Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide 11762-002
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Colean Notetaker on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 11762-002 at Kent State University taught by John Updegraff in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 197 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
Exam 2 Study Guide Psychology John Updegraff Occurs with intention and it is voluntary Occurs without intention and it is involuntary 1 NonRem stage 1 5 min Senses shut down Brain emits slow alpha amp theta waves Person is easy to arouse 2 NonRem stage 2 20 min Occasional bursts of rapid brain activity sleep spindles Breathing amp pulse slow down Muscles relax 3 NonRem stages 34 30 min Brain emits slower delta waves Often where sleeping walking amp talking occurs Person is hard to arouse Most hormone growth is released 4 Rem Sleep Rapid brain waves Genitals become aroused Motor Cortex is active but messages are blocked Eyes dart around when dreaming occurs Appear during nonrem stage 1 Large slow and more regular than delta Appear during nonrem stage 34 The lengthening and increasing frequency and depth of rapid eye movement REM sleep which occurs after periods of sleep deprivation When people have been prevented from experiencing REM they take less time than usual to attain the REM state The story line of a dream The underlying meaning of a dream 1 Unconscious Wishes 2 Conscious Wishes 3 Activation theory 4 Functional account to help remember information A stimuli that naturally and automatically triggers an emotional or psychological response ex food Whatever the natural response to the UCS is ex drool A stimuli that triggers a response after association With an unconditioned stimuli ex bell The learned response to a conditioned stimuli ex drooling after the bell is rung If the UCS doesn t follow the CS the CR weakens If the food stops following the ringing of the bell the dog eventually stops drooling after the bell rings Stimuli similar to the CS can elicit the CR The greater the similarity the stronger the CR Helping to get rid of an existing fear common with phobias Procedure by which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer amp closer approximations of a desired goal E L Thorndike s law of effect More likely to repeat behaviors that are followed By favorable consequences reinforcements Less likely to repeat behaviors that are followed by unfavorable consequences punishments 2 Continuous reward is given every time a behavior occurs good for an organism to start learning a behavior Intermittent a reward is sometimes given good for an organism to keep performing a behavior Reward comes after a fixed time period Reward comes after unpredictable time period Reward comes after a fixed number of responses Reward comes after unpredictable number of responses Ratio schedules result in faster acquisition than interval schedules because reward is linked to the number of responses Variable schedules result in faster acquisition than fixed schedules because variable schedules lead to more consistent responding Slowest Schedule interval amp fixed Occurs without any obvious reinforcement of the behavior or associations that are learned Ex if people are given money to do things they like after a while of doing them they will probably get old to them and they will stop doing them The idea that humans done need to direct experience with rewards amp punishment instead they can learn by observing behaviors of other people This is an in atable toy clown with sand in the bottom allowing it to rock back and forth when pushed Bandura showed three groups of 3 to 5 year olds a film in which an adult model physically and verbally assaulted an unfortunate Bobo doll The adult yelled Pow right in the nose when punching the doll in the face Sockeroo stay down when hitting the doll with a mallet Fly away when kicking the doll around the room and Bang when throwing a ball at the doll The first group of children saw the adult being rewarded for aggression with candy and soda A second group of children saw the adult being verbally reprimanded spanked and threatened The third group did not see any positive or negative consequences for the adult s actions Subsequently when the children who had viewed the film were allowed an opportunity to play with a Bobo doll they displayed a significant amount of aggression In all cases boys were more likely to behave aggressively than girls The group that witnessed the reprimand of the adult model showed slightly less aggression The process of acquiring information and transferring it into memory Memories in the brain can last anywhere from fractions of a second sensory memory to several seconds short term and working memory to indefinitely long term memory The culmination of the memory process is the retrieval of stored information Two of the most common causes of retrieval failure are interference and stress Repetition of information over and over This information stays in short term memory indefinitely as long as you are not asked to think about anything else Mental sketchpad that lasts about 2030 seconds First and last items of a list Easier to remember than those items listed in the middle First items always easier to remember Items presented earlier can be rehearsed longer Rehearsing first item interferes With later items Last items usually easier to remember Last items most likely to stay in shortterm memory Only true if test immediate follows the list Learning strategy Practice is broken up into a number of short sessions over a longer period of time Explicit memorv Semantic memory like facts and figures lyrics Episodic memory memories of events and experiences Implicit memorv Procedural memory how to do things Recall Retrieving information learned earlier Recognition Identifying information previously learned Being in the same situation that you learned helps With retrieving When happy you are more likely to recall happy memories When sad you are more likely to recall sad memories When you incorporate misleading information into your memory of an event Discovered by Daniel Kahneman amp Amos Tversky the only psychologists to ever Win the Nobel Prize We judge the likelihood of something belonging to one category or another based on how well it seems to match the prototype stereotype of a category Leads us to ignore other more important information such as base rates We estimate the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory If events come easily to mind we believe that they are more likely to happen than if they don t come easily to mind This causes us to overestimate the likelihood of certain rare memorable and highly publicized events such as airline crashes terrorist attacks nuclear accidents shark attacks winning the lottery The way material is presented can affect the kinds of decisions we make People more likely take risky actions to avoid something framed as a loss than if it s framed as a gain People are very loss averse Our beliefs distort logical thinking People are more likely to accept illogical conclusions when they are consistent with one s beliefs
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