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PSY322 Exam 2 guide

by: Benny Ye

PSY322 Exam 2 guide 322

Marketplace > University at Buffalo > Psychlogy > 322 > PSY322 Exam 2 guide
Benny Ye
GPA 3.65
Abnormal Psychology
Goddard, E L

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About this Document

A comphrensive list of all the definition, terms and notes that was used in our lectures. I rearranged the notes to make it more concise and a lot more organized. Hope it helps
Abnormal Psychology
Goddard, E L
Study Guide
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Benny Ye on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 322 at University at Buffalo taught by Goddard, E L in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 171 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University at Buffalo.


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Date Created: 10/21/15
PSY 322 Abnormal Psychology Study Guide Fear amp Anxiety Chapter 5 1 Fear or panic is a basic emotion enabling a quick response when faced with an immediate threat immediate danger Ex someone jumps out at you and you jump back scream ght or ight activates In case of panic the activating factor would be something like public speaking or seeing a spider the same physiological response occurs even if there is no immediate danger 2 Anxiety is a complex blend of emotions that is more future oriented and more diffuse than fearfuture danger these are adaptive traits people perform better when they39re slightly anxious but not too anxious Components of Anxiety 1 Cognitive components I feel anxious about getting something done any preoccupation worry apprehension in your mind 2 Physiological symptom increased heart rate and respiration elevations in cortisol levels people have chronically elevated HRBP 3 Behavioral components Avoidance of particular situations most common class of disorders 30 of women and 19 of men The most common type of anxiety disorders are phobias Posttraumatic stress disorder 1 Experience of severe trauma Ex war rape car accident natural disaster threat of death harm 2 has a high comorbidity to depression due to traumatic events haunting the individual 3 Diagnostic trauma Must have one of recurrent intrusive distressing recollections recurrent distressing dreams ashbacks intense psychological distress at exposure to internal or external cues that represent trauma physiological reactivity to exposure to internal or external cues that represent trauma Must last more than one month after the trauma 4 Degrees acute lasts less than three months chronic 3 months or longer delayed onset symptoms begin 6 months or more after trauma PTSD causes 1Biological predisposition can occur in children and adults 2 Psychological predisposition experience of childhood stress level of control of life in general stability of family unit 3 Protective factors social support positive coping skills when both an injury and fear of death are involved in a situation there is a high likelihood of PTSD PTSD treatment 1Reexperiencing reducing the fear extinction of the learned fear response developing better coping mechanisms in the face of the response people need to work through the trauma and develop better coping skills 2 imaginary exposure person visualizes the trauma in their head and describes feelings and thoughts to a therapist Speci c phobia 1 an irrational fear of a speci c object or situation that markedly interferes with an individual39s ability to function 2 speci c fears occur in the majority of the population Types of speci c phobia 1Animal 2bood injection injury type caused by a sudden drop in heart rate 3breathing and blood pressure has a strong heritability response to a phobic stimuli 4natura environmental typeheights storms water 5Situationalplanes elevators small places Causes psychodynamic viewpoint defense against anxiety of a repressed ld impulse learned behavior quotdirect experiencequot used to think this was necessary but it is not vicarious conditioning seeing someone else in a traumatic event informational transmission social and cultural in uences Treatment phobias are irrational fears so they can be unlearned you can use relaxation muscle control using exposure to fear stimuli ooding fear hierarchy Causes of panic disorders 1 Biochemical abnormalities or sensitivities to biological challenges resembling anxious arousal panic provocation agents 2 Amygdala overly sensitive fear circuits in the brain center for emotion and anger in the brain also responsible for fear reactions 3 fear of fear model these people have a panic attack for no reason and from here on out they fear anything that could possibly cause that to happen again 4 catastrophizing physical symptoms of anxiety once one notices their symptoms they notice their heart rate increases which causes a vicious cycle of scariness to cause an even greater increase of anxiety amping up of the sympathetic nervous system Psychological treatment of panic 1 Idea is that the panic is a learned response that can be unlearned 2 lnterceptive exposure exercises that are designed to induce sensations of panic practice the ones that are the most like symptoms to understand that they are merely bodily sensations that do not imply impending doom 3 situation exposure therapy face the same situation that causes panic with a fellow therapist 4 cognitive therapy Pharmacotherapy medicine drugs approach of panic 1 Benzodiazepines fast acting but sedating withdrawal problems addictive people need to have them to feel safe 2 SSRI selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor prozac paxil these are a slow release which requires a constant dosage of them this leads to dependence of these drugs 3 Tricyclic antidepressants effective at reducing panic attacks however the relapse is very high 90 once going off medication Agoraphobia social situation phobia Symptoms marked persistent fear that is excessive or unreasonable in two or more of the following scenarios 1 using public transportation 2 being in open spaces 3 being in enclosed spaces 4 standing in a line or a crowd 5 being outside of the home alone Social Anxiety Disorder Symptomscriteria 1 de nition marked as persistent and excessive fear of one or more social or performance situations in which the person is exposed to possible scrutiny by others Ex public speaking urinating in public bathrooms eating in public 2 Negative evaluation or embarrassment due to behaviorsshowing anxiety symptoms exposure to feared situation almost always results in anxiety and may result in situational panics 3 person recognizes fear as unreasonable or excessive feared social situations are avoided or endured with anxiety anxious anticipations of avoidance interferes with routine or goals Social Phobia subtypes 1 Generalized type fear of most social situations parties talking in class making phone calls 2 Non generalized type fear of public performance quotstage frightquot can stop career advancements can39t give a business talk pitch a sale present research Statistics of social phobia 1 Lifetime prevalence 133 slightly more in women 2 peak age of onset is 15 years 3 more people with social phobia are single Social Phobia Causes Causes can be genetics someone is born shy genetic predisposition can be learned if one performs badly in an important social setting or if they see other people embarrassed or mocked can also be evolutionary predictability or cognitive variables Social phobia Treatment Cognitive behavioral approach Group treatment practice role playing feared scenarios cognitive reconstruction audience is other group members individual therapy fear hierarchy exposure Medication can also be effective however medication have poor relapse rate when individual is taken off of the SSRls Generalized Anxiety disorder General or overall worry that can be very hard to control may result in dif culty to make decisions Symptoms excessive anxiety and worry persisting for at least 6 months about a number of events or activities worrying is dif cult to control must have three of the following symptoms restlessness feeling keyed up or on the edge easily fatigued dif culty concentrating or mind going blank irritability muscle tension Causes psychoanalytic theory unconscious con ict between ego and id blocked sexual and aggressive impulses large genetic overlap with MDE these individuals have experienced more unpredictable uncontrolled events in their lives and are less tolerant to uncertainty 1 Treatment SSRIs benzodiazepines relaxation cognitive reconstruction exposure to anxiety Obsessive compulsive disorder 1 obsessions persistent and recurrent intrusive thoughts images or impulses that are experienced as disturbing and inappropriate but has dif culty suppressing Ex fear of germs contamination harming others or self need for symmetry sexualaggressive thoughtsurges disaster religion 2 compulsions overt repetitive behaviors or more covert mental acts that a person feels driven to perform in response to an obsession overt hand washing covert counting praying ordering Ex washing checking mental acts aligning hoarding confessing praying Diagnostic criteria can have an obsession or compulsion or both 90 of cases must either interfere with ability to work or exceed an hour of time every day is not due to another illness disorder people think if they do not engage in their compulsion they rmly believe something horrible will happen Thoughtaction schema Causes 1 psychological when people try to rid themselves of obsessive or intrusive thoughts they often notice and increase as opposed to the desired decrease in negative thoughts rebound effect 2 biological is very heritable high levels of serotonin may be that brain functioning involved in inhibiting is not correct Treatment exposure and response prevention fear hierarchy pharmacotherapy Use of psychoactive substance statistics 1 28 million people worldwide use substances other that nicotine caffeine and alcohol 2 Abuse and dependence depending on age and socioeconomic status more common in younger individuals and poorer populations 3 it has been estimated that more than 12 of individuals with alcohol use disorders meet criteria for another psychiatric disorder 4 men are more likely to have these disorders than women Substance use term Use the ingestion of psychoactive drugs or substances in moderate amounts which do not interfere with functioning this should be very easy to stop using the substance Substance use disorder when there is a problematic pattern of use Intoxication reversible substances speci c syndrome due to intake of a substance which interferes with functioning the person is currently feeling the effects the time spent being high Withdrawal cessation of a substance showing physical signs of cessation the same or similar substance taken to avoid or relieve withdrawal symptom Tolerance 1 need for markedly increased amounts of the substance in order to achieve desired effects DSM5 Criteria Substance use symptoms 1 use substance for longer than intended failed attempts to cut down 2 time spend to get substance is excessive spending a large amount of budget 3 cravings tolerance withdrawal 4 result in failure to meet obligationsgiving up or reducing activities 5 use in dangerous situations Depressants 1 types alcohol barbiturates treatments for insomnia suppress CNS benzodiazepines fast acting antianxiety medications 2 effects slurred speech incoordination unsteady gait shaky eyes attentional or memory problems stupor or coma if not getting enough functional blood to the brain 3 General 17 people meet the criteria for alcohol use disorder more than of alcohol abusers suffer from at least one coexisting mental disorders alcohol abuse cuts across all age education occupational and socioeconomic boundaries Trends men are 5 times more likely than women to suffer from alcohol use disorders but no ethnic differences exist this is a different trend from almost every other psychological disorder 1 College students 44 of college students binge drink this drinking is associated with Hangovers causing missed classes interpersonal problems unprotected unplanned sex police involvement however most students do reduce drinking signi cantly after college 2 Impact of abuse withdrawal delirium tremens cirrhosis of the liver brain damage 3 Fetal alcohol syndrome social issues crime lost work health care homelessness DUI costs death


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