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Test 2 Prep

by: Morgan Witt

Test 2 Prep PSYC2003 004

Morgan Witt
General Psychology
David Schroeder

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About this Document

Here's a study guide for the midterm for Psych.
General Psychology
David Schroeder
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Morgan Witt on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC2003 004 at University of Arkansas taught by David Schroeder in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views.


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Date Created: 10/21/15
PSYCH TEST 2 Learning A relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience This can be intentional or unintentional things just happen 0 More about maturation immediate change 0 Not learning Learning cannot be directly observed must be inferred from CHANGES in performance Dealing with observables Components of the Classical Conditioning Paradigm A procedure in which a neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that triggers an automatic response until the neutral stimulus alone comes to trigger a similar I CSpOIlSC UCS A stimulus that triggers a response UCR The automatic unlearned reaction to a stimulus CS An originally neutral stimulus that now triggers a conditioned response CR The response triggered by the conditioned stimulus CSUCS relationship Two things not related being paired to have an association be made CRUCR relationship The same response is elicited Types of Classical Conditioning Schedules Simultaneous The presentation of the UCS and the CS at the same time Not very effective Forward CS being presented before and turned off before UCS is turned on Somewhat effective Backward UCS presented before CS Delayed CS is presented with overlap of the UCS Biological constraints on conditioning 0 A creatures inherent habits which interfere with a conditioned response Testing terms Baseline testing Operant level no reinforcement AcquisitionTraining Introduction of reinforcement Pairing the CS with the UCS Extinction The gradual disappearance of a condition response Spontaneous Recovery The temporary reappearance of a conditioned response after extinction Stimulus Discrimination A process through which people learn to differentiate among similar stimuli and respond appropriately to each one Stimulus Generalization A process by which a CR is triggered by a similar stimuli to what the original CS was Operant instrumental Conditioning gEMIT Q A process in which response are learned on the basis of rewarding or punishing consequences para 11quot E3 dJi39Ei n in g i a s v J H g a Eta Ii nf rsement Pu IT39IIIELHITIEI It i agk ggEEg Englugging Eii 39c da39u Iiii1lfiitlr I 1 n P flifiy Heating F i we Hiegaitqu HandEligil lidgli39 Ea ilfklldgv 55312 l ij k 5ij F39mr vr enagzaprmimaev i mains f iwllljl3 l39ll IJI39j lu39ln39wiiil all 39 irtra IT Ifl agq39s39igzir ri gnl 39al l 39l iaulhgrgi r 39 i jri39IIJ HE39Sanquot iiquotU39l u l mgatiic 1 39 39 in f IQ WdJflynlr L E39Figg n llraj Eut EPI E a je atrive 39wnaida has ml 39l la39 il Hangman9 1ill39nrl l ijlil39aigr ungnigh WEBEIIJ39E El lr 39 ul gftfl mannami lr 39lulu Elii ergFina quotin39u i fE Efn I39Efiifi 39Ei gn39h 3JaL i s n r j v aiwmwkry W513 a i i lfj Clr J 39Sif nilli gl39 HEgaEivE ih i 39l l39if ml 1 l I1391liiiquot FEEfinFurtlzmszxnll ii39IEI LEJ Hiflr bu ld39 f Er E39Ll ithE Ihi Iii21 ladalibi im aw r E t ll 39 haremaw 1 litimqui vnidagraun Filiiiu39i llih J Harru u Thorndike s Law of Effect If a response made in the presence of a particular stimulus is rewarded the same response is more likely to occur when that stimulus is encountered again Reinforcement The process through which a particular response is made more likely to recu 0 Positive Reinforcement Adding to situation Stimuli that strengthen a response if they follow that response again Present a desired stimulus to organism to response emitted Reward training 0 Negative Reinforcement Removal of an undesired stimulus Punishment The presentation of an aversive stimulus or removal of a pleasant one following some behavior all punishment decreases probability of a response 0 Positive Punishment Present an undesired stimulus 0 Negative Punishment Removal of desired stimulus Reinforcer A stimulus event that increases the probability that the response immediately preceding it will occur again Primary Reinforcer Events or stimuli that satisfy psychological 0 Secondary reinforcer Rewards that people or animals Discriminative Stimulus Stimuli that signal whether reinforcement is available if a certain response is made learning what behavior to do where Shaping The reinforcement of responses that come giving dog treat learning to roll over Reinforcement Contingencies 0 FixedRatio Provide reinforcement following a fixed number of responses rat might receive food after every 10th time they press a level in a Skinner box 0 FixedInterval Provide reinforcement for the first response that occurs after some fixed time has passed since the last reward system Last time 1 response 0 VariableRatio Also call for reinforcement after a certain number of responses but that number varies As a result it is impossible to predict which particular response will bring reinforcement Most resistant to extinction 0 VariableInterval Reinforce the first response after some period of time but that amount of time varies unpredictably Predictive Power of the CS Rescorla Adds the organism to the s gtr psychology Organism can make inferences about internal processes by observing overt behavior Compare and Contrast Operant and Classical conditioning 0 Similarities Both are forms of associative learning 0 Differences Classical Conditioning uses two stimuli CS and UCS to become associated together whereas Operant uses consequences Reinforcement More likely to get a response Punishment Reducing probability of a response SR vs SOR Psychology 0 S RElicit Emphasis is on the association between the stimulus and the response 0 S O REmit The emphasis is on the association between a behavior and its consequences Difference between CS and Squotd 0 CS A response that is taught by acquired learning 0 SAd Learning what behavior to do where How to act 0 Explicit MemoryDeclaratiye The act of consciously or intentionally retrieving past experiences 9 Semantic Facts and general knowledge 9 Episodic Personally experienced events 0 Implicit Memory Without conscious recall 0 Procedural memory A type of memory containing information about how to do things 3 Basics Processes of Memory 0 Encoding The process of putting information into a formation that the memory system can accept and use 0 Storage The process of maintaining information in the memory system over time 0 Retrieval The process of finding information stored in memory Characteristics of Sensory Memory 0 ShortTerm Memory A stage of memory in which information normally lasts less than 20 seconds a component of working memory 0 LongTerm Memory The stage of memory that researchers believe has an unlimited capacity to store new information Confabulation Memories that never actually existed yet people can still recall them Retroactive and Proactive Interference The process through which storage or retrieval of information is impaired by the presence of other information 0 Retroactive inhibitions Something new interferes with old memories old phone Lnumbers A cause of forgetting already in memory 0 Proactive inhibition Somethin old interferes with new memorieS la in tennis w racketball A cause of forgetting whereby previously learned information interferes with the ability to remember new information Serial Position Curve gNot forgetting everything 0 Primacy A characteristic of memory in which recall is particularly good for the first two or three in a list long term memory 0 Recency A characteristic of memory in which recall is particularly good for the last few items in a list Short term memory 0 Unfilled retention interval Dinner rehearsal remember the first people and the last but not the middle 0 Filled retention interval Counting down while trying to remember something Factors Necessary for effective punishment Token Economy A system for improving the behavior of clients in institutions by rewarding desirable behaviors with tokens that can be exchanged for various awards Methods to Help memory 0 Chunking George Miller The breaking down of things into manageable items 7 2 0 Maintenance Rehearsal memorization method that involved repeating information over and over to keep it in memory 0 Elaborative Rehearsal memorization method that relates new information to information already stored in memory Memory Structures The three different types of memory Sensory short term long term Semantic Networks Memories are associated in a web of different things and thinking of one thing will have which is the idea that thinking of one thing in a network all the paths related to it will be activated Theories of Forgetting 0 Trace Decav A description of forgetting as the gradual disappearance of information from memoryReactivating a memory on occasion 0 Motivated Forgettingrepressed memories A painful memory that is said to be kept out of consciousness by psychological processes 0 Interference The process through which storage or retrieval of information is impaired by the presence of other information Working Memory Memory that allows us to mentally w Ex When you mentally calculate what time you have 0 leave home in order to have lunch on campus return a library book and still get to class on time you are using working memory 0 Phonological Loop How does it sound Holds and manipulates speech based information 0 Visuospatial sketchpad How does it look mental picture holds and manipulates spatial information Central Executive Controls attention and coordinates information from the phonological loop and the visuospatial sketchpad the Supervises ow of information from P L and V S Central Executive Phonological Visuospatial Episodic Loop Sketchpad Buffer 5 F l Shortterm Language Emil Episodic E SETHHIIMCS E memory pgS erlin Orientation Re ex An organism s immediate response to a change in its environment 0 Habituation Pavlov referred to this as a gradual familiarity effect and reduction of the orienting response with repeated stimulus presentations Flashbulb memories distinctly vivid precise concrete long lasting memories of a personal circumstance surrounding a person39s discovery of shocking event Recognition vs recall 0 Recognition Retrieving information stored in memory clues 0 Recall Retrieving information stored in memory from retrieval clues 0 Mnemonic Devices Methods for organizing information in order to remember it Tipof thetongue phenomenon The subjective feeling of knowing something yet not being able to recall it This is the retrieval process gone awry


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