final study guide
Popular in Antebellum Americs
Popular in History
This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Angie Bell on Tuesday January 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 3012 at Ohio State University taught by Cashin in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Antebellum Americs in History at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 01/13/15
Thomas Jefferson born in Virginia in 1743 Governor of Virginia during the Revolutionary War Married Martha Skelton who died young Owned a plantation outside Charlottesville Monticello Served as first Secretary of State and diplomat to France Founded University of Virginia in Charlottesville 3rd President Significance father of the US Constitution Monticello plantation outside Charlottesville VA inherited by Jefferson when he was in his 20s House was designed and built by Jefferson via slave labor Significance Jefferson used the house as an escape from his celebrity status and to hide from problems ie locked himself away for weeks after Martha Skelton died First Party System two parties emerged in the 1790s Federalists support further consolidation of power in the federal government Prominent Federalists include John Adams only Federalist president and Alexander Hamilton Jeffersonians supported preserving the rights of states and individuals Prominent Jeffersonians include Thomas Jefferson and James Madison Significance Samuel Adams John Adams s cousin who brewed beer and was involved in local politics in Boston Signed the Declaration of Independence and served in the Constitutional Congress Significance one of the founding fathers but was dropped by the public as a prominent figure due to his leftist political leanings after the Revolution talks very frankly about class divisions Charles Carroll wealthy slave owner from Maryland who supported the Revolution but was very conservative Does not believe in universal suffrage for white men and does not hold political office after 1800 Significance another founding father who was dropped by the public because he was too far right in his politics Believed that democracy might not work We must not be tyrannized by the people The creation of an American culture founding fathers and ordinary people want to create a culture different from Euro culture Webster changing the spelling of words to be dif than British spelling rid of primogeniture entail oldest son inherits everything American Cookery by Emilia Simmons emphasized American recipes and food Mercy Otis Warren writes popular books celebrating the Revolution John Adams suggests we celebrate July 4th American Fashion becomes simpler Significance showed the eagerness ofAmericans to distance themselves from European influence and assert independent ideologies following the Revolution Charles Willson Peale son of a saddlemaker who trains himself to be a portrait artist Goes on to train his sons along with scores of people in Philadelphia to become painters in the late 1700s and early 1800s Significance shows that in the postrevolutionary America ordinary people can be artists too Lewis and Clark left from St Louis in May 1804 to begin exploration of the West following the purchase of the Louisiana Territory from Napoleon Returned in 1806 Sacajewa was a Shoshone Native American who married a French fur trapper and worked as a guide for LampC Significance Louisiana Purchase was largest territorial gain in US history doubling the size of the country The goal of LampC was to release findings to the American Public to encourage settlement of the territory War of 1812 Robert Fulton Engineer and inventor Designed the first submarine Designed the Steam Engine Took his steam boat on a tour of the country to prove it worked efficiently and revolutionized sailing when he was able to turn it around and move upstream Captivity narratives white settlers mostly women and children are kidnapped by Indians usually on the edge of the Frontier The kidnapped are either held for ransom or kept to replace Indian women and children who have been killed Period of hazing followed by acceptance and a place in the community Narratives written by people who have escaped or rescued Significance viewpoints are often shocking to readers because they place Indian Culture in a favorable light as opposed to the savages they are believed to be Cynthia Parker literally tied to a bed to keep her from escaping to rejoin her children after being rescued from Comanche tribe John J Audobon Documented America s birds wrote a book with descriptions of their appearances and calls and included illustrations His illustrations were so good he achieved national fame He was active in Kentucky Trail of Tears Cherokee Indians in Georgia assimilate to Anglo American culture to a certain extent dress slavery land ownership and coexist without friction until gold deposits are discovered on their land in 1828 Gold rush ensues and the Cherokees sue to stop the land grab via Worcester a friend to the tribe and lawyer Worcester wins his case in 1832 stopping the land grabs 4 years later Georgia rounds up the Cherokee nation anyway 20k people and marches them to Oklahoma with 25 dying on the journey Significance Supreme court ruled in favor of the Native American tribe showed that even tribes that are accepting of white culture could not be spared from White oppression Martin Van Buren 8th President 18361840 Begins making attempts to consolidate political figures into national parties and starts calling his group the Democrats in 1820s Hitches his wagon to Andrew Jackson s popularity as first Democratic presidential candidate but Jackson does not win majority of popular vote and JQA is elected in the House Significance established the oldest political party in the world the Democratic Party which exists even today Second Party System created in the 1830s when Henry Clay organizes the Whig party in 1832 to oppose the Democrats and Andrew Jackson specifically Democrats supported handsoff approach to governing and market stabilization ie Van Buren did not make attempts to correct Panic of 1837 which cost him politically Whigs support strong federal government and promotion of economic and social goals Significance Cotton gin 1792 Eli Whitney credited for the invention Removed seeds from cotton fiber with ease this was one of the more time consuming steps and determined the quality of the product Controversy over whose idea it actually was Catherine Green claims ownership of the design Nevertheless he failed to ever collect substantial money from the patent Significance caused cotton production in the South to explode Technology in the early national era Utopian societies Nashoba Tennessee utopian society established by Francis Wright of Scotland name comes from the Bible Whites and Blacks live in harmony making a living by farming and distributing profits evenly Due to interracial nature the settlement was attacked in the press and shut down in 1828 Significance shows racial tensions of the time period and that the US attracts reformist minds from all over the world Abolitionist movement cranks up in the 1830s Movement tended to attract people who are idealistic and unorthodox William Lloyd Garrison founds an abolitionist newspaper in Baltimore called The Liberator David Walker born a slave in SC emancipated and moves to Boston where he publishes Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World in which he criticizes hypocrisy of the Founding Fathers Grimke Sisters members of the SC slave owning elite who are disowned by their family and use the Bible as justification for abolitionist beliefs A few politicians are elected to office on Abolitionist Tickets Stevens PA Seward NY JQA elected to congress in 1830s and 40s because he was hella bored Significance Shows deeply rooted divide in American society ominously hints at some motivations behind the American Civil War precursor to other Rights movements including Women s Rights Movement Sojourner Truth exslave from New York who was emancipated in 1827 Moved to NYC where she joined the methodist church and began preaching throughout the city Attended the Seneca Falls Convention Significance Woman s rights movement many supporters came from the Abolitionist movement Kicked off by the Seneca Falls Conference in 1848 In New Jersey women were allowed to vote until 1809 when they were disenfranchised Significance shows reformist nature of the towns of upstate New York where much of the Abolitionist movement had originated and now the WRM as well Also shows changing ideals of equality in the years before the American Civil War Elizabeth Cady Stanton born to upper class family in upstate NY received an excellent education and introduced to abolitionist movement by cousins Brother died in 1826 when she is young and her father says to her if only you had been a boy Denied entrance to 1840 Abolitionist Convention in London and decides that there should be a unique Women s Rights movement Significance set up the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848 which sparked the WRM Seneca Falls New York 1848 25 day conference held to discuss many topics including women s suffrage with a few hundred attendees Many in attendance are prominent in the Abolitionist movement including Frederick Douglass Maria Stewart free black woman who works as a school teacher in DC and writes essays for local newspapers Sojourner Truth and Margaret Fuller school teacher who founds a journal The Dial and contributes to the NY Tribunal Significance official starting point of the Women s Rights Movement which gained momentum throughout the 19th century Charlotte Woodward teen in attendance w father was still alive in 1920 for Woman s Suffrage to be legalized Republic of Texas 18361845 part of Mexico following independence from Spain American settlers encouraged to settle by cheap and fertile land but in 1829 Mexico suddenly decides to emancipate all slaves infuriating the American ex pats Declares independence from Mexico in 1837 with Sam Houston elected its first president who immediately pursues American statehood for protection from EuroMexico John Tyler wants Texas in the union due to its proslave status Texas is annexed in 1845 probably illegally Popular with southern Democrats unpopular with Whigs and northern Dems Significance Kit Carson Married into Indian tribes Was important to the Mexican American war Served as a guide for groups traveling to California and was used as a recurring adventure hero in novels Comanche Indians most affected by the death of the Buffalo Nomadic tribe which roamed from Texas to Colorado Kidnapped a girl Cynthia Parker who assimilated married a Comanche man and had children She was then rescued from the tribe and made several attempts to escape and rejoin the tribe Significance showed the severity that actions of white settlers had on Native populations in 1850 20000 Comanche and 20 million buffalo by 1880 75 of the Comanche nation are dead Also white woman would rather live as a Comanche than as a White settler challenges ideas that Native Americans are savages Donner party left from Illinois in Spring 1846 with the Reed Family Used a copy of Hastings Emigrant Guide and made slow progress due to rough terrain and internal conflicts Snow came early in October stranding 89 in the Sierra Nevada Mountains 42 die and rumors of cannibalism being used for survival persist Significance Shows the public the absolute worst case scenario in the dangers of going west California gold rush gold was first discovered in 1848 but 1849 is when people from the East and to a lesser extent Europe Australia and Latin America came to get rich Estimated 80 100k people showed up in 1849 called the 49ers mostly young white men Early arrivers tended to strike it rich while latecomers found most of the most easily accessible gold to be gone Latecomers found themselves working for wages in Gold Mines as less accessible gold was pursued Significance factor in pushing for statehood in California so quickly caused San Francisco and the surrounding area to grow from a small settlement to a major Western hub quickly Chinese miners first major migration of Chinese to the US many came from the Guangdong province Many companies recruited and paid for the Chinese men s transportation to US Chinese men recreationally smoked opium and brought opium Buddhism and Chinese language Some Chinese men form Tong societies similar to a fraternity to help each other when they needed help or protection they were suspicious of white people George Catlin a painter from Pennsylvania who tried to capture Indian culture in his work record it and their culture and he also recorded notes on their lives He advocated for large reservations Significance maintenance of detailed records of Indian life help us study lost tribes today another instance of challenging ideas that NA cultures are savage and primitive Ghost towns abandoned towns where settlements have failed due to economic hardship disease etc 2000 ghost towns sprout up between 1850 and 1900 in Kansas Significance proof that things can go wrong in the romanticized frontiers of the West Fugitive slaves Slave resistance in daily life White men of the planter class Yeoman farmers in the South Free blacks in the South Irish immigrants German immigrants Moved into the interior of the country instead of staying on the coast Cincinnati Cigars become a luxury item Because of German influence Steinway pianos show up in every home as an upper middleclass commodity child workers children especially teen boys are expected to work for a living from a very young age Brigham Young was kicked out of his home at 16 and became a carpenter s assistant Charles Dickens started working very young and spent some time in an orphanage books tended to turn the spotlight onto the plight of child workers and is credited with helping spur along reform in child labor laws Churches take notice of plight of children and become active in creating orphanages Alexander Hamilton s widow also founds an orphanage in NYC George Appo Chinese Father lrish Mother Becomes homeless on the streets at a very young age Pickpocket and criminal that found success in NYC Also addicted to opium the suburbs first appear in 1840 when the wealthy elite move out of the city searching for safer cleaner and quieter spots to live The first suburb created was Chestnut Hill PA near Philadelphia Significance Chesnut Hill Pennsylvania first suburb established in the United States outside Philadelphia in the early 1840s Attracted the wealthy elite of Philadelphia for safer cleaner quieter neighborhoods First Country Club is created soon after Significance Edgar Allan Poe born in Boston to professional actors who travelled citytocity Both parents die of TB when he is in his early teens and he is adopted by an acquaintance John Allen a merchant from Richmond Sent to UVA parties too much fails out and is kicked out by Allen Moves to the cities of the North and starts writing Marries his cousin who promptly dies of TB Significance one of the first Americanborn prominent writers Sport of boxing Irish immigrants who mostly lived in the larger cities on the East Coast brought the sport to America in the 1840s Controversial due to violent nature and gambling aspect but proponents say it is a working class sport egalitarian in nature Significance helped stir up antiIrish sentiments and nativist movements George Putnam born in Maine in the 1810s Opens a publishing house in NYC for American authors writing for an American audience Signs EdgarAllen Poe Cooper Susan Warner publishes The Wide Wide World a coming of age story about a young woman Significance shows continuation ofAmericans tendency to distance self from European culture and desire to show how different they are from Europeans Catherine Beecher born to a minister in 1800 and grows up in New York and Connecticut Her fiance drowns when she is in her 20s and she never marries Worked as a school teacher and published many essays in newspapers and journals Wrote Treatise on Domestic Economy an advice book for women which advocated women to be obedient wives devoted to their husband children and home advice which she did not follow herself Significance woman writing books for a female audience Compromise of 1850 Package of 5 bills drafted by Henry Clay and sponsored by Stephen Douglas which temporarily defused tensions between slave and free states over territories gained during the MexicanAmerican War Texas surrendered its claim to New Mexico and lands north of the Missouri Compromise Line California was admitted as a free state New Mexico and Utah territories were allowed to decide the issue of slavery through popular sovereignty slave trade banned in Washington DC Significance officially banned the slave trade though not slavery itself in the nation s capital and other things too that are escaping me I m sure KansasNebraska Act created the territories of Nebraska and Kansas in 1854 opening them up for white settlement The bill was designed by Stephen Douglas of Illinois Allowed residents to determine the slave status of the territories through popular sovereignty Antislavery northerners saw this as a slap in the face to the Missouri Compromise and a betrayal of previous legislation lending to the idea that slaveholders have the most influence over politics Caused a proxywar in the days before settlement of Kansas as pro and antislavery advocates had skirmishes in border towns in Missouri Significance effectively repealed the Missouri Compromise caused serious rift in American society among anti and proslavery sects Third Party System Republican party created in direct opposition to the KansasNebraska Act and aimed to stop the spread of slavery immediately Elected their first President Abraham Lincoln in 1860 Significance created the political climate which ultimately led to the American Civil War Stephen Douglas Democratic Senator from Illinois who crafted the KansasNebraska Act hoping that allowing popular sovereignty over the issue of slavery would help dissipate national tensions over slavery Also instrumental in creation of the Compromise of 1850 which had the aim of defusing tensions over slavery Significance effectively repealed the Missouri Compromise Republican Party was created in response to the Act directly opposing the spread of slavery anywhere which ultimately led to the Civil War Abraham Lincoln 16th President Worked as a lawyer in Illinois before going into politics Elected as the first Republican candidate in 1860 Assassinated in 1865 by John Wilkes Booth following the end of the War and his election to a second term of Presidency Significance led the Union through the Civil War emancipated slaves
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