Psych 324 - Test 2 Study guide
Psych 324 - Test 2 Study guide Psych 324
Popular in Brain and Behavior Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Allie S on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 324 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Claudio Cantalupo in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Brain and Behavior Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
Reviews for Psych 324 - Test 2 Study guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/21/15
Readings Ch3 pg 78 skip Ch 4 Ch 5 pg 146 stopping at the roles of genes Ch6 171 Ch7 197 1 Development of the Nervous System a Starts out as a simple structure b Phases i Proliferation Neurons divide and multiply at extreme rate ii Migration neurons migrate to final location by climbing radial glial cells iii Circuit formation neurons send developing axons to make synapses with their target cells 1 Growth cone develops at tips of developing axons and move toward final targets using chemicalmolecular signals iv Circuit pruning extra neurons that have developed die and eliminates large number of extra synapses refines the organization v Plasticity ability of synapses to be modified by experience learning 1 Decreases with age cortical association areas are more likely to retain their plasticity Chapter 5 1 Drugs and Addiction a Drug external chemical substance that changes the body or its functioning i Psychoactive drugs have psychological effect anxiety relief hallucinations 1 Agonist mimics or enhances the effect of a neurotransmitter a Having same effect on receptor as NT or b Increasing effect of NT on receptor or c Blocking RE UPTAKE or degradation of NT 2 Antagonist blocks or reduces the effect of a NT a Binding to receptor without activating it prevents NT from binding to receptor and opening the related ion channel or b Reducing the availability of NT reducing productionrelease of NT from presynaptic terminals b Drug abused terminology i Addiction 1 Preoccupation with obtaining drug 2 Compulsive use of drug 3 High tendency to relapse after quitting ii Withdraw negative reaction when drug use is stopped 1 Symptoms often the opposite of effects of drug withdrawal from elation producing drug depression iii Tolerance increasing amounts of the drug are required to produce the same results 1 Mostly due to reduction in number andor sensitivity of receptors to the drug II DRUG TYPES OPIATES DEPRESSANTS STIMULANTS PSYCHEDELICS a Opiates i Derived from opium poppy l Opium abused since around 4000 BC 2 Morphine early 1800 s effective treatment of intense pain 3 Heroine late 1800 s initially sold as an over the counter analgesic 4 Codeine cough suppressant ii Variety of effect 1 Analgesic pain relieving 2 Hypnotic sleep inducing 3 Produce euphoria intense sense of happiness iii Side effect addictive 1 Heroine a Highly soluble in lipids crosses the blood brain easily b Major danger is overdose i Drug too pure ii Tolerance iv Bind to opiate receptors act as agonists of endorphins pain relief Heroine is agonist of endorphins b Depressants Reduce activity of Central Nervous System CNS Antagonist of glutamate Agonist of GABA i Ethanol alcohol produced from fermented fruits grains etc waste product of bacteria 1 Complex action a High doses sedative calming hypnotic b Low doses stimulant euphoria aggression 2 Addictive 3 Withdrawal involves tremors anxiety mood and sleep disturbances delirium tremens in worst cases hallucination seizures even death Acts as antagonist of glutamate most prevalent excitatory in NT Acts as agonist of GABA by binding to GABA receptors 21 Facilitates opening of Clquot channels9hyperpolarization of postsynaptic membrane we ii Barbiturates l Derivatives of barbituric acid 2 Complex action a High doses sedative and hypnotic b Low doses inhibits cortical centers that inhibit behavior talkativeness 3 Acts as antagonist of glutamate 4 Acts as agonist of GABA by binding to GABA a In high doses can open Cl channels even without GABA potentially very dangerous even coma or death 5 Used to be only antidepressants iii Benzodiazepines 1 Similar to barbiturates but safer a Cannot open chloride channels on their own 2 Produce anxiolytic anxiety reducing sedative anti seizure and muscle relaxing effects 3 Addictive c Stimulant Increase activity of CNS Agonist of DOPAMINE i Cocaine 1 Produces euphoria increased alertness relief from fatigue 2 Used to be legal as an ingredient in over the counter medication and Coca Cola 3 Acts a agonist of dopamine and serotonin by blocking their reuptake 4 Addictive withdrawal symptom include depression and anxiety 5 Can cause brain damage seizures and psychotic symptoms ii Amphetamines 1 Synthetic drugs methamphetamine speed crank crystal 2 Produce euphoria increase in confidence alertness and concentration 3 Acts as agonist of dopamine and norepinephrine by increasing their release in the synaptic cleft 4 In high doses can cause hallucinations delusions and other psychotic like symptoms iii Nicotine 1 Primary psychoactive and addictive agent in tobacco 2 Complex action a Short puffs stimulating effect b Long puffs depressant effect 3 Acts as agonist of acetylcholine activates muscles increases alertness 4 Addictive withdrawal symptoms include nervousness anxiety drowsiness li ghtheadedness headaches iv Caffeine 1 Primary psychoactive agent in coffee 2 Produces arousal alertness and decreased sleepiness 3 Acts as agonist of dopamine and acetylcholine by increasing their release in the synaptic cleft 4 Withdrawal symptoms include headaches fatigue anxiety shakiness craving d Psychedelics caused perceptual distortions of objects time self accompanied by euphoria i LSD similar to serotonin binds to serotonin receptors ii Ecstasy MDMA causes release of dopamine and serotonin kills serotonin neurons in monkeys iii 1 2 3 Angel dust PCP produces schizophrenia like symptoms in humans Inhibits Agonist glutamate receptors Increases activity of dopamine pathways All of the psychedelics drugs are addictive iv Marijuana 1 2 3 Dried crushed leaves and owers of Indian hemp plant Major psychoactive ingredient THC a Particularly concentrated in the dried resin of the plant hashish THC acts as agonist of NT anandamide and 2AG by binding to their receptors cannabinoid receptors 9 widely distributed in CNS 4 Anandamide and 2 AG may play important role in the regulation of mood memory appetite and pain perception9 effects of marijuana 5 Withdrawal symptoms are associated with stopping use eg anxiety irritability stomach cramps III Addiction a Criteria i Preoccupation with obtaining drug ii Compulsive use of drug iii High tendency to relapse after quitting b Theories for why addiction occurs i Withdrawal Avoidance Hypothesis addiction is caused by desire to avoid withdrawal symptoms 1 Withdrawal negative reaction when drug use is stopped 2 Doesn t eXplain use of drug before dependence develops 3 Different areas of the brain seem to be involved in withdrawal and addiction ii Picture of Brain in Ch 5 MesolimboCortical gt Reward gt Addiction Dopamine System Axons from Nucleus Accumbens Medial Forebr Bundle Ventral Tegmental Area PeriVentricularPeriAqueductal Gray Withdrawal iii MesolimboCortical Dopamine System 1 Nucleus Accumbens NAcc rich in dopamine receptors 2 Nearly all abused drugs increased dopamine levels in NAcc 3 Reducing dopamine level in NAcc decreased rewarding effects of drug 4 This all shows that increase in dopamine in NAcc may be the neural basis for rewarding effect of drugs 5 May be part of a general reward system a Electrical stimulation of the Medial Forebrain Bundle is rewarding in rats i Increases dopamine level in NAcc b Involved in rewarding effects for behaviors of basic importance eg sex feeding i Increases dopamine level in NAcc both humans and non 6 However a Apparent paradox lower number of dopamine receptors in drug users possible innate trait i These people tend to receive less reward as much as other people ii reward deficiency syndrome vulnerability to drug abuse b Dopamine activity in MDS cannot account for all addictions i Benzodiazepines affect Glutamate and GABA levels ii Many continue to use drugs even when the effects are no longer pleasurable c Possible important role in learning i Just seeing drug paraphernalia can evoke craving in drug addicts ii Dopamine levels in MDS may act as teaching signals emphasizing importance of relevant stimuli IV Ending dependence on drugs a Overcoming withdrawal symptoms i Difficult with nicotine or opiates ii Potentially life threatening with alcohol b Fighting against relapse c Pharmacological Treatments for Dependency i Agonist treatments I Replace addicting drug with another that has similar e ect a Nicotine gum b Methadone for heroin addiction ii Antagonist treatments 1 Involve drugs that block effects of addicting drugs a GABAA receptor blocker limits effect of alcohol iii Aversive treatments 1 Cause negative reaction when person takes the addicting drugs a Anti abuse prevents breakdown of alcohol by products makes you ill if you drink alcohol iv Antidrug vaccines l Stimulate immune system to produce antibodies that break down the drug a Long term action don t have to take a pill every morning b Avoid side effects of other medicines v Pharmacological treatments for drug addiction are still somewhat controversial Chapter 6 I Motivation and Regulation of Internal States a Motivation set of factors that initiate sustain and direct behavior i Useful concept for organizing ideas about the sources of behavior ii Around because of inability to explain behavior solely in terms of external stimuli l Behaviorists are inadequate II Theoretical Approaches to Motivation a Instinct complex behavior i Automatic i Unlearned iii Occurs in all members of a species iv Re ex Instinct No l Instincts are much more complex b Drive Theory biological i The body actively maintains physiological systems in a condition of balance homeostasis ii Departure from homeostasis lack of nutrients drop in temperature9aroused condition drive 1 Drive motivates the organism to engage in appropriate behavior drinking eating seeking warmth and restores homeostasis iii Applies to behaviors directly involved in restoring basic tissue needs c Incentive Theory sociological i Individuals are motivated by external stimuli not just internal needs 1 Money gradesincentives d Arousal Theory in between i Individuals are motivated to maintain a preferred level of arousal 1 Different people have different optimal level of arousal a Skydiving man sleeping e Drive Theory revised i Drives conditions of the tissues 1 Can t explain more complex drives well human sexual drives and hunger ii Drives state of the brain 1 Better accounts for sexual behavior even eating behavior III Simple Homeostatic drives a Many physiological systems maintain a given condition within a narrow range body temp energy reserves i Control systems operate on negative feedback loop 1 Feedback proves whereby some proportion the output of a system is passed fed back to the input in uences the output 2 Negative feedback loop feedback stabilizes the system at a given set point b Temperature regulation i Heterothermic animals reptiles externally regulated body temperature ii Homeothermic endothermic animals mammals adjust body temperature internally l Sweating vs shivering iii Where is thermostat 1 Hypothalamus a Preoptic area contains warmth sensitive and coldsensitive cells i Heat reducing responses sweating panting and heat conserving responses shivering H c Thirst i Osmotic thirst water content decreases inside the cell 1 Eating salty food higher concentration of NaCl in blood than inside cell H20 out of the cell by osmotic pressure 2 Picture of brain for osmotic thirst a Neurons in OVLT recognize water loss within cells and then sends signal to MPON to trigger drinking ii Hypovolemic thirst blood volume decreases due to a loss of extracellular water 1 Sweating vomiting diarrhea bleeding 2 Picture of brain with hypovolemic thirst a Baroreceptors detect BP and then sends signal to NST which sends signal to MPON b Or adrenocortical glands produces renin which synthesizes angiotensin II which travels through brain to SF0 and sends signal to MPON iii Regulated by separate systems d Hunger i More complex drive than temperature regulation and thirst 1 Set point can undergo dramatic and prolonged shifts eg obesity 2 Involves the need for a variety of different and specific kinds of nutrients a Dietary selection must distinguish between nutritious and nonnutritious or toxic foods role of TASTE ii Taste 1 5 Primary tastes sweet salty sour bitter umami meaty proteins a More complex taste sensations are combinations of the 5 primaries b Nucleus of the Solitary Tract In taste bud medulla9Insula Cerebral Hemispheres 2 Contributes to dietary selection in three additional ways a Sensoryspecific satiety the more of a specific food a person eats the less appealing the food becomes i Adaptive because causes you to eat other foods attaining different nutrients ii Encourages a varied died balanced diet iii It is controlled by the Nucleus of the Solitary Tract NST in the MEDULLA b Learned taste aversions the avoidance of foods associated with illness or poor nutrition i May be one reason chemotherapy patients loose appetite c Learned taste preferences preferences for avor of foods that contain important nutrients eg vitamin B i Animals learn to prefer the avor of food enriched with thiamine presumably makes them feel better iii Digestive process 1 Begins with saliva in mouth enzymes 2 Hydrochloric acid and pepsin in stomach real chemical breakdown here a If food irritates stomach regurgitation occurs b If no irritation occurs toxins reach the area postrema of brain induce projectile vomiting 3 Most digestion occurs in small intestine esp duodenum a Carbs glucose b Proteins amino acids c Fats fatty acids and glycerol 4 Glucose AA fatty acids glycerol transferred to liver via the hepatic portal vein 5 Large intestine reabsorbs water iv Two phases of feeding cycle 1 Absorptive phase a Glucose increases parasympathetic activation pancreas secretes insulin glucose enters body cells glucose stored in liver and muscles as glycogen fat stored in adipose cells as triglycerides 2 Fasting Phase a Glucose decreases Sympathetic activation pancreas secretes glucagon glycogen transformed to glucose for brain stored fat released as fatty acids for body and glycerol for brain after conversion to glucose v Two major signals for hunger 1 Glucoprivic hunger deficit in glucose 2 Lipoprivic hunger deficit in fatty acids vi Signals for hunger 1 Low glucose and fatty acids signaled via vagus nerve to the Nucleus of the Solitary Tract NST and the Area Postrema both in the medulla 2 Info is then relayed to Arcuate Nucleus AN9 ParaVentricular Nucleus PVN and Lateral Hypothalamus LH9 Increase in release of neuropeptide Y in LH and PVN a Powerful stimulant for eating and reduces metabolism and even sexual motivation b Another powerful stimulant for eating ghrelin produced by stomach affects AN vii Signals that end eating 1 Stretch receptors in stomach signal via vagus nerve to medulla NST and area Postrema9a ecrease of neuropeptide Y in PVN and LH 2 Cholecystokinin CCK peptide hormone released when food passes through the duodenum vagus nerve medulla decrease of neuropeptide Y in PVN and LH 3 Peptide YY336PYY intestine secreted hormone reaches Arcuate Nucleus through bloodstream slower action than CCK 4 High levels of nutrients in blood detected by liver vagus nerve medulla NST and area Postrema9decrease of neuropeptide Y in PVN and LH e Long term regulation of body fat i Leptin hormone secreted by fat cells 1 Amount of leptin in blood is proportional to percent of body fat 2 Increased leptin in blood decrease in neuropeptide Y in PVN and LH 3 Decreased leptin in blood increase in neuropeptide Y in PVN and LH 4 Leptin levels is about 4 times higher in obese than non obese individuals may have fewer active leptin receptors in PVN and LH Chapter 7 II III IV Biology of Sex a Is sex a physiological drive like hunger and thirst i Main difference sex is not essential for survival of individual ii Similarities l Arousal and satiation 2 Role of hormones 3 Involvement of specific brain areas Arousal and satiation Diagram of Phases of Sexual Response a Sensory specific satiety the more of a specific food a person eats the less appealing the food becomes i Encourages a varied diet b Coolidge Effect quicker return to sexual arousal for a male when a new female is introduced i Observed in many species ii Cheap sperms expensive eggs theory 1 a male can potentially have a large number of children quickly by mating with different females more of his genes passed to the next generation Role of Hormones on Sexual Activity a Sex hormones i Androgen male characteristics and function 1 Testosteronemajor sex hormone in males ii Estrogen female characteristics and function b Testosterone and Sexual Activity i Evidence from castration removal of the gonads studies 1 Sexual behavior decreases ii Testosterone appears necessary for male sexual behaviors but amount required is minimal iii Females initiate sex more at mid cycle when both estrogen and testosterone levels are increased 1 Testosterone may be more important than estrogen for this in women iv Testosterone increases as a result of sexual activity in both males and females 1 Cause effect relationship between testosterone and sexual activity is still unclear Brain Structures and Sex a Network of brain structures are involved in sexual activity i Medial PreOptic Area MPOA of hypothalamus MPOA picture Brain Structures and Sex Network of brain structures are involved in sexual activity Medial PreOptic Area MPOA of Hypothalamus Stimulation of MPOA In rats 1 increased copulation Sexually Dimorphic Nucleus of MPOA larger in male rats depends on prenatal exposure to testosterone l Stimulation of MPOA in rats9 increased copulation without monkeys only masturbated 2 Sexually Dimorphic Nucleus of MPOA region of the brain that has two different shapes a Larger in male rats b Depends on prenatal exposure to testosterone ii Medial Amygdala 1 Active during copulation both males and females 2 Stimulation causes dopamine release in MPOA iii VentroMedial Nucleus VMN of hypothalamus Brain Structures and Sex cont d VentroMedial Nucleus VMN of Hypothalamus active during copulation in females destruction reduces responsiveness to males 1 Active during copulation in females 2 Destruction reduces responsiveness to males V Neurotransmitters and Sex a Dopamine and serotonin increases in MPOA in rats b Norepinephrine increases in men and women during sex c Dopamine increases in Nucleus Accumbens i In male rats increases also with new female Coolidge effect VI Sensory Stimuli and Sex a Interplay of internal hormonal conditions and external stimuli i Tactual ii Auditory iii Visual 1 Body symmetry is another important determinant of sexual attractiveness a May be indicative of genetic fitness iv Olfactory smell 1 Pheromones airborne chemicals released by an animal that have a physiological or behavioral effect on another animal of the same species a Female gypsy moth attracts males from 2 miles away 2 What about us a Pheromones are detected by the VomeroNasal Organ VNO b VNO sends signals to MPOA and VMN of hypothalamus c McClintock study on menstrual synchrony i Menstrual synchrony in human females due to pheromones d Humans have a VNO too i Microscopic in size ii Generates electrical potentials to suspected pheromones I Emotion and the Nervous System a Ex out movere to move b movement of mind soul i feeling ex happiness 9 body s responses ex smiling somatic NS higher HR autonomic d James Lange Theory late 1800s i Perception of specific patterns of physiological arousal specific emotional experience 1 I feel sad because I cry rather than I cry because I feel sad ii Cannon s criticism 1920 autonomic NS responds the same way in different emotions perception of physiological responses cannot account for variety of emotional experiences e Schachter and Singer 1962 Cognitive Theory i Identification of emotions relies on a cognitive assessment of the external stimulus situation ii Physiological arousal contributes only to the intensity of an emotion 1 epinephrine experiment f Distinctive patterns of autonomic activation among different emotions i Anger and sadness both elevate HR but only anger involves motor activation g Facial expressions as a source of emotional feedback i Holding a pen in your mouth and the Far Side cartoons control told to read cartoons and judge how funny they were while holding a pen between lips experimental told to hold the pen between front teeth without touching it with lips 5quot BOTH cognitive assessment of external stimuli and physiological feedback play a role in emotion II Emotion and the Limbic System a Limbic system complex system of subcortical structures i Electrical stimulation in animals produces threatening or defensive behaviors cats hissing bared teethclaws ii Electrical stimulation in humans evokes feelings of rage fear or pleasure i Electrical stimulation in humans evokes feelings of pleasure particularly sexual 1 Involved in perception of facial expressions of emotion especially fear ii Damage to amygdala removes fear and aggression in animals iii Stimulation produces fear and aggression iv Anti anxiety medications have some of their effects in the amygdala benzos v Damaged amygdala patients do not respond emotionally to rewards and punishments vi Major role in 1 Fear emotional reaction to a specific immediate threat 2 Anxiety apprehension about a future often uncertain event i Anterior cingulate cortex l Combines emotional attentional and bodily information to bring about conscious emotional experience i Lot of connections with limbic system uses emotional info from LS for decision making 1 Damage to PFC blunts emotional responding impairs ability to anticipate consequences of behavior long term consequences in particular III Emotion and Hemispheric Asymmetry a Left and right cerebral hemispheres can differ in i Anatomical structure structural asymmetry 1 Ex Broca s area larger in L hemisphere than in R ii Function performed functional asymmetry 1 Ex L hemisphere more involved in linguistic functions than R right side of mouth opens more than left b Right hemisphere more involved in emotional expression i Facial expression of emotion left side of face shows more emotion c Emotion and the Right Hemisphere monkey fear face demonstration i Right hemisphere more involved in emotional expression 1 Facial expression of emotions 2 Emotional impairment following brain damage a EG stroke patient unperturbed by having left side of body paralyzed 3 Difficulty in recognizing emotions in others following brain damage facial expressions andor voice IV Stress a Condition in the environment that makes unusual demands on the organism i Eg threat failure etc b Internal condition body s response to a stressful situation i Stress as an adaptive response 1 Stressful situation activation of the sympathetic branch of PNS helps the organism cope with stressful situation cyclical 2 Stressful situation activation of the Hypothalamus Pituitary Adrenal cortex axis HPA9 group of structures that increase activation and energy levels a HPA axis picture Hypothalamus anterior pituitary ACTH Adrenal Cortex epinephrinenorepinephrine increase HR and increase glucose availability cortisol converts proteins to glucose increases fat availability increases metabolism i Cortisol is bad if there is continually high levels because that increases cholesterol level 3 Short term stress increase immune system activity a Immune system Cell and cell products that protect the body against foreign substances i Bacteria viruses tumor cells b Major types of immune cells Table 81 in book i Macrophages T cells B cells Natural Killer cells 1 For b cells produce antibodies not antigens ii Negative effects of stress long term l V Pain and Emotion a Pain is adaptive i Congenital insensitivity to pain leads to repeated injuries and death b Level of pain perception influenced in some measure by context and culture i Childbirth c Pain pathway heavily connected With limbic system i Anterior Cingulate Cortex ACC9 emotional aspect of pain ii Long lasting pain activates the prefrontal cortex 1 Memory impairment appetite changes decreased seX drive and energy mood disruptions Decreased B cells T cells and natural killer cells Increased blood pressure9increased risk of heart attack or stroke Hyperactivation of sympathetic NS9heart goes into fibrillation9 sudden cardiac death Decreased hippocampal volume and cortical tissue in brain a Probably caused by increased levels of cortisol b Probably the reason for memory impairment Planning of responses to painful stimulation trying to get rid of it Simple homeostatic drives Simple homeostatic drives 0 Negative feedback loop feedback stabilizes the system at a given set point Many physiological systems maintain a given condition Within a narrow range eg body temperature energy reserves Control systems operate on negative feedback loop 0 Feedback process whereby some proportion the output of a system is passed fed back to the input influences the output mm INPUI39 Median PreOptic Nucleus quot Sub Fornical Hypothalamus drink Organ Thalamus Hypovolemic Osmotic thirst thirst Nucleus of the Solitary TractMedulla Heart contains baroreceptors Limbic System A u v g 39 gr a e g g quotu I W t 16quot 19 g Fomix 5 x f f a H 0 z 5 r Hypothalarnus w 39 I 39 22 I Mamillary body Septa nuclei Prefrontal cortex Amygdala V C M Parahippocarnpal gyrus ippocarnpus below surface Emotion and the Right Hemisphere HPA axis Anterior pituitary ACTH AdrenaICorticoTropic Hormone rough blood Epinephrine 0 Increase heart rate Adrenal mg Increase glucose Noreninephrine availability o Converts proteins to glucose 0 Increases fat availability 0 Increases metabolism Cortisol
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'