Study Guide/Notes for Exam 3 for Functional Anatomy
Study Guide/Notes for Exam 3 for Functional Anatomy 80204 - BIOL 2220 - 002
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Anatomy Notes Exam 3 Chapter 15 Brain and Cranial nerves Brain is capable of controlling a multitude of activities simultaneously amp respond to a variety of stimuli with an amazing degree of versatility Adut brain weight 135 14 kgquot39 3 pounds 1200 cc volume BUT does size intelligence No it is all about wiring that makes intelligence Brain development and tissue organization Copyngm 19 The llcCIawHl Combines in Pamisalon recur3d fc learodoctgun c lzeplay meninges sku l third ventricle quotJV1quot 2w lateral ventricle Cerebrum corpus callosum l thalamus Diencephalon lhypothal a amus pituitary gland midbrain i Brain pons Stem medulla quot Cerebellum oblon ata 39 g fourth ventricle vertebra Splna39 a cord vertebra What are the elevations of the brain Gyrus What are the depressions Sulcus What is the deepest depression fissure How is the cerebrum divided up Frontal parietal temporal occipital cerebellum What is cerebellum known as The little brain What makes up the brain stem Midbrain pons and the medulla What makes up the Diencephalon epithalmus thalamus and hypothalamus Fun fact Lissencephaly which literally means smooth brain mentally retarded and suffers from seizures In the picture below be aware of rostal and caudal Ventral inferior Embryonic development of the brain Where does brain development begin Rostal end of the neural tube the growth rate is disproportional How is the brain restricted and why It is restricted by membranous skull bc ossification is not complete yet and bending the brain allows for more space to fit For example the midbrain and the cervical bend the brain towards the brain stem What do the creases and folds do Increases SA for the neurons How is the brain organized in terms of neural tissue Gray and white matter The gray matter contains the cell bodies dendrites and axon terminals of neurons so it is where all synapses are White matter is made of axons connecting different parts of grey matter to each other The gray matter contains motor neurons and the white matter contains sensory neurons How is the brain protected The cranium gives the brain its rigid support The meninges are the CT membranes that protect support and partition The CSF cushions the brain and the blood brain barrier prevents entry of harmful substances from the blood stream What are the cranial meninges Dura mater outermost layer pia mater innermost and arachnois web like structure What are the functions of them They separate soft tissue of brain from skull It encloses amp protects blood vessels It forms partitions within sku It limits excessive movement of brain It contains circulates CSF and it assist to drain blood from brain The dural infoldings form spaces between the two layers of the dura mater These spaces are called dural venous sinuses and they collect blood from veins on the surface of the brain What are the 2 layers of the dura mater The endosteal layer This is the thickest layer and it lines the skull The meningeal layer This layer lines the endosteal layer most of the time except in a few places such as the falx cerebri and the tentorium cerebelli Where are brain ventricles derived from The lumen of embryonic neural tissue They are Continuous with one another and connect with the central canal of the spinal cord They are filled with fluid and lined by ependymal cells CSF function Buoyancy allows the brain to maintain its density without being impaired by its own weight protection if it gets jolted or hit and environmental stability neuroendocrine z quot 39t 3 m Dura maler Cranium Dural venous smus suponor sagmal smus Falx conbri inferno sang 7 smus Tentodum cmbolll 553 Tran5vorse Diaphragms smus saline Con uence pummw oi sinuses gland Singid smus Falx comboquot Ocopilal sinus k Cranium Oura male Falx comb Dural vonous sunus SUDOHOf sagmal SIMS lnlenor sagital smus Diaphragms some Patunary gland SUBDth sonus Tontorlum cerebelll Tenlonal notch Transverse sinus Con uence oi smuses Falx oomboill 1 Oceapaal SIMS v Brainslem Mldsagltlal section Posterior View hm Milan H W39quotJl r i n39n gtu1lu 39m h JunJon F or How is the CSF formed It is formed from the choroid plexus because it originates from the blood plasma and it is produced by the secretion from the ependymal cells Why is CSF continuously removed from subarachnoid space via arachnoid villi to venous circulation It helps drain the brain from the subarachnoid space What are characteristics of the blood brain barrier Protection mechanism Selective Contains select regions where barrier is absent which is allowing easy access to neural tissue What are the components of the blood brain barrier Components of BloodBrain Barrier Continuous endothelium of capillary connected by tight junctions Thick basal lamina that are fused basement membranes Perivascular feet of astrosytes What are two things that don39t have a blood brain barrier and houses the homeostasis control center Vomiting center and hypothalamus Cerebrum is comprised of 2 hemispheres and is the location of conscious thought processes amp origin of all complex intellectual functions What is the cerebrum involved in intelligence reasoning sensory perception thought memory amp judgment along with voluntary motor visual amp auditory activities Characteristics of cerebral hemispheres Difficult to assign exact function but both receiveproject sensory info from motor commands to opposite side of body and Display hemisphericcerebral lateralization look a like but have some functional differences Functional areas of cerebrum Motor Areas Sensory Areas Association Areas Motor Areas Control voluntary motor functions and are primarily found in frontal lobe Association Areas Integrate and store information connected to respective motorsensory regions Sensory Areas Where conscious awareness of sensation occurs Primary Motor amp Somatosensory Cortices Referred to as motor amp sensory homunculus Topography of primary motor cortex amp primary somatosensory cortex in coronal section Looks at the innervation of motorsomatosensory cortex to various body parts What is the somatic sensorv responsible for Touch pain and temperature What is the primary motor cortex responsible for Sends out command for cortex What is the premotor cortex responsible for Learned skilled movements What is the gnostic area responsible for provides a comprehensive summary of all the sensory info coming from the environment What is the primary gastularv cortex responsible for Taste Wernicke area language area helps us to understand language Notice the primary motor and somatosensory corticles in the picture below Primary motor cortex within precentral gyrus Primary somatosensory cortex within postcentral gyrus lt Lateral Medial gt lt Media Lateral gt Primary motor cortex Primary somatosensory cortex Central White matter What is it composed of Primarily composed of myelinated axons that are grouped together and called tracts How is it classified It is associated with communication within the hemisphere The function coordinates as a whole and it connects to the cortex to caudal and the spinal cord Where are the cerebral nuclei found Deep within the white matter and it is paired with irregular masses of gray matter What are the components of the cerebral nuclei Caudate nucleus pattern rhythm of arm amp leg movement associated with walking we are programmed to walk certain ways Lentiform nucleus ctrl muscle movement at subconscious level putamen amp excitesinhibits thalamus to controladjust muscle tone globus pallidus brings in sensory information CIaustrum process visual info at subconscious level standing uplook to the side Amygdaloid body expression of emotion ctrl behavior activities development of mood What are the 3 parts that make up the corpus striatum part of the basal ganglia of the brain comprising the caudate and lentiform nuclei What is the diencephalon composed of and what is its function It is comprised of the thalamus hypothalamus and the epithalamus It links the nervous system to the endocrine system by the pituitary gland Describe the epithalamus it partially forms the roof of the 4rd ventricle and contains the pineal gland and the habenuclar nuclei which maintain the bodys circadian rhythm The habenular nuclei is a relay system for the limbic system emotions and visceral and emotional response to motors Describe the tha mus It forms the superlateral walls of the 3rel ventricle and is comprised of thalamic nuclei The axons project to particular regions of the cerebral cortex It serves as a principle and final relay point for sensory info to be processed and projected to sensory cortex except olfaction It is an info filter and this is where the info originates from Describe the hypothalamus it is found in the basement of the 3rel ventricle and deals with homeostatic control such as autonomic control center temperature controls emotional responses and regulates food intake and water balancethirst It controls the endocrine system What are the components of the brain stem Midbrain pons and the medualla connects the cerebrum dicephalon and cerebellum to the SC What does the brain stem represent Bidirectional passageways for all tracts bw cerebrum and SC Describe the midbrain and the parts of it 7 f Posterior Superior colliculus Cerebral aqueduct RetiCUlar formation Periaqueductal gray matter Tegmemum Nucleus tOr oculomotor nerve Medial Iemniscus Red nucleus Substantia nigra Cerebral peduncle d 39 Oculomotor nerve CN III Anterior Mldbraln crosssectional view Cerebral pedunclespyramidal motor tracts descend to spinal cord Cerebral aqueduct posteriorperiaqueductal gray matter modulator of painampinvolved with aggressive behavior Tectumcorpora quadrigemina or tectal platesuperior and inferior colliculus Pigmented nucleisubstantia nigra relays inhibitory signals to cerebral nuclei to regulate motor output to SkM voluntary motor movementsDegeneration leads to Parkinson s disease red nucleusfunctions quotdebatable 9babies ability to crawl arm swinging during walking its red bc it houses iron in a neuron Reticular formation sleep and consciousness Describe the pans and its functions it forms the wall of the 4th ventricle and is composed of conductions tracts and acts as an autonomic respiratory center medulla sets while the pons modifies it allows for transitions bw expiration and inspiration Describe the medulla and its functions it blends into the SC at the foramen magnum and forms 4th ventricle wall It has 2 longitudinal ridges called the pyramids decussating of pyramidsthis is where they cross over they don t have to do this but most do The olive olivary nuclei relay sensory info sensory info that it is moving proprioception is there any bend in the joint for example to cerebellar cortex The autonomic nuclei cardiovascular centers how many beats your heart preforms respiratory center number and depth of breathemin it also regulates vomitinggaggingswallowingsalivationcoughing and sneezing What is unique about the vomiting center It is in the hypothalamus and it doesn t have a blood brain barrier bc it needs access to circulation Describe the cerebellum and its functions it is the 2 l largest part of the brain and known as the quotlittle brain It has a thin outer cortex of gray matter internal white and deep paired masses of gray matter All the fibers are entering and leaving the ipslateral The functions consist of coordinating body movements by the anterior and posterior lobes adjusting posture and maintaining balance by the flocculonodular lobe and overall coordinating the skeletal muscle movements to ensure the correct pathway for movements and memories Describe the Limbic Svstem it is involved in motivation emotion and memory with emotional association It is composed of cerebral and diencephalon structures It affects memory formation and integrated past memories of physical sensation with emotional stress Chapter 15 notes from the book What does the gray matter of the brain house Motor neurons interneuron cell bodies dendrites telodendria and unmyelinated axons What does the white matter of the brain house Since the white matter is the deepest of the brain due to the migrating peripheral neurons from brain development that make the gray matter called the cerebral cortex covers most of the brain The white matter has the cerebral nuclei How is the brain protected By the bony cranial provides support the CT gives it protection called the meninges These support surround and stabilize the brain The CSF acts as a cushion The blood brain barrier prevents harmful things from leaving the bloodstream What are the dural venous sinuses The meningeal layer is used to fuse the periosteal layer together except for areas of the brain where there are blood filled spaces that are large veins that drain blood from the brain and help with circulation of the head What is the CSF It is a clear colorless liquid that circulates in the ventricles and subarchnoid space It bathes the exposed surfaces of the central nervous system and surrounds the brain and SC completely It preforms many functions such as buoyancy this prevents the brain from being crushed by its own weight without it the brain would crush into the foramen magnum It also protects neural structures from sudden movements It is environmentally stable which means it transmits nutrients and chemicals to the brain and removes waste products from the brain It also protects the nervous tissue from chemical fluctuations How is the CSF formed It is formed from the choroid plexus in each ventricle The plexus is compsed of ependymal cells and the capillaries that lie within the pia mater It is produced by the cells from the blood plasma It is similar to the blood plasma except there are different concentrations of the ions The subarachnoid space removes any excess fluid so that it will not damage the nervous tissue Excess fluid will then return to the blood within the dural venous sinuses What is the blood brain barrier and what is its significance It regulates what substances can enter the interstitial fluid of the brain and it protects the nervous tissue and makes sure circulation in the brain is happening It is found everywhere except the choroid plexus hypothalamus and the pineal gland This is bc he choroid plexus is always permeable to produce CSF and the hypothalamus and pineal gland produce some hormones that have access to the bloodstream What is so special about the cerebrum It allows you to be intelligent and helps you reason through things helps you remember things and helps with sensory as well as judgment and voluntary motor activities Primary motor cortex controls motor functions and is housed in the frontal lobes it is called the somatic motor area Chapter 16 Spinal cord and Spinal nerves What are the 2 main functions the spinal cord demonstrates A pathway for sensor motor impulses and it is responsible for flexes such as stimuli Why isn t the spinal cord the entire length of the vertebral cord The SC doesn t grow much after birth and the VC grows after birth What are the 2 longitudinal depressions of the SC Anterior median fissure and the posterior median sulcus Why are the lumbar and sacral regions enlarged The upper limb and lower limb innervations need to have nerves running out of them Vocabulary Conus medullaristapered inferior end of spinal cordmarks quotofficialquot end of spinal cord proper Cauda equinegroup of axons that project inferiorly from the spinal cord Filum terminalethin strand of pia mater that helps anchor conus medullaris to coccyx CT tether for stabilizing movements Denticulate ligamentstriangular extensions of pia mater suspend amp anchor SC laterally to dura mater They attach onto the dura mater in the spinal cord Cerebellum Spinal cord Posterior rootlets Posterior median Denticulate sulcus ligaments b Cervical part Spinal cord Posterior rootlets Conus medullarls Posterior root Posterior root ganglion Cauda equina Filum terminale c Conus medullarls and cauda equina What are the structures in the picture below that are around the sacral region of the SC Spinal nerves of the cauda equina Notice the white and gray matter in the cervical first pic and the thoracic 2nd pic these will probably be used in the lab practical bc they both demonstrate gray and white matter so well What is the function of the meninges in the brain They protect encapsulate the SC and are continuous with the cranial meninges What are the layers of the meninges Dura mater outermost arachnoid collagen and elastic fibers and pia mater innermost with areolar CT How do you know where the posterior root ganglion is located It has a bump and is ALWAYS on the posterior portion It is sensory as well Describe the locationdistribution of the gray matter the gray matter has horns that are anterior cell bodies of the somatic motor neurons lateral cell bodies ofthe autonomic motor neurons cardiacsmooth muscle and glandsand posterior axons of the sensory neurons with cell bodies in the DRG this is where the info flows in and out through the anterior horn The gray commissure allows for communication bw the left and right sides of the gray mater What are the sensory neurons responsible for in the gray matter Somatic pain pressure receptors in skin and visceral stretches receptors in visceral smooth muscle walls What about the motor neurons in the gray matter The somatic innervates the skeletal muscle and the autonomic innervates the smooth muscle cardiac muscle and glands How does information come in Sensory comes into the posterior side and is usually unipolar Then the synapse goes into the motor and comes out into the anterior horn How the white matter distributed and what is it responsible for 3 regions called the funiculus anterior lateral and posterior Axons in the white matter are organized as tracts and conduct sensoryascending or descending motor neurons only There are no cell bodies in the white matter Where are the spinal nerves formed from The union of motor and sensory axons The anterior is the motor and the posterior is the sensory It occurs within the intervertebral foramen and exits the vertebral of the same number cervical has 8 spinal nerves thoracic has 12 lumbar 5 sacrum 5 fused coccyx has 23 that count as 1 What happens when the spinal nerves leave the intervertebral foramen They split into branches called the rami anterior is the nerve plexus What are dermatomes Specific segments of the skin supplied by a single spinal nerve All of the spinal nerves are involved except C1 What is the nerve plexus What are the principal ones Why is it an advantage to have them organized from the ramus and go through different structures of the body It is a network of interweaving anterior rami of spinal nerves which split and then go through other nerves of the body Cervical brachial lumbar and sacral are the principle plexuses Most of the thoracic and SSCOl don t form plexuses The thoracic spinal nerves form the intercostal nerves The advantage is that a damage to a single SC segmentspinal nerve will not result in complete loss of innervation to the muscleregion of the skin Define what a reflex is Rapid automatic involuntary reactions of muscle or glands to a stimulus What are the properties of a reflex stimulus required for initiation of response response requires few neurons synaptic delay minimal automatic response occurs the same way every time involuntary response requires no intent or preawareness of the reflex activity How is a reflex a survival mechanism It allows quick response to potentially harmful event without having to wait for brain to process information What are the components of a reflex arc nfo in afferentsensory and info out is motorefferent Stimulus activates lt2 Nerve impulse travels through Nerve impulse is processed in the receptor sensory neuron to the spinal cord integration center by interneurons Nerve impulse is relayed to the brain by interneuron collaterals Interneuron Spinal cord 1 Q1 Motor neuron transmits 39 nerve impulse to effector Effector responds to impulse from motor neuron What are examples of spinal reflexed Monosynpatic is the fastest knee jerk as an example withdrawl is like having a cup of coffee that is too hot and you pull back from it psilatera is the same side reflex and receptor Contralateral is a sensory receptor on one side and the response on the other Sensor stretch rece tor WM y p I Mendsmaptlete ex I Polysynaptic re ex Direct communication between lnterneuron facilitates sensory and motor neuron sensorymotor communication eg stretch reflex eg withdrawal re ex Sensory receptor Sensory neuron Effector ll i t I organ Motor neuron Motor neuron Chapter 17 Pathways and Integrative functions What are the general characteristics of the NS pathways CNS communicates with peripheral body structures through pathways that are either sensory or motor information Ascending pathways carry sensory info and descending pathways carry motor pathways Processing and integration continue throughout and it utilizes white matter to connect CNS region with peripheral nerve The pathways consists of a tract and a nucleus that have axons and cell bodies within it It is a sequence of specific events Over 90 of the pathways decussate The pathways exhibit somatotopy which is always paire and composed of at least 2 or 3 neurons that correspond bw the body and the area of the CSN so it is mapped of the cerebral cortex Discuss sensory pathways the process and the 3 major somatosensory pathways ascending pathways conduct info about the limb position touch temperature pressure and pain It includes the somatosensory which included the skin muscle and joint receptors It also includes the viserosensory visceral receptors process it begins with sensory R detecting stimuli and conducting nerve impulses to CNS Then sensory pathways centers into the SC or brainstem and processes info or FILTERS incoming sensory info The SELECT info continues to the cerebrum to the cerebral cortex It is select info because info gets filtered and not everything goes to the cerebral cortex 3 types posterior funiculusmedial lemniscal anterolateral and spinocerebellar How many neurons do the sensory pathways utilize 2 or 3 that transmit the stimulus info What is the posterior funiculus medial lemniscal pathway t conducts info about the limb position finediscrimitive touch precise pressure and vibration Explain the pathways of the posterior funiculus medial lemniscal pathway It carries and processes discriminative touch and proprioceptive information from the body Figure 45 It is important to keep in mind that within the medial lemniscal pathway the afferents carrying discriminative touch information are kept separate from those carrying proprioceptive information up to the level of the cerebral cortex Copyright if McGraw Hill Education Permission required for reproduction or display Right side of body Left side of body Primary somatosensory cortex postcentral gyrus Cerebrum Tertiary neuron Secondary neuron Midbrain Medial Iemniscus Nucleus gracills i Nucleus cuneatus Medial Iemniscus Medulla oblongata A Decussation prior l to entry into the 4 medial lemniscus Receptors for discriminative touch proprioception i 5 precuse pressure and 5 Primary neuron vibration from neck trunk39 hmbs Hy Fasciculus gracrlis Posterior 7 Fasciculus cuneatus funiculus Anterior root s 39 Posterior root Spinal cord Pathway direction r r i What is the anterolateral pathway It is also called the spinothalamic pathway and it located in anterior and lateral white funiculi and conducts info on crude touch and pressure pain and temperature sensations The pathway decussates in the SC and synapses in the thalamus and filters to the somatosensory cortex What neurons are motor pathways controlled by At least 2 motor neurons the upper serves to exciteinhibit lower motor neuron and the lower motor neuron always excitatory and connects to skm fibers What does the lower motor neuron form The neuromuscular junction with the skm Discuss the direct pathways in motor neurons also referred to as pyramidal pathway 2 neuron chain originates in pyramidal cells in primary motor cortex upper motor neuron descends through internal capsule enter cerebral peduncles amp ultimately form 3 descending motor tracts corticobulbar assist with forming Cranial Nerves eye movement cranialfacialpharyngeallaryngeal muscles tongue muscles amp some superficial muscles of neckback and the corticospinal ctrl voluntary motor activity anterior axial musculature decussates in SC lateral limbs skilled movement decussates in medulla These both decussate but in different regions Discuss the indirect pathway upper motor neurons originate from brainstem complex circuitous route t initiates motor commands for activities that occur at the subconscious level and modifieshelps control pattern of somatic motor activity which is accomplished by altering motor neuron sensitivity activation of feedback loops grouped according to primary function lateral pathway regulatecontrol precise discrete movements amp tone in flexor muscle of limbs rubrospinal and the medial pathway regulate muscle tone amp gross movements of head neck proximal limb amp trunk muscles reticulospinal tectospinal amp vestibulospinal What is the spinocerebellar pathway t conducts proprioceptive info joint bending and position to cerebellum for processing to coordinate body movements The major routes for postural input to the cerebellum is critical for regulation of posture balance and coordination of skilled movements The info is integrates and acted upon subconsciously It is a 2 neuron chain that ENDS in the cerebellum The anterior region decussates but the posterior region doesn t What are motor pathways Descending pathways in the brain and spinal cord that controls skm activity It is comprised of at least 2 motor neurons and can be seen in table 173 of the book The upper motor neurons serves to excite and inhibit lower motor neuron The lower motor neuron is always excitatory and connected to the skm fibers and it also forms the neuromuscularjxn What are the motor pathways There are 2 pathways indirect and direct Discuss the direct pathways these are 2 neuron chains that can also be called the pyramidal pathways that originates in the pyramidal cells in primary motor cortex the upper motor neuron These descend through the internal capsule and enter in the cerebral peduncles and ultimately form the 3 descending motor tracts which are the coritcobulbar and the corticospinal Discuss the corticobulbar it assists with the CRANIAL NERVES eye movement laryngeal and pharyngeal muscles tongue muscles and some superficial muscles of the neck and back What is the corticospinal pathway t controls the voluntary motor activity which included the anterior axial musculature and decussates in the SC and the lateral which is seen in the limbs skilled movements and decussates in the medulla What is the indirect pathway The upper motor neurons originate from the brain stem and it is a complexcircuitous route Initiate motor commands for activities that occur at the subconscious level and modifies and helps control pattern of the somatic motor activity which is accomplished by altering motor neurons sensitivity and activation of feedback loops How are the indirect pathways grouped together It is according on primary function and the lateral pathway regulates and controls precise discrete movements and tone in flexor muscles of the limbs like the rubrospinal The medial pathway regulates the muscle tone gross movements of the head neck proximal limbs and trunk muscles like the reticulospinal tectospinal and vestibulospinal What is the role of the cerebral nuclei receive impulses from the entire cerebral cortex as well as limbic system output mostly to primary motor cortex no direct ctrl over lower motor neuron provide patterned background movements needed for conscious motor activities adjust motor commands by other nuclei What is the role of the cerebellum regulate functions of motor pathways unconsciously perceives state of body receives plans for movement and then follows activity to see if carried out correctly generate errorcorrecting signal influence exerted by indirectly affecting excitability of motor neurons critical role b coordinates movements by specifying exact timing of control signals to different muscles What is the left hemisphere responsible for specialized for language performs sequential amp analytical reasoning partition info into smaller fragments for analysis also known as the categorization and symbolization The right hemisphere seat of imagination amp insight musicalartistic skills patterns amp spatial relationships compares sights sounds smells amp tastes also called the visuospatial relationships and analyses What are interesting about the petalias The shape is asymmetric of the frontal and occipital lobes What is consciousness sensation awareness voluntary ctrl of motor activities amp activities necessary for higher mental processing Where does it happen Large areas of the cerebral cortex Define reticular formation loosely organized core of gray matter What are characteristics of the reticular formation And where is it located It is the functional brain system and the motor component muscle tone and assists with autonomic motor activites and acts as a sensory component which alerts the cerebrum of incoming info like visual auditory and touch stimuli that helps us be mentally alert or else our brain would falls asleep Chapter 18 Autonomic Nervous System What is the ANS Complex system of involuntary actions that works with the somatic NS to regulate the body organs and maintain normal internal functions like homeostasis How do the somatic NS and autonomic SN differ The somatic is consciously controls by effectors skeletal efferent 1 motor neuron and the neurotransmitter neuromuscularjunction releases Ach and it is excited for it The autonomic NS is unconscious and effectors consist of the smooth muscle that is in the trachea blood vessels GI tract glandscardiac and the efferent is 2 motor pathways that innervate smooth muscle The preganglionic neuron releases Ach and the postganglionic releases Ach and neuroepinephrin What are the components of the Autonomic NS Preganglion neuron produces Ach myelinated and large in diameter The postganglion varies in neutotrasnmitters and small in diameter This means that is it slower than the preganglion because it is not myelinated and smaller in diameter Therefore postganglion is slow communication and preganglion is fast communication What is parasvmpathetic division It is referred to as a break in driving It rests and digests in responses The main job is to bring the body back to homeostasis What is svmpathetic division It is referred to the gas in driving and is responsible for emergency situationfight or flight involved in homeostasis It gets the body prepared for whatever could happen unexpectedly What are the differences in the neuron pathways of parasympathetic and sympathetic division Sympathetic preganglion are branched while the parasympathetic have longer axons Parasympathetic has a close location to the effector organ while the sympathetic doesn t Parasympathetic Division Sympathetic Division Short branching Ganglion Short preganglionic axon Preganglionic neuron postganglionic Long DOStQaPQI39On39C axon neuron Long preganglionic axon axon Preganglionic 1 I I I I neuron I 39 39 lt X Ganglionic neuron Autonomic ganglion K L I close to or within effector organ wall 39 Autonomic ganglion close to the vertebral column a b Where are the preganglion neurons housed in the parasympathetic NS In the brainstem nuclei and lateral gray matter regions of the sacral spinal cord When is the parasympathetic NS most active When the body must process nutrients conserve energy and attempt to return to homeostasis rest and response Action is usually discrete and localized Where is the preganglion neurons housed in the sympathetic NS In the thoracic region of the spine How is the sympathetic NS activated Either by a single effector or by multiple effectors called mass activation for a crisis and activated the Reticular activation system In the parasympathetic and the sympathetic divisions where do the innervated organs with the axon bundles go throug Autonomic plexuses it is a collection of sympathetic postganglionic amp parasympathetic preganglionic axons some visceral sensory axons do not synapse or interact with each other How do the divisions communicate By the neurotransmitters Are organs innervated by both divisions Yes it is called duel innervation It allows the body to maintain homeostasis through autonomic reflexes that occur in innervated organs The advantage is that the body utilizes the antagonistic properties and cooperative effects What is the system of divisions regulated by The cerebrum hypothalamus the brainstem and the spinal cord Chapter 19 Senses General and specific What is the difference between sensation and perception Sensation is the conscious awareness and perception is the interpretation What is the overall function of a receptor Serves as a transducer It transforms the stimulus energy into a nerve impulse How are differences in patterns of nerve impulses conducted Interpretation and importance Which field of receptors will be more precise a small or large field A small field What is a tonic receptor and a phasic receptor Tonic is continuous and phasic reacts and adapts Tonic Receptors Tonic receptors receive and process stimuli continuously at a constant rate eg balance receptors in the ear Response Strength of response Time With continued exposure sensitivity to the stimulus remains constant Phasic Receptors Phasic receptors quickly detect a new stimulus or a change in a stimulus that has already been applied eg tactile receptors in the skin Response Strength of response Time Detection of a new or changed stimulus produces a response With continued exposure sensitivity to the stimulus diminishes resulting in adaptation What is the difference between general R s and special sense R s general are distributed throughout the skin and organs whereas special R s are housed within complex organs in the head Discuss how sensory receptors are classified R distribution General senses somatic R s body wall and visceral R s walls of viscera Special senses location restricted to sense organs in head Stimulus origin exteroceptors sensitive to stimuli that arise outside body touch pressure temperature pain along with special senses interoceptors sensitive to stimuli that arise inside body internal viscera amp bld vessels chemical changes stretching temperature unaware of workings proprioceptors respond to internal stimuli from skeletal muscle joints tendons ligaments amp CT of bone and muscles Important in body position of a joint cerebellum Modility of stimulus Chemoreceptors chemicals in solution thermoreceptors photoreceptors mechanoreceptors mechanical force and baroreceptorspressure within the body The last one is called nociceptorspotentially damaging stimuli that results in painpain receptors or it can generate pain Special note overstimulation of any sensory R is painfun and can function as a nociceptor What is phantom pain Pain is associated with a body part that has been removed Some people experience phantom limb syndrome which is where the sensory pathway is being activated somehow As long as the pathway is there the pain can be sensed What is referred pain CNS misinterpretation of incoming information The impulses from viscera are perceived as originating from dermatome of skin because they both utilize the same ascending tract within the spinal cord localized incorrectly Example when you have a heart attack you feel pain down the left arm because an organ is using the same ascending pathway as a dermatome region and it is misinterpreted What are tactile Receptors Most numerous type of R Typically mechanoR s that react to touch pressure and vibration stimuli It is located in the dermis and subcutaneous layer Unencapsulated tactile receptor Tactile dISC Encapsulated tactile receptors Free nerve ending Tactile cmpuscle 39 End bulb r Bulbous corpuscle l Lamouated i corpuscle 900 has plexus What is the djfference between encapsulated and unencapsulated receptors Unencapsulated R s have no CT wrapping around them and are simple in structure There are 3 unencapsulated R s free nerve endings hair root plexus and tactile discs Free nerve endings sense temperature and pain Hair root plexus senses displacement of hair Tactile discs sense light touch and different textures and shapes Encapsulated R s are either wrapped by CT or covered by glial cells These include end bulbs detect low vibrations and light pressure pacinian corpuscle detects deep pressure and vibrations meissners corpuscle detects discriminative touch and texture ruffini corpuscle detects stretching of skin What are gustatory cell receptors Classified as chemoreceptors that respond to chemicals in aqueous solutions How is saliva advantageous for gustulation saliva keeps environment moist and serves as a medium for taste chemicals to dissolve within Where are gustatory receptors housed in taste buds that are found in papillae and elevated on the dorsal surface of the tongue Taste buds are comprised of epithelium and CT There are 4 types of them filiform fungiform vallate and foliate What do supporting cells do for taste buds Support the gustatory ces Do taste buds stick around for a lifetime or are they made new every several days Taste buds have a 710 day life span and then basal cells replace gustatory R s What do basal cells do in gustatory R s constantly replace gustatory ces stem cells Why are the gustatory hairmicrovilli advantageous This extends through the taste pore to the surface of the tongue This is the receptive portion of the cell When food is dissolved this stimulates the microvii Discuss the 4 types of taste buds 1 Vallate houses many taste buds that are not on surface they are located on side because certain foods rub away surface epithelium taste buds 2 Filiform papilla texture of foods 3 Foliate only important as a baby health receptors during infancy and early childhood development then disappears 4 Fungiform few taste buds How are taste sensations grouped Sweet elicited by organic substances Sour acid especially H Salty metal ions inorganic salts Bitter alkaloids as well as toxins or poisons Umami amino acids glutamate and aspartate forjuicy flavor Where is sensory info sent alongCN7 and CN9 Why are there more sensitive than sour and bitter stimuli That is how the stimuli are organized What does a combo of taste modalities allow Allows us to perceive wide varieties of tastes What is the only sense that doesn t run through the thalamus Olfactory Discuss olfactory R s chemoR s adapt quickly detect odor What is the purpose of olfactory epithelium It serves as an organ for smell and is pseudostartified that has supporting cells bipolar cellsturnover and basal cells What is our dominant sense and assists us in forming specific detailed visual images of objects in our environment Vision special sense What is the important of accessory structures of the eve Provide superficial covering over anterior exposed surface prevent foreign objects from coming into contact with eye and keep the exposed surface moist clean and lubricated It includes eyebrows eyelids conjunctiva lacrimal apparatus and extrinsic eye muscles Eyebrow Eyelashes Superior eyelid I I Pupil Lacnma carunc e Sclera covered by conjunctiva Medial palpebral Iris commissure Lateral palpebral commissure Palpebral fissure lnlerior eyelid a What is the conjunctivzgSpecialized stratified squamous epithelium that forms a continuous lining of external anterior surface of the eye ocular conjunctiva and not present over the cornea and the internal surface of the eyelid palebral conjunctiva It contains numerous goblet cells that secretes mucin protein that lubricates and moistens eye DiSCUSS other accessory structures Eyebrows row of thick short hairs keeps sweat out of eye Eyelashes prevent foreign objects from coming into contact with anterior surface of eye EyeHds palpebrae movable anterior protective covering over surface of eye 0 superior amp inferior What is the lacrimal apparatus It consists of the lacrimal gland and ducts It produces collects and drains excess lacrimal secretions from the eye into the nasal cavity It contains mucus antibodies and lysozyme The gland is what brings the tear to the opposite corner of the eye when you blink Lacrimal caruncle produces green material that is produced during the night while you sleep What are the extrinsic eye muscles and what is it responsible for Inferior and superior oblique muscle inferiorsuperiormediaIIateral rectus muscle Depending on where it is these move eye medially and laterally and elevates and depressed eye Discuss the structure of the eve slightly irregular hollow sphere It is mostly in the skull Orbital fat is a cushion to support protect and vascularize the eye The lens is in a hollow portion of the eye The eye wall is composed of 3 tunics internal cavities and maintains shape What are the tunics of the eye The outermost is fibrous the middle is vascularized and the inner is the retina Fibrous tunic Sclera Cornea Vascular tunic Iris Ciliary body Choroid Retina Pigmented layer Neural layer a What is fibrous tunic comprised of Dense avascular CT sclear tough protects amp shapes eyeball as well as sturdy attachment site for EEM s the cornea transparent bulges anteriorly avascular relies on lacrimal secretions for nutrient deliverywaste removal It is beyond the reach of immune system and lastly the limbus corneal scleral junction What is the vascular tunic comprised of It houses extensive array of blood vessels lymphatics and intrinsic eye muscles The choroid 9 highly vascular supplies nutrients to eye tunics amp absorbs light ciliary body mainly 4 layers of SmM organized into a ring and the iris functions as a diaphragm to control the pupil size What is the neural tunic retina comprised of pigmented layer amp neural layer tunic that contains the photoreceptor cells The optic disc blind spot where the optic nerve exits and the fovea centralis is within the macula lutea and represents sharpest vision cones Discuss the parts of the neural retina O PhotoR cells 0 transduce light energy 0 rods 0 more abundant O dimlight peripheral vision 0 cones O brightlight O highacuity color vision 0 bipolar cells 0 place of convergence of info from photoR cells 0 ganglion cells 0 neuronal convergence to optic nerve O amacrine cells assist with processingintegrating visual info light must travel through to get to the retina photoR s rods and cones have different wiring What is the lens filled with filled with a protein crystalline structural protein that is water soluble When ti comes into contact with water it is transparent Flexibility is important so we can change the way the light goes onto the retina Discuss the cavities of the eve aqueous humor is continually renewed and brings in nutrients and removes waste The vitreous lasts a lifetime and supports the lens holds the retina in place and helps assist with eye movements What does the outer ear consist of Pinnadirects sound waves to external acoustic meatus The external acoustic meatus is lined with hairs ceruminous glands which make ear wax The tympanic membrane vibrates when sound waves strike it transfers sound energy to ossicles Middle ear components houses opening for the auditory tube and ossicles that are connected to joints so they move Inner ear components located within the petrous region that has the bony labyrinth which is system of torturous channels through bone filled with perilymph In the bony there is a membranous labyrinth that is filled with endolymph and has R s and equilibrium for hearing Bony labyrinth has 3 regions vestibule semicircular canals and the cochlea The perilymph is similar to CSF and the endolymph is similar to the interstitial fluid What is the macula responsible for Sensory R for static equilibrium linear association it has the utricle horizontal and the saccuole vertical that is found on the wall What is the crista apullaris responsible for Rotaryangular movement that is found in semicircular canals Where are hearing structures housed in cochlea What is the sensory organ that rests on the basilar membrane The spiral organ What activates the spiral organ The basilar membrane being vibrated at different frequencies What is the release mechanism of the ez Scala tympani it bulbs the round window and releases pressure waves What makes the basilar membrane vibrate more robustly Loud sound CNS pathways for hearing 6 Movement of basilar membrane produces nerve impulses that are propogated along cochlear nerve axons Cochlear nerve axons terminate in the cochlear nucleus in the medulla oblongata Two sensory pathways extend from the nucleus Axons from secondary neurons in the cochlear nucleus project directly to the inferior colliculus Axons from some secondary neurons in Tha39amus the cochlear nucleus project to the Primary superior olivary nucleus first before Primary auditory cortex synapsing with other neurons that auditory cortex project to the inferior colliculus J I Medial geniculate Axons from neurons In the Inferior nucIeus colliculus project to the medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus Inferior colliculus lt4 Axons from thalamic neurons project to the primary auditory co lzaNr I D nch cortex where the nerve impulses are perceived T a W h r 39 Superior olivary nucleus as sound t a M V 391 39V Cochlear nucleus After the cohchlear nucleus goes to the thalamus it goes to the primary auditory cortex which then goes 1 of 2 pathways 1 cochlear nucleus to the tectal plate which is utilized with loud sound or 2 to the superior ovulary which helps localize sound
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