o Ether is its support 0 The heart 0 The heartisits abode Ether is its support The Self is the light for man 0 There are 2 states for m o The state in this world The state in the next A 3m state The state intermediate between the two a dream 0 The Self in dreams shines by its own light 0 Everyone is aware of the experience no one sees the Experiencer 0 Whatever he may experience in dreams does not affect him for the true nature of the Self remains forever unaffected The Selfmoves between dreaming and waking The self in his true nature is free from craving free from evil free from fear The self is his only desire Etemal is the light of consciousness immortal is the Self 0 He who has desires continues subject to rebirth ravings The craving for a life of pleasure in this world I The craving for a life of greater pleasure in other worlds He in whom desire is stilled suffers no rebirth o Freed from evil freed from desire freed from doubt he becomes a knower of Brahman o A er death having attained to the highest desiring only the Self he goes to no other world I Realizing Brahman he becomes Brahman Dal Dal Dal o DamayataiBe selfcontrolled o DattaiBe charitable o DayadhwamiBe compassionate Upon it are all creatures that are subject to birth death andrebirth The power which unites mind and matter Have existed from the beginningless time Mind matter and Maya are one with Brahman 0 To realize God I Control the outgoing senses and harness the mind I Then meditate upon the light in the heart of the fire upon pure 0 Control your mind so that the Ultimate Reality may be revealed 0 Control the vital force I Hold the senses in check 0 Control the breath o Regulate the vital activities Retire to a solitary place that is pleasing to the eye and quieting to the mind I you see in vision forms resembling snow crystals smoke fire lightning fire ies the sun or the moon you are on your way to the revelation of Brahman I As you become absorbed in meditation you will not be affected by disease old age or death First signs of progress on the path of yoga 0 Health quotquotquot quot from Ulu illaj 39 fthe intellect 0 Sense of physical lightness o Cleamess of complexion 0 Beautiful voice 0 Agreeable odor ofthe person 0 Freedom from craving When he has realized the truth of the Self he loses his sorrow and becomes radiant with bliss o Ifthe truth of these scriptures are meditated upon by a man in the highest degree devoted to God and to his Guru as to his God they will shine forth Chapter 3 0 Early Hinduism o Hinduism is the subset of Indian faiths o Hinduism is a farnily of religions o Hinduismdharma way of life and thought 0 broader meaning preferred by most Hindus Hinduism is the whole complex of beliefs and institutions that have appeared from the timewhen their ancient and most sacred scriptures the Vedas were composed until now narr W 0 er meaning preferred by western scholars The Vedic amp 39 I 39 d LU Hinduism proper the latter being identified with the vast social and religious system that has grown among the people of India since 3rd century BC 0 Their only general obligation is to abide by the rules of their caste and to trust that by doing so they will be freed from rebirth altogether or at least lifted by ansmigration to a less burdensome next life I The Religion ofthe Vedic Age 0 Coming ofthe IndoAryans o arne middle of 2 dmillennium BS through Hindu Kush Mountains settled plains ofNW India 0 Went from pastoral life to agricultura o Drank soma during rituals and offered it to gods during sacrifice o Aryan Social Structure 0 A chie ain or rajah ruled over each tribe He maintained a private army to protect tribe He gathered priests to secure blessings on the tribe and the gods approval for his own acts 0 Farmers and herders I Father pitar head of household owner of property and farnily priest I Mother matar authority over children and servants hters free to remain unmarried had voice in selecting a husband and shaping marriage contract 0 Nomadic slowly settled down but continued their wanderings in their imagination 0 From hymns and prayers oftheir priests mixed with magic runes and spells came Hinduism s earliest sacred writings the sarnhitas the Vedas o Aryans worshiped under the open sky with alter sites with at least 3 fires I Western garhapatya I Eastern ahavaniya I Southem dakshina o The Vedas o Hinduism s earliest sacred writings 0 Between 1000600 BC 0 They are the core of Aryan sacred literature 0 Veda means sacred knowled e 0 Each ofthe Vedas had attached to it its own Brahmana or Brahmanas that sought to direct the priests in their use of the hymns and prayers o RigVeda I psalms 0 Anthology of religious poetry 0 10 books 0 Over 1000 hymns 39 39 39 39 farnil and other r L f 4 during Vedic Age I Prayers addressed to deities called devas or shining ones 0 vas found in 3 regions 0 Earth 0 Heavens 0 Intermediate air 0 SarnaVeda ants I Mainly for the use ofthe singing priests at the soma sacrifices hymns in great part borrowed from the RigVeda o YajurVeda I sacrificial hymns meant to supply dedications prayers and litanies to accompany the devotional use of the RigVeda o AtharvaVeda I homely charms o More magic and incantation 0 Good sexual advice ahead of Freud I Rites ofthe common people in their homes and villages Not as sacred as other I More independent of other 3 Brahman and the Brahmin s Role The sacred reality actualized itself in the Brahmin s throat O Ritual Sacri ce Soma o Soma I Sacred drink 0 Poured out as a libation on a sacred re or consumed by participants 0 Final act in long series of ritual events stretching over more than one da I Plant with no roots leaves fruit or seeds but with a white stem red cap and juice that was golden I The gods were at times reconceived and endowed with new powers The rituals themselves required the introduction of drive powers or presences such as Agni Soma and Brihaspati Henotheism O Vedic Gods o o o o o o o o o 00 000 Temporary attering elevation of one of many gods to the highest rank that can be accorded verbally or ritualistically Deities of Earth and Sky Dyaus Pitar Father Sk I Prithivi Matar Mother BroadEarth Dyaus Pitar s mate Sun gods each represents different phases of light 0 Mitra sun I Represents faith keeping and loyalty and honor o Surya solarsun I Causes constellations Indra HeavensEast Ruler ofthe gods ofthe midregion of the sky God of storms monsoons that end the dry season God of war Ally and patron ofthe Aryans Rudra Shiva I Dread mountain god I Greatly feared I Author of disastrous storms I No ally of Aryans Destroyer oftheir goods and persons I At times found to be 0 Gentle healer residing over medicinal plants I Had his help il as well as his destructive side Ushas The Dawn I Female I Etemally young and nimble I maid in white robes I Chariot drawn by redspotted horses Nature Deity I Vayu W ind Northwest Yarna death south I 39 st man to die I God of the dead I Judge and ruler of the departed Vishnu far strider sun I Encompassed the extent of earth air and sky in three swi strides I Redeemed the world from night Varuna water west I male book says so but my notes say feminine I Originally god of the higharched sky Now directs the forces and makes natural and moral orderliness everwhere o Maintains order in the universeiphysical moral and ritualistic I Discloser of sin 0 Men prayed to varuna for forgiveness I Judge of truth and falsehood Associated with Mitra Agni fire southeast No sacri ce was effectual without presence of Agni God of re in general celestial or terrestrial but especially the alter of re Liturgical Deity gods who were chie y associated with and were in part or wholly outgrowths of the act ofworship itself Removes sin and guilt Light and wisdom o Seer into dark corners o Resolver of mysteries 0 Guidance from him was good to have Soma moon drugs somajuice 39vine presence in thejuice of the soma lant I Liturgical Deity gods who were chie y associated with and were in part or wholly outgrowths of the act ofworship itself I Needed by both gods and humans Somajuice poured into grass where gods sat and drank by worshipers Kubera treasure north Kama love a sutra I Pictured similar to cupid anuman monkey go Nirriti darkness southwest Prajapati lord of creatures the Creator II Brahmanism Caste and Ceremonial Life 0 Caste o Vama means color it is the Brahmin word for class 0 Four Classes Vama 1 Brahmin Rajanyas Priest Scholar twice born 2 Kshatriya Warrior Nobel ruling twice born 3 Vaishya Vaisya AryoDasas commoner worker artisan cultivator producers merchant small landowner twice born 4 Shudr Sudra Dasas nonAryans slave servant worker not twice om Harijan outcaste lowest outcastes are the untouchables highest are the temporary outcastes o Unclean and without the hope of ever rising in the social scale unless they were temporarily outcaste Marriage and friendly social intimaciessitting down to same meal across the class barrier was forbidden 0 Today caste system is outlawed in n i o Jati kin group the modem castes ofIndia 39 J o Brahmanas 0 Attached to each of the four Vedas o Sought to direct the priests in their use of hymns and prayers Elaboration of ritual and manuals for priest and sacrifice o The Philosophy of the Upanishads Sittings near a teacher in the sense of discussions on ultimate wisdom In them Kshatriyas and in some instances men and women of other classes are dramatized as taking part in discussions the women as readily ably as the men They were probably not composed of entirely by Brahmins Shruti that which is heard Vedic Sacred Literature Smriti that which is remembered NonVedic Sacred Literature 0 Ritual Interiorized o A movement toward interiorizing religious practice that took 2 forms I a trend away from activity in the world and toward inwards activity of the mind and spirit 0 s decided to give up the world and see 0 a ancipation from the world s illusion and pain 0 Nirvana state you reach when you feel sense of oneness wBrahman Paramoksha reach before death can t maintain su den I 2 a trend away from external ritualism o Atman one s inner self 0 Prakriti matterinatural world includes the body and its sensory and mental states I vation attained by breaking away from the natural world and from one s own sensory and mental experience through meditation and asceticism by 00000 abandoning the body and freeing the soul 0 Doctrine of Brahman most basic doctrine o Monism A 39 iew IIMI 39 39 i luau up of uul I Ultimate substance in Brahman All ofreality is the same substance I We can become this substance during meditation when we become one with Brahman 0 Maya Brahman s inherent magical power 0 Tri Murti 3 appearances of Brahman all share the title Isvara I Brahma creator One avatar L diversity is only apparent and can be traced to one substrate 0 Sarasvati speech and learning 0 At beginning ofworld Brahma breaths out 0 When Brahma hold is breath everything will stop 0 When he breathes in there will be a return and it s over I Vishnu preserver Ten avatars Lakshmi wealth and prosperity wife of Vishnu 39sh o Kurma tortoise a oar Narashima half manhalf lion Varnana Dwarf Parasurarna rarna with ax warrior ax man Rarna prince king of Ayodhya the good man just man ethical ideal Krishna divine statesman delight il child teenager man Belararna elder brother ofKrishna Buddha Guatarna Buddha founder of Buddhism Kalkin yet to come at the end of the age Jesus or Ghan i o Belararna and Buddh are interchangeable if one is listedthe other is not SivaSakti sivadestroywermale saktidestonwerfemale o ge of reproduction and deathireincarnation death sex and rebirth is the same act it s a process 0 3 avatars oooooooooooo Durga demon killer o Kali necklace of skullsfemale o Shashthi wisdom in a householdfemale 0 Cult gods I Vishnu vaishnavism I Siva saivism I Sakti saktism o Ghandi was dedicated to Sakti because he praised female virtues nurture care givers comfort I Surya I Ganes or Ganapti o Doctrine of Atman tman Atman that is in unity with Brahman o atman our atman that is separate inside ofus o ifwe started as a certain amount of atman when Brahma breathed out how do we explain population explosion I We are killing other species as we expand o Doctrine of Pure Consciousness o OM AUM I A Vaisvanara Waking I U Taijasa Dream State conscious of internal objects M Prajna Deep Sleep Uni cation of all experience 0 Silence around AUM Turi I Fouth state of consciousness Comes into full being only with the experience of union with Brharnan Highest of all states ofmind Pure intuitional consciousness where there is no knowledge of objects internal or external 0 Mysticism o Pantheism God and world are identical maya is an illusion 0 man 0 Maya Transmigration of atrnans Reincarnation o Samsara sequence of change 0 Transmigration ofthe soul from life from to life form I The reincamation ofthe atrnan in a succession of bodies Doctrine of Karma 0 Karma I A record of your good deedsbehavior 0 Everything you do either creates good karma or bad karma I Used to determine your iture existence 0 decide what you are reborn as I The law that one s thoughts words and deeds have an ethical consequence fixing one s lot in iture existences o Dharm The law I The list of how you should behave and the way you should live I The Dharma I have and the Dharma you have may not be the same It s individualized based on your Karma from previous life I Guru is like a personal spiritual trainer they help you fmd your Dharma o The Doctrine of Yoga Fire on alter replaced by the inner fire tapas o Communal sacrificial rite replaced by the solitary struggle of the individual seeking to disentangle the inner self atrnan 0 These led to the development of Yo a Yoga techniques of discipline for overcoming bondage o Unites theory with experience and thought with ultimate reality Begins with restraint ofthe breath withdrawal ofthe senses form objects and ends with contemplation and absorption Yoga is considered part of the way of knowledge Patanjali yogin who derived most of his ideas from the Sankhya system The central feature of Yoga practice is the use of the mind to suppress its own conscious moments Yoga is the experience of utter and complete freedom of the selffrom earme bonds 0 Hatha Yoga the Yoga ofpower Aim is to arouse the serpent power 0 Raja Yoga 8 steps Yama performing the five desirekilling vows Niyama observance Asana sitting in the proper posture Pranayama regulation of the breath Pratyahara withdrawal ofthe senses from all sense objects oooooooo Chapter 4 Later Hinduism 0 Ways of being Saved Marga Yogas o arrna Marga way of works 0 Jnana Marga way of knowledge meditation akti Marga way of Devotion love 7 most popular today because it s easiest 0 Four stages Ashramas of Life of Classical Hinduism for those invested with the sacred thread twice born 0 IStart out as a student of re igion o 2Household with wife and children I 4 goals as a householder o ama pleasure especially sexual pleasure o Anha power and substancematerial ains o Dharma to sustain duty or religious and moral law sets the standards for a worthier and more satisfying life than that offered by kama d artha o Moksha spiritual victory over life union with Brahmannirvana o 3Herrnit meditation in the forest leave wife and children and become this herrnit concentrate on developing a complete indifference toward everything in the world to which he had been previously attached 0 Sannyasin holy wanderer one who renounces all earthly ties I Engaged in meditation and have turned from the world Higher than a priest o The Vedanta System 3 versions 0 Monist nondualist view 0 Qualified nondualist view 0 Dualist view TL L 39b t of 39 h A f activity that 39 World 0 Sattva I Luminous good wise and pure I Clarity and goodness matched with insight I Intelligence I White I Light I Mental and psychic activities spring from a predominance of sattva o Rajas I Active driving dustrasing I Ener I red with assion I Psychological phenomena in multisensed creatures rise from the stimulus of rajas o Tamas Stolid dark and moody I Darkness inertia stubbom conservatism I Physical objects result from clustering of dense elements under the impulsion of tamas 0 Everyone has a certain mixture of these three The attitude toward war 0 ishna gt Vishnu gt Brahman discussion with Arjuna in the Bhagavad Gita I ob in the caste is to kill It is your mction to be a killer It is necessary to maintain society Killing is your caste duty You were born into this caste you were born to kill I Atman is deathless You cannot kill someone you cannot cause someone to die You arejust sending their atman to another bodyReincarnation o handi sees this as an allegory a struggle between good and evil Not really about ghting Not really war Good wins over evil The story of love for humankind Shiva o en pictured as dark blueblack god 0 Gods in heaven were fighting serpent was being used to hit others 0 Serpent got sick and threw up and poisoned the ocean 0 To save the world Siva drank up all the poison and filtered it out and became dark 0 Siva did it out of love He became a darker color and lower caste to save the world How Ganesha the remover of obstacles obtained his elephant head iva cuts off son s head because he was in bed with sakti O o Realizes it was it is his son and not another man 0 Takes son s body and asks Brahman how to x it o Brahman tells him to nd another head 0 Siva takes an elephant head and puts it on his son Ganesha I Demonstrates remorse or Siva and kindness of Brahman Code of Law ofManu Manu the law giver Code of manu a collection of rules of life by legalistically minded priests beginning about 200 BC to 200 CE Must obey laws of one s caste Must be faithful in performing for oneself and others many religious rites and ceremonies Must pay honors owed to tutelary deities of the household Perform 39 uuow and 39 The Puranas popular epics collections of stories and poems about favorite sectarian gods and sages The Ramayana epic ofthe struggles ofRama and his allies in rescuing Sita from the demon Ravana The Mahabharata the great Indian epic about the ve Pandava brothers progenitors of Bharata its many interpretations include the BhagavadGita The BhagavadGita the Song of the Blessed Lord about ways of salvation emphasizing the wa of bh ti I 39ta is so popular because Krishna throws wide open the gate of the Way ofDevotion and invites all wayfarers to enter oooooo spirits Duties of women 0 A husband must be constantly worshiped as a god by a faith il wife 0 Sati is awoman who sacri ces herself in fire as an act of devotion following husband s death 0 Sati has been outlawed o A er husband s death wife may not remarry or even mention the name of another man 0 Left handed Shaktism 0 Goal is to have such tight control of the senses as to rise entirely above pleasure to a complete selfidentification with holy natural force ultimately with the purpose of riding the back of this tiger to Nirvana I ircle worship marked by dancing drinking ofwine and blood and ritualistic sex acts I The 5 Ms ordinarily forbidden are indulged in Mudra parched grain Maithun a sexual union 0000 Z 7 n w m Missions to America 0 Ramakrishna 193911 century saint and seer who proclaimed the oneness of all religions o Vivekanada Ramakrishna s disciple who founded the Vedantaoriented syncretistic Ramakrishna movement in his honor o Vedanta extreme tolerance all religions are the same pathway need to meditate in love Indian and Caste today 0 Lowest caste separated into the clean and unclean o H i39an childr fGo Gandhi s term for outcastes or untouchables o Dalits oppressed ones the preferred term of selfreference used by castes formerly described as unclean Social movements such as Swadhyaya
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