Midterm 2 Study Guide
Midterm 2 Study Guide PSY150A1
Popular in Psychology 150A: Structure of Mind and Behavior (PSY 150A1)
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gigi on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY150A1 at University of Arizona taught by Adam Lazarewicz in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 369 views. For similar materials see Psychology 150A: Structure of Mind and Behavior (PSY 150A1) in Psychlogy at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
Psych Midterm 2 Study Guide Chapter 5 States of Consciousness Consciousness Libet Timing of Consciousness Why do we sleep 3 Theories Circadian rhythm Describe the roles of sunlight the hypothalamus the pineal gland and melatonin in governing the circadian rhythm Stages of Sleep A person s awareness of own existence sensations cognitions Consciousness is not merely perception It39s an experience that emerges from patterns of brain activity It feels like I V p Consciousness prbrain activity pfbehavior Actually Brain activity consciousness gtbehavior Helps body recover from wear and tear energy Restorative Sleep keeps people out of trouble at night since we have poor night vision and are susceptible to danger Evolutionary Cognitive Helps consolidate memory Regular bodily rhythms that occur in a l24hr cycle biological clock Blood pressure pulse rate body temp blood sugar level hormone levels metabolism Hypothalamus gtKeeps us balanced amp regulates sleep LfLight sensitive amp triggers pineal gland LgtEndocrine gland secrets melatonin 9 Hormone makes you feel sleepy Order of sleep stages V 123432 REM 23432 REM Sleep cycle repeats about every 90 min Stages 3 amp 4 eventually disappear Stage 1 Stage 2 Stages 3 amp 4 REM What happens if you don t get enough REM sleep Dreams Freud s Dream interpretation Manifest Content Latent Content Lasts 5 minutes transition from wakefulness to sleep easily awakened See lights or geometric patterns Experience falling oating or a hypnotic jerk Theta WaveszlLess regular lower frequency Lasts 20 minutes p Sleep spindles brief bursts of rapid rhythmic brain activity p K complexes single highamplitude waves Easily awakened 3 2050 of brain activity is delta waves 4 More than 50 are Decreases in heart rate blood pressure breathing body temperature Lasts 30 min Delta Waves Slow high amplitude waves associated with deep sleep Rapid irregular breathing amp heart rate quick eye movements behind closed lids Most likely to have dreams that you remember REM gets longer as you sleep 2025 ofa full nights sleep is REM Reboundzi Longer more frequent REM stages following sleep deprivation Consolidates memory amp strengths neural pathways Unconscious Wish Fulfillment Theory Dreams allow us to express amp fulfill unconscious desires Obvious content details what we remember about the storyline Symbolic content underlying wish amp meaning of dream Activationsynthesis Theory of Dreams Insomnia Narcolepsy Sleep Apnea Night Terrors Learning Conditioning Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlor Dreams are a product of random bursts of neural activity various memories tied together in a story Especially during REM Can39t Sleep Repeated difficulty falling asleep staying asleep or waking up too early Treatments sedatives that depress central nervous system ex Ambien Uncontrollable quotsleep attackquot 520 min 70 experience cataplexy loss of muscle control slurred speech impaired vision Deficit in Hypocretin keeps us alert Difficulty breathing while sleeping no memory of waking up extreme fatigue CPAP machine treatment Awakening from non REM sleep with extreme fear panic Treated with therapy amp antidepressants Chapter 6 Learning Relatively permanent change in thought amp behavior due to experience Adaptability Process of learning associations Stimulus A causes an automatic behavior then stimulus B produces that same behavior on its own Dogs salivated at sight of food dish amp person who brought it Food caused salivation unconditioned response Turned attention to studying learning Conditioned learned unconditioned automatic Unconditioned Stimulus US Unconditioned Response UR Conditioned Stimulus CS Conditioned Response CR Acquisition Extinction Stimulus Generalization Stimulus Discrimination Little Albert Watson amp Rayner 1920 Taste aversion Operant conditioning Stimulus that automatically elicits a response food Automatic re exive response to the US salivation Originally neutral stimulus tone of voice that gains significance through pairings with US Learned response salivation due to tone to the CS A conditioned and an unconditioned stimulus are presented together training Conditioned response disappears After a stimulus is conditioned to elicit a certain response similar stimuli produce the same response 39 Ex don t cross the street if the car is coming generalized to trucks busses bikes The process that occurs if two stimuli are sufficiently different from on another that one evokes a conditioned response and the other does not the ability to distinguish between stimuli 11 month old orphan allowed to play with white rat no fear of rat but he hated loud noises 39 Loud noiseUS Crying UR 39 Soon he hated CR the rat CS amp didn t want to touch it because every time he tried to touch it a loud noise was played Classically conditioned avoidance of a certain food taste that made you sick Ader amp Cohen paired sugar water with an immune suppressing drug rats developed taste aversion then they all died because the sweet water was associated with the drug even in the absence of the drug Conditioning in which behavior is associated with consequences rewards amp punishments Edward Thorndike BF Skinner Shaping Reinforcement Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement Timing of reinforcement Partial Reinforcement Puzzle Box Once cats figure out to push level for escape they do so faster amp faster Law ofE ect rewarded behaviors are more likely to be repeated Most in uential and controversial of behaviorists Developed principles of operant conditioning Skinner Box aka operant chamber Floor electric grid to shock lever that when pushed dispenses food Process of teaching a complex behavior by rewarding the behaviors that get closer amp closer to the desired behavior successive approximations Reinforcer Something that comes after a behavior Increases likelihood of preforming behavior again Best reinforcers depend on the organism circumstances etc Something is added Desired reinforce given after a behavior increases future behavior Skinner box food pellet electrical stimulation of hypothalamus Human attention approval money Something is taken away still good Unpleasant stimulus removed following desired behavior increases future behavior Skinner box removal of shock when push the lever Human taking aspirin for headache fastening seatbelt dinging noise More immediate more learning More delay less learning Ex speeding tickets getting pulled over vs getting tickets in the mail Four schedules of partial reinforcement Interval Schedules time Rati0 Schedules of desired behaviors Fixed interval schedule Variable interval schedule Fixed ratio schedule Variable ratio schedule Punishment Positive punishment Negative punishment Reinforcement for desired behavior after a certain interval of time Skinner box reward for lever press after 5 min don t reward behavior until another 5 min passes Human paychecks Behavior slows down after reinforcement picks up right before reinforcement scalloped pattern Skinner FI schedule quotlazyquot Reinforcement given for behavior after changing interval of time 39 Skinner box lever reward after 2 min 8 min 5 min Human pop quizzes students continually study rather than cramming Slow but steady behavior Reinforcement after set number of behaviors Skinner box food pellet after every 10th lever press Human worker paid for every 10 products made frequent yer programs Stepwise pattern of behavior quick bursts then lulls of activity Reinforcement after a variable number of behaviors Skinner box food pellet after 6 lever presses then 14 then 2 etc Human slot machines commission sales Highest rate of responding most resistant to extinction don t know when you ll be reinforced Unpleasant event that occurs as a consequence of an undesired behavior A Decreases the likelihood of behavior in the future Problem it tells you what not to do rather than what to d0 EAdding something Undesired behavior leads to introduction of an unpleasant stimulus Taking something away Removal of a pleasant stimulus following undesired behavior Mirror neurons Neurons that fire when preforming certain actions or when observing someone else engaging in those actions Helps us to understand others intentions by recreating their experiences Mimicry copying others Also causes empathy being able to understand someone else39s mental state Chapters 7 amp 8 Cognition Encoding Storage Retrieval 1 Sensory Memory 2 Short Term Memory 3 Long term memory Levels of Processing Self Referent Effect Serial Position Effect Memory construction Initial recording of info Info saved for future use Recovery of stored info in long term memory for use in working memory Memory reconstruction can be inaccurate Lowest level of memory Exists for all senses sight sound Working Memory attention Repetitive Rehearsal Ebbinghaus tested Stores info based upon meaning instead of sensation lasts 1525 sec Chunkingl grouping info into clusters Elaborative rehearsal Memory store that keeps lots of info for a long time Deep vs Shallow ways of thinking Deeper processing better recall Why memory is better when you use imagery in studying Better memory for selfrelevant info Primacy good memory for beginning of a list of words for example Recency good memory for end of the list Declarative Memory Semantic Networks Procedural Memory Amnesia Long Term Potentiation Flashbulb Memories 3 reasons for forgetting Memory of facts amp experiences Conscious recollection of info Hippocampus Episodic Events amp context remembering where and how you learned how to ride a bike Semantic Concepts amp general facts knowing how to ride a bike Semantic memories associated with related concepts in semantic networks Spreading activation model activation of one unit in network spreads to related concepts Memory of how to do something skills amp habits happens somewhat automatically Cerebellum Not Consciously aware of Retrograde old memories lost Anterograde prevents new ones Often due to hippocampus damage Clive Wearing had both stuck in permanent present Making neural connections stronger with repeated stimulation Sending Neuron lower threshold Receiving Neuron more receptor sites Potentiation neural basis for learning Extremely vivid memory of a traumatic event photographic quality Feels very accurate detailed vivid Intense emotions norepinephrine increase hippocampus functioning Usually more accurate than non ashbulb memories but still susceptible to errors 1 Encoding Failure 2 Storage Decay Ebbinghaus forgetting curve showed rapid forgetting soon after learning 3 Retrieval Failure Proactive Interference Retroactive Interference Repression Mental Images Concepts Prototypes Heuristic Availability Heuristic Fixation Confirmation Bias Language Info learned earlier disrupts the recall of memory learned later Past interferes with present Material that was learned later disrupts the retrieval of info learned earlier Present interferes with past Banishing anxietyprovoking thoughts to unconscious Freudian concept Little scientific evidence Why would we fail at retrieval Representations in the mind of an object or an event Mental groupings of similar objects events people Typical highly representative examples of a concept Example when someone says vehicle quotcarquot comes to mind so quotcarquot is a prototype of vehicles A thinking strategy that may lead us to a solution for a problem but may lead to errors Example placing an quotxquot in the center when playing tic tactoe it doesn39t insure success but from experience you do it Judging the likely hood of an event occurring on the basis of how easy it is to think of examples Example we are more afraid of dying in a plane crash than in an auto accident even though air travel is much safer Tendency to think of an object only in terms of its typical use Example Thinking of a book as something to read not a door stop Tendency to find and apply info that supports one39s initial solution or idea and to ignore info that does not support it Spoken written or signed words amp the way we combine them to communicate Phonemes Morphemes Syntax Semantics Pragmatics Nature Nurture Childdirected speech Language is generative we don t just find sentences stored in our memory and use them Smallest sound units in a language Consonants carry more information than vowels Smallest language units that have meaning Combined to form more complex words Ex Previewed pre view ed 3 morphemes Rules for word order Kicked the girl ball redquot or The girl kicked the red ballquot Rules for deriving meaning from morphemes words sentences quotedquot past quotsquot plural Independent of syntax Indirect implications of language vs outright assertion Key to metaphors and jokes Right hemisphere skill Nativism Vocabulary grammar acquisition too fast amp novel to be simply learned Noam Chomsky V Language Acquisition Device LAD innate brain mechanism that allegedly contains grammatical rules common to all languages and allows language acquisition Empiricism g Language learned through Conditioning Associations between seeing object amp hearing words classical Imitation of models amp reinforcement operational BF Skinner Adults adjust speech to clarify language motherese Argument for Nurture Broca s area Broca s aphasia Wernicke s area Wernicke s aphasia Critical period Language production in L frontal lobe Problems producing language due to brain damage Long pauses leaving out functional words and if but Nature Language comprehension in L frontal lobe Problems comprehending language due to brain damage Difficulty understanding others empty speechquot Nature Narrow window of time when learning a skill is peasiestpossibleideal Genie the Feral Child Locked away for 13 years Was able to acquire some comprehension vocab Grammar more difficult Chapter 10 Motivation amp Emotion Motivation Instincts Drive Reduction Theory Optimum Arousal Theory Priorities among needs Need or desire that energizes amp directs behavior 4 Sources of Motivation Instincts Drivereduction theory Optimum Arousal Theory Priorities among needs 99 Ntquot Inherited unalterable responses to stimuli Birds ying south for the winter salmon swimming upstream to spawn Physiological needsj drive to meet those needs Motivated to restore homeostasis balance like body temperature hunger thirst sleep Desire to avoid stimuli that are too boring or too arousing Best performance at intermediate level of arousal aka YerkesDodson law Predicts preferences for patterns art music Abraham Maslow 39 Hierarchy of needs fundamental needs bottom of Lateral Hypothalamus Ventromedial Hypothalamus Set Point Theory Obesity Why does obesity happen pyramid need to be met before moving up 39 Self actualization realizing s one s potential top only about 10 of people get here 1Self actualization 2 Esteem 3 Love Belonging 4 Safety 5 Physiological ie hunger body sends signals llnitiates hungg Stimulation in well fed animals hunger Lesioned taken out surgically no interest in food ppresses hungej Stimulation stop eating Lesioned Continuous eating increased fat production Hyptihalamus strives to maintain bptimum body leeigm set poi Ht As you eat hormone released by fat cells is produced Leptin level amp hunger are negatively correlated BMI gt 30 Correlated with Diabetes Cardiovascular Disease Cancer High blood pressure Gall bladder disease 1quotObese personality that cannot resist eating Little to no evidence Fidget factor exception less likely to be obese 2 Genes Strong Evidence for genetic component Serotonin involved with satiation Serotonin receptor blockers in humans weight gain Serotonin Receptor enhancement in humans less hunger weightless obquot gene controls release of leptin More fat more leptin Anorexia Nervosa Bulimia Nervosa Why do eating disorders happen The Need to Belong What happens if our need to belong isn t satisfied Defective ob gene extremely obese 3 Environmental factors encourage overeating Fast food less active amp sedentary activities High cultural variability in obesity Refusal to maintain even low normal weight Intense fear of gaining weig Body image distortion Most common among adolescents 90 of cases in women Recurrent episodes of mge eating followed by attempt to prevent weight gain Purging type intentional vomiting laxatives Nonpurging type fasting excessive exercise Most common among women in late teens early 20 Biological in uences Genetic contribution 39 Identical twins share 100 of genes 39 Fraternal twins share 50 of genes 39 If one twin has a disorder how often does the other 39 If a Identical twin has one its more likely that the other does too Serotonin 39 Anorexia high levels 39 Bulimia low levels lCultural Variations in ideal body size 39 Powerful Western cultural norms like body size Motive to feel social connectedness Chronic loneliness associated with 39 Cancer 39 Strokes 39 Cardiovascular disease 39 Poor sleep 39 Depression 39 Substance abuse Often due to shyness social exclusion Social Exclusion Achievement Motivation Individual Difference in Achievement Motivation Emotion Paul Ekman Basic Emotions Approach Emotions Being shunned avoided receiving silent treatment Cyber ball experiments people get very upset when the ball is never passed to them Motive for significant accomplishments predicting life outcomes Goleman Tracked 1528 California kids pick out top 1 in IQ test 40 years later checked up on them amp found that achievement motivation drive to do something best predictor of success Duckworth amp Seligman Achievement motive is a better predictor of school performance attendance graduation honors than IQ test scores Motive depends on what a person cares about Low motivationchose very easy tasks guaranteed success or very difficult tasks failure expected not embarrassing High Motivation choose moderately difficult tasks achievable but challenging Positive negative reaction to a object event or situation 1 Physiological arousal Expressive behaviors 3 Conscious experience thoughts and feelings N Cultural universality of emotional behaviors facial expressions are the same everywhere even in blind people Fear anger disgust happiness sadness surprise Positive amp negative emotions can occur at the same time All emotions product of combinations of basic emotions like primary colors Love amp happiness left frontal lobe Withdraw Emotions 3 Theories of Emotion Iames Lange Theory of Emotion Physiology as Information Problems with James Lange Theory Cannon Baird Theory TwoFactor Theory Fear Fear amp disgust right frontal lobe Does emotion cause emotional behavior If your happy it causes you to smile Or does emotional behavior cause emotion When you smile it makes you happy Emotion awareness of physiological state in response to emotioninducing stimulus Body reacts gt then your brain responds Evidence that we express emotion from facial expressions Larsen 92 furrowing brows sadder when viewing sad photos Zajonc 89 saying e and ah smiling muscles better mood than saying 00quot Struck 88 holding pencil in teeth vs lips cartoons are funnier when holding it in teethlooking at self in mirror amplifies effect Kleinke 1 Physiological responses similar across emotions if they all feel the same how can it be true 2 Responses too slow to trigger sudden emotions Simultaneous experience of emotion amp physiological arousal one does not cause the other Simultaneous response amp labeling of emotion 1 Experience physiological arousal g 2 Assign cognitive label to emotion conscious interpretation Dutton amp Aron IV 1835 yr old men approached on suspension sturdy bridge by attractive male female researcher with surveyTAT thematic apperception test amp given their phone number DV of men calling number amount of sexual imagery in TAT Possiblyscary info takes two neural paths 1 Amygdala instinctive defensive responses Amygdala Anger Catharsis Catharsis problematic solution to anger Impact bias Connection between money amp happiness 2 lCerebral Cortex amp Hippocampus incorporate other info memories Both paths lead to hypothalamus Releases norepinephrine in nervous system Releases adrenaline into blood stream Norepinephrine amp adrenaline quotfight or ight39l Crucial role Schacter pair blue slide w fear reaction Hippocampus damage fear response but no memory Amygdala damage remember conditioning but no fear response Chronic anger more likely to have heart attack Often healthier than pent up anger more likely to resole source of anger Emotional release intended to lrelieve aggressive urgg quotventing angerquot Feels good amp temporarily calms us Expressing gg often leads to more angeraggression lbreeds aggressionl operant conditioning Tendency to overestimate long term impact of emotional events underestimate ability to adapt poor affective forecasting Lottery winners return to baseline happiness within 5 years quotthe good isn39t that goodquot Realize that enduring happiness doesn39t come from financial success
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