INORGANIC CHEMISTRY CHEM 462
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bret Mills on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 462 at Texas A&M University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see /class/226238/chem-462-texas-a-m-university in Chemistry at Texas A&M University.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
Chapter 10 The sp block elements IV CHEM 462 Wednesday Nov 17 T Hughbanks Heavy Group 13 Elements 1 Unlike boron all these elements have extensive cationic chemistryquot 2 Principal oxidation state is III but I becomes important for In and especially Tl compounds This is a manifestation of the inert pairquot effect Formal oxidation state II possible in the presence of metal7metal bonds e g C13Ga7GaCl32 Inert pairquot effect valence s orbitals become increasingly contractedrelative to p orbitals as one moves down the column This is partly responsible for weakening bond strenng even in III compounds eg for MCls Ga 7 242 In 7 206 T17 153 W 45 Heavy Group 13 Elements 5 Trends in IPs would indicate that the elements most likely to be trivalent are Al and In However both covalent and ionic factors in bonding must be remembered in weighing contributions See the following mble Atom ion properties relevant to ox state 8005 24265 36587 5774 18161 27441 5786 19788 29623 5582 18202 27040 5891 19705 28774 Key compounds of Al Ga AlZO3 alumina AlX3 X halides AlOH3 an insoluble amphoteric hydrox1de 0 Acidic behavior eg from AlX3 hydrolysis AllI and GarJ1 in aqueous solution A1112063 gt A1HQO5OH2 H3O MIHX3 except T113 TlIl3 Coordination numbers in solid W selected mps 1 1 Br 1 A1X3 bps 6 6 4 4 1270 198 98 189 1700 mm 4 6 4 4 180 78 6 6 586 6 4 257 6 6 4 382 Amphoteric Behavior of A1 0 In neutral or moderately basic solutions Al precipitates as an hydroxide AlOH3 But in strongly basic solution it dissolves again AlOH3 OH gt A1OH4 aq This property is used to separate A13 from other metal ion impurities in treating raw bauxite before electrolysis Then a cheap acid C02 is used to precipitate purer AlOH3 A1OH4 WI 3028 gt A1OH3s HCO aq T1I chemistry observations OTIZO3S heat gt T120s 02 oTlOH is a fairly strong base almost as basic as alkali metal hydroxides oTlZCO3 resembles MIZCO3 compounds 0 rT11 z rRb Hydrolysis of MIHHZO63 ions 0 Acidity of these ions already discussed An implication aqueous salts of weak acids like sul des acetates carbonates cyanides etc can not exist or be precipitated for aqueous solution Q What happens if one attempts to precipitate Alzsf from aqueous solution by adding sul de eg from Na28 to an AlHZO63 solution eg from hydrolysis of AlCl3 Hydrides of Group 13 elements Most important compound is LiAlH4 For M Al Ga 4 LiHs MC13s a LiMH4 3 Licrst in EtzO t st0A 100 MH3s 2H2g Lizso4st MH3 3D structure W MiHiM bridges Gicoordinate M LiAlH4 thermally stable below 120 C Explosively hydrolyzed in water LiAiH4 HZOxsgt
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