INTRO WEST THEATRE DRAMA
INTRO WEST THEATRE DRAMA THAR 101
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aliyah Romaguera on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to THAR 101 at Texas A&M University taught by Roger Schultz in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 89 views. For similar materials see /class/226211/thar-101-texas-a-m-university in Theater Arts at Texas A&M University.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
Exam 1 Coverage Terms 1 Aesthetic Distance Participation in Illusion Iquot from Illusion balance 2 Artistic Triangle 0 Experience potent and deep artist must eXtemalize 0 Medium process of extemalization play sculpture dance music 0 Beholder audience viewer listener 3 Catharsis 0 Putting emotions into play and getting rid of them OR o Purgingcleansing of emotions like a good cry OR 0 Intellectual enlightenment no understanding before theatre you re ignorant enlightened when we understand emotion or situation OR 0 ALL of these things are brought by catharsis 4 Comedy s 8 characteristics 0 Based on Comic Premise The happy idea Suspension of logic and probability The Great What If 0 Comedy involves friction Friction produces discomfiture We laugh because of our point of view 0 Comedy capitalizes on reversal Builds in one direction than reverses quickly unexpectedly but logically sense of preparation and release 0 Numerotage and Gestalt N word sense of gradual ow and development snowball effect G word it is synergetic Whole is greater than the sum of the parts sense of the whole NampG words grow out of the Archetype of Comedy 0 Comedy deals with unification Often relying on dues ex machina god from the machine aka the gods God has to fix everything Comedy ends in a less probable and unlikely way 0 3 types of comedy Judicious instructional didactic sarcastic teaches a point Situation laughing comedy for the sake of laughing Sentimental romantic comedy chick ick Didactic teaching or intending to teach a moral lesson 0 3 means of comic expression Structural the way situation is set up or put together Verbal high comedy Physical low comedy 0 Requires the proper mood Laughter begetsencourages laughter 5 Common ground for uncommon culture 0 We are mimetic beings 0 We seek order 0 We are communal beings 0 We use masks throughout our lives 0 We needenjoy entertainment 6 Conventions Theatre s rules of the game deck of 52 cards many games can be played with them Agreement between actors and audience to accept whatever happens in theatre space as believable 7 Dramatic action Protagonists Antagonists Motivation 9 Action 9 Con ict 6 Action 6 Motivation 8 Dramatic Impulse theatre vs drama exploration of events through actors 9 Empathy ability to relate to the present situation or another situation based on past experiences 10 Fine Arts theatre painting music sculpture dance writing etc Something we create without regard to its situation No use not practical Tells us about the truth Ful lls the emotional intellectual and aesthetic needs All art deals with illusion and recalled images People like beautiful Representation recreation of naturelife other art Acts upon mind body and soul Acting based upon emotional memory 39 Art re ects the artists personality ll NarrativeDramatic Form a Narrative i Describes action ii Virtual past iii What someone tells us took place mr ngoo w v b Dramatic i Represents actions ii Virtual present iii What takes place girl came in yelled and punch the prof 12 Genre a Point of View b Perspective 1 Tragedy ii Melodrama iii Comedy iv Tragicomedy l3 Imitative instinct all humans are naturally mimetic Aristotle a Pleasure comes from i Accuracy of imitation ii Skill of imitators iii Learning apparently our greatest pleasure iv 14 Masks 0 Transform o Liberate o Aesthetic o Are metaphors 0 Encourage imagination 15 Motivational Forces a Basic Human Drive i Primary needs secondary wants b Situation i Physical or social c Social Interaction i Awareness and response to others d Character compleX i The total of who we are 16 Ritual a Formal and customarily repeated act usually according to religious or social customs a ritual generally has greater signi cance than a ceremony Originally used to control outcome of events 17 Play Structure a Aristotle i Complication and Denouement ii Freytag 1 Balance of Forces a Exposition b Compliation c Climax d Resolution e Conclusion and Balance of Forces iii Matthews 1 Exposition 9 Conclusion a Action preceded by tension 18 Plot a Climatic late point of attack b Episodic early point of attack c Cyclic circular ends where it begins 19 Storyteller a A cornerstone of theatrical arts along with the instinct to act 20 Style a Manner of Presentation i Classicism ii NeoClassicism iii Romanticism 21 Successful Art a Unity b Coherence c SelectiVity and Emphasis d Proportion e Rearrangement f Intensi cation 22 Theatrical impulse a Instinct to embellish actions gestures add costumes to demonstrate 23 Tragedy s 8 characteristics a Appeal of T is in the process not the outcome b T possesses unity of action c T capitalizes on Discovery and Reversal d Focuses on Tragic Hero e The form determines the effect i The hero is tested to the limits 9 relinquishes power 9 accepts the inevitable 9 has a sense of fulfillment f T possesses universality g T provides catharsis h Tragedy is honest 24 Vicarious experience experiencing something through another People 1 Aristotle a Poetics b We are mimetic beings c Poetry an imitation in which the agents are presented as doing and experiencing in alive person 2 Alexander Dean a Art is the artists interpretation of life expressed in a way that is universally understood i Understood by a level of sophistication or degree of learning ii Develops basic sophistication which leads to universal understanding b Came up with the 6 char s of successful art 3 John Dolman Jr a The vicarious experience i People have experience vicariously through someone else Everyone has suppressed longings for human experiences that heshe has 1 Not himself had 2 Never expects of have 3 Doesn t really wish to have b In theatre he is able to satisfy these longings vicariously 4 Gustav Freytag a Plot structured into 5 parts i Exposition ii Complication iii Climax iv Resolution v Conclusion and Restoration of Balance of Forces b Consists of Rising and Falling action c Action proceeded by Balance of Forces 5 Sigmund Freud on comedy a Catharsis through sublimation expression of emotion through the guise of another i It is release of anger aggression hostility etc is the gratification of suppressed desires ii Form of ventinglaughter replaces aggression iii Laughter is acceptable anger is not 6 Athol Fugard a Playwright i Wrote Master Harold and the boys ii About the actual life of Fugard himself 7 Northrup Frye a Archetype of Comedy i Young lovers seek each other ii Separated by blocking force iii Lovers want new life iv Old generation wants to hang onto past V Ends with marriage and celebration b that intermediate kind of personage a man not just permanently virtuous and just whose misfortune however is brought upon him not by vice or depravity but some error of judgment c Hamertia missing the mark tragic aw d Hubris swollenexcessive excess pride extended selfimage 8 Marian Gallaway a Aesthetic Triangle i Response to the world that is intellectual and emotional that we get something out of ii See Term numba 2 9 Suzanne Langer a Tragic Rhythm Growth Maturation Decline i Hero is tested to the limits 9 relinquishes power 9 accepts the inevitable 9 has a sense of ful llment b Herbert Sydney Langfield i See Term numba 1 ii Ex Audience member participated too much in the illusion that he got up and threw some money to the poor protagonist There must be a balance between attachment and detachment 10 John Dietrich a See Motivational Forces numba 15 ll Brander Mathhews a Structured by rising action Resolution Climax Conclusion Complication Expostition Exam 2 Coverage Terms 1 The Seven Steps of the Creative Process a Commitment b Anaylsis c Research d Incubation the development of the idea e Selection speci cation of the parameters of the play f Implementation g Evaluation 2 The Actor a Purpose to be seen heard and understood b Tools to accomplish means voice mind spiritsoul c Paradox of acting intemalexternal technicalemotion characterpersonality d Technical does the actor become the character or is he just an actor e Denis Dederot i Needs heart doesn t matter if the actor cries if he doesn t move the audience f Constant Coquelin i Actor should be master of himself double personality ii Should be able to see what he is doing g Tommaso Salvin i Actors must feel emotion in a gt or lt degree 3 The Director a Has to be i All aesthetic aspects of production ii Coordinate everything on stage iii Uni es the production iv Creates Production Concept v Directoraesthetic triangle personi ed 4 The designer a Role works collaboratively with production of develop a production concept that will serve the play and enhance the experience i Script Production Concept 9 Design Concept 9 Design b Elements of Design 1 Lines ii Shape iii Form iv Size v Value vi Color vii Texture c Designer translates the production concept into a design employing the elements of design in a way that engages people 5 The Magic IF a What would I do IF I were a character in these given circumstances Action 6 Personality Acting a Adjusts character to fit personality b Capitalizes features on self c Creates character within self 7 Character acting a Adjusts personality to fit character b Eliminates feature of self c Creates a new self 8 Text context subtext intentional text a Textprinted lines b Context situation c Subtext meaning of the lines d Intentional text purpose of the lines 9 The DirectorialProduction Concept a Directorial Concept i Director encompasses everything in the aesthetic triangle b The Production Concept i Directors readinginterpretation of the play ii Based on knowledge of Text audience Talent Venue site of production and 10 Primitive dramatic rituals a Glorify a God or Hero b Educate c In uence events through Sympathetic Magic i Please the gods and they take pity on us Geek Theatre a Dithyrambic Theory i Theatre began with Dionysus and his worshippers ii Dithyramb circle chorus iii Tragoi goa iv Satyr half man half goat v Thespis chorus member vi Tragoidia goat song b Rhapsodic Theory i immaculate concept ii Rhapsode Homer travelling poets singing tales of heros iii 2 creative leaps l Thespis the rhapsode a Thespesiosthespiodos singersayer b Aeschylus the poet i Tragoidia goat singer composed of iii and iv ii Tetralogy 4 ii Trilogy3 iv Satyr playl 12 Greek Terms Theatron the seeing place Koilon the part of the seeing place that the audience occupies Orchestra the dancing place Skene the seen place Proskeion front of the skene with many elaborate paintings Hybris lack of restraint and insolence Hamartia missing the mark City Dionysia i Site of Greek festivals ii Chorus honors odes athlete iii Birth of theatre 13 ElizabethanShakespearian Theatre Blank verse unrhymed iambic pentameter Conceit capricious 39 39 39 39 4 39J I isous Oxymoron 39 39 ion of n J39 y ideas or images Masque entertainment with players in masks representing mythological or allegorical gures 14 The Renaissance Mind a Rebirth Revival Renewal b Rediscovery of man is the measure of all things c Medieval world view the hereafter d Renaissance the here and now 15 The Great Chain of Being a Whose watching us watch Hamlet watching Cladius and Gertrude watch the 590139 9quot cm W am b The persondeity who controls life s super scenario 16 Renaissance a ShakespeareanElizathan theatredrama b Operaballet the Great Mistake c Commedia del arte d Development of theare e Development of Written Drama f NeoClassic Doctrine 17 NeoClassic Doctrine boring 18 Dafne Opera the rst one 19 Tasso Amenta a NeoClassic Doctrine Boring b French Academy c Purpose of Theatre i Teach ii Then entertain iii Taught Chrsitian moral behavior d Decorumappopriate behavior e Vramblence verisimilitude appearance of through f Resemblance in terms of reality morality and generality g 3 unities time place action 20 The Mandrake a iroot drunk two lovers husband and wife b Pastoral i Comedy and drama of country folk ii The root of sentimental comedy 21 Teatro Famese 1618 22 Theatro Olymipca 1579 23 Hotel de Bourgogne designed from a tennis court the indoor theatre was born People 1 Francis Fergusson s Reply on Oedipus the King a The Tragic Rhythm of Action i The play is a series of quests ii The past and the present are revealed simultaneously iii Quest for slayer of Larius becomes quest for selfidentity 1 Displays Kenneth Burke s tragic rhythm a Purpose Passion Perception 2 The Tragic Rhythm The Rhythm of Life 2 AC Bradley re on Hamlet a Action is essentially the expression of Character b Conclusive Reaction to Evil in a Good World c THE FORCE i Basic force that causes good in this world d Characteristics of Shakespearian Tragedy i earthly con ict ii Great sense of probable and necessary action iii Produces exceptional calamity 1 Usually ending in the death of the high estate iv Catastrophe has universal effects v Inspired instigated by rational man 3 Duke of Saxe Meiningon a Thought to be the actual Shakespeare 4 Contantin Stanslavsky a Created The Magic IF 5 Robert Edmund Jones a Theory on origin of theatre i Cavemen killed lion and dramatically describes the story with energy costumes and gestures 6 Sophocles a Dunno 7 Shakespeare a Born in Straford von Avon b Uniqueness i Essentially unaware of greatness ii Not university man iii Wrote for money it was his job iv Versatile tragedy comedy chronicle V Borrowed much material 8 Moliere a Wrote Tartuffe 9 Machiavelli wrote the Mandrake 1520 10 Serlio made Greek theatre on structure 11 Thespis a First actor b Createdbore theatre c Stepped from the chorus and created first character 12 Dionysus a God of wine and merriment b Connected with the birth of theatre somehow 13 Schultz re Oedipus King a Oedipus is not a victim of his own fate b Monotheism Polytheism c Gods could predict they couldn t preordain d From beginning Oedipus makes choices e AND f Assumes the responsibility for his actions 14 Schultz reply on Hamlet a Revenge via Espionage and Metatheatre b The Form of Hamlet i Play is a series of scenevignettes the arrangement execution and results of spying and playing as a means of self advancement 15 Comic Devices a Pretense doing something culturally unacceptable b Jeopardy threat of exposure c EXposure actual revealing of the taboo d FancyFootwork what characters do to get out of the sticky situation Exam 3 Coverage People 1 Edward Albee author of Whose Afraid of Virginia Woolf 2 Samuel Beckett author of Waiting for Godot 3 August Comte father of sociology and positivism 4 Charles Darwin Origin of Species 1859 5 Marin Esslin coined the phrase theatre of the absurd 6 Sigmund Freud Interpretation of Dreams 3 Contributions to the Theory of Sex a the elements of a dream are true and actual experiences 7 Victor Hugo most admired and in uential writer in 19 century France Hemani was considered one of the most important plays in 19Lh century literature 8 Hennrick Ibsen father of realism author of Hedda Gabler a Trick Plays i Tessman is wimpy nerdy and naive yet he loves HG wants professorship wants to live big and has specialty in organizing peoples papers ii Loevborg drunken reprobate seems to be nothing publishes manuscript which happens against all odds iii Brack scumbag and never changes iv Thea mousey dumb blonde 1 Leaves her husband v Hedda appears to be someone of strength but has no one 9 Soren Kieregaard a The Leap of Faith 10 Karl Marx 1859 A Contribution to the Critigue on Political Economy The Capital the history of the world is an ongoing struggle for money which leads to revolt and a new order and you repeat this process Fredrick Nietzsche God is dead he is obviously retarded Luigi Parandello author of Right You Are If You Think You Are a Truth varies with the individual and the experience 13 Edmund Rostand author of Cyrano de Bergerac 14 Jean Paul Sarte existence precedes essence a There is no purpose to our being we are just here someone needs a hug 15 St Augustine a If you are able to understand it it isn t God August Strindberg Long Day s Journey into Nigl1t inspired modernists with his intense psychological portraits wrote a lot on characters minds Emile Zola no replica but itself on stage a Pictorial realism scenographic replication not representation i Ex the director in order to exactly portray a CORE members marriage proposal won t settle for a picture of the century tree but goes and digs up the actual tree and puts it on stage then goes to jail ND I ON 1 Terms 1 Truth revoltrebellion of Romanticism RealismNaturalism Expressionism and Absurdism a Romanticism c 1775 1860 i Truth 1 In nity of existence 2 Life as it should be rosecolored glasses ii Revolted against NeoClassicism and Classcism b Realism c1860present i Truth 1 Objective everything needs hardcore evidence 2 Life as it is no rosecolored glasses ii Arose in response of Romanticism c Naturalism c 1 890 1920 i Truth 1 The extreme form of naturalism a slice of life 2 Life as it is but should not be Life through a microscope d Expressionism c18901930present i Truth 1 Subjective subconscious is the key to truth 2 Truth varies with the individual and circumstance 3 Life as a hallucinationLife through wrong end of scope ii Revolt against Realism e Absurdism c19501980present i Truth 1 Incongruous illogical out of harmony 2 Where Style and Genre a Mix and become one b Becomes part of presentation 2 Foundations and characteristics of Romanticism RealismNaturalism Expressionism and Absurdism a Romanticism i Focused on what life should be ii Very nature based focused on the poorer sides of society b Realism i Foundations 1 Life and man are dynamic 2 Man is simply a biochemical entity 3 Truth is objective ii Characteristics 1 Balance of Entertainment 2 Plausible people in plausible places 3 Ideas in place of action 4 Increased emphasis on character 5 Common man as a lead character 6 Prosecommon diction 7 Representational stagingdrama 8 Truth is objective 9 No asidessoliloquies iii Audience 9 lens of playwright 9 Characters Truth objective c Naturalism iii The extreme form of realism 8 Pictorial realism 9 Life as it is but should not be d Expressionism iii Foundation 8 Revolt vs Realism 9 Man lost in massmechanized world 10 Subconscious is the key to Truth 11 Truth varies with individual and circumstance iv Characteristics 8 Theatredrama uid and fragmentary as life 9 Combination of Presentational and Representational 10 Plots are stream of consciousness 11 Characters depersonalized types 12 Increased emphasis on thought 13 Diction telegraphic staccato a Phrases in place of sentences l4 Asides and soliloquies are reintroduced v Audience 9 lens of PW 9 Character 9 lens of char 9 Truth subjective e Absurdism iii Foundation 8 Chaotic world of 201h century a Automobiles submarines communications airplanes WWI in uenza Great Depression WWII Atom Bomb Relativism 9 Crystallization of Existential Philosophy a Essential Philosophy i Traditional western philosophic thought ii Essence precedes existence 1 There is a purpose in life there is a reason for our being b Existential Philosophy i Nontraditional western philosophic thought ii Existence precedes essence 1 No reason for our being 10 Loss of Moral Collective Values a If God doesn t exist neither do morals b No fundamental or universal TRUTH c One must create his own set of VEMS d If done these VEMS will look absurd to others as other s look to him iv Characteristics 8 Style and Genre Mix and become one a Becomes part of presentation 9 Incongruous Illogical Out of Harmony 3 ApollonianDionysian c Apollo iii Logic form order rules Dionysius iii Free spirit party Melodrama Drama that teaches moral lessons a The dramatic genres characterized by an emphasis on plot over characterization typically characters are de ned as heroes or villains con icts are de ned along moral lines and the resolution rewards the good and punishes the wicked Wellmade play Depicts essentially twodimensional characters that are lively enough to engage audiences a Piece bienfaite a drama in which a carefully constructed plot is designed to create suspense and forward movement often at the cost expense of characterization Such frequently employ a withheld secret confrontations between heroes and villains a series of minor crises building to a climax a resolution in which all the con icts are nearly worked out Although Oedipus the King is the prototype of a wellmade play it is a genre that ourished in the nineteenth century especially in the works of Eugene Scribe Pictorial Realism Scenographic replication not just representation a Ex dismantling a room and putting it back together on stage Intimate Theatre the 19 century provided smaller theatres for smaller audiences so the actors didn t have to over act and make grand gestures They were able to act more intimately in a calm and realistic environment with more plausible voices and actions Existentialism Humans define themselves through what they do a Nontraditional western philosophic thought b Existence precedes essence iii There is no reason for our being Chaotic 20Lh century Helped bring about Absurdism iii Automobiles submarines communications airplanes WWI in uenza Great Depression WWII Atom Bomb Relativism 10 Philosophies a Denis Diderot Voltaire Jean Jacques Rousseau i They compiled one of the world s rst encyclopedia on such diverse topics as science politics and arts 11 PresentationalRepresentation Staging a Presentational i Littleno attempt to disguise performance ii No assumption of the 43911 wall iii Audience openly acknowledged iv Communicationconcentration l Character Char Char Audience 2 Actors Actors Actors Audience V Many conventions b Representational i Illusion of reality ii Assumptionillusion of the wall iii Audience not openly acknowledged iv Communication Concentration l Char Char we are peepingTom s V Few conventions 4th Plays 1 Waiting for Godot a Estragon that s all you need to know because this play has absolutely no meaning Cyrano de Bergerac Romanticism Death of A Salesmen Expressionism Whose Afraid of Virginia Woolf Absurdism THAR 101 REVIEW GUIDEiExam 2 Examination will include about 50 objective items multipleguess matching TF quotesID speaker etc will be based 33 on textbook 33 on lectures 33 on plays will expect you to identify theories concepts movements individuals discussed in lecturestextbook will expect you to be familiar with the plot major characters and general themes of each play will expect you to identify the playwright style and genre of each play will expect you to discuss how the plays are illustrative of the basic styles and genres People places concepts terms etc with which you should be familiar in addition to the items on Exam 1 review sh eet 7 steps of creative process AC Bradley re Hamlet The actor Duke of Saxe Meiningen The director Contantin Stanslavsky The designer Robert Edmund Jones the magic if Sophocles personality acting Shakespeare character acting Thespis text context subtext Dionysus directorial concept Schultz re Oedipus the King primitive dramatic rituals Schultz re Hamlet GREEK THEATRE dithyrambic theory rhapsodic theory satyr tragoidia tetralogy trilogy theatron orchestra skene Oedipus the King proskenion hybris hamartia Hamlet dromenon City Dionysia A M id Summer Night s Dream SHAKESPEAREAN THEATRE blank verse conceit personi cation oxymoron masque Shakespeare s Theatre The Globe Francis Fergusson re Oedipus the King THAR 101 REVIEW GUIDEiExam 1 Exam 1 will include 50 objective items multipleguess matching TF quotesID speaker etc will be based 70 on textbooldlectures 30 on plays will expect you to identify theories concepts movements individuals discussed in lecturestextbook will expect you to be familiar with the plot major characters and general themes of each play will expect you to identify the playwright style and genre of each play People places concepts terms titles etc with which you should be familiar for exam 1 aesthetic distance artistic triangle Aristotle catharsis Alexander Dean comedy John Dolman Jr 8 characteristics Gustav Frietag common ground Sigmund Freud uncommon culture Athol Fugard conventions Nortth Frye dramatic action Marian Gallaway dramatic impulse Suzanne Langer empathy Herbert S Langfield ne arts form narrative dramatic MASTER HAROLD and the boys genre The Importance of Being Earnest imitative instinct The Poetics masks motivational forces 4 ritual plot play structure climatic episodic cyclic qualitative elements 6 storyteller style successful art 6 characteristics theatrical impulse tragedy 8 characteristics vicarious experience
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