PS 111 Midterm Study Guide 1
PS 111 Midterm Study Guide 1 PS 111
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by allyd on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PS 111 at University of Oregon taught by Craig Parsons in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 233 views. For similar materials see Political Science in History at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
O 1quot Equot S O O 0 O 5quot Why Aristotle thought polity was better than democracy 28 Polity would aim to center power in a middle class that is rich and educated enough to understand virtue but numerous enough to prioritize broad social interests Mixed government that balanced the power of rich and poor combining polity and aristocracy Democracy was problematic because he thought poorer less educated did not have the means to be virtuous and make good decisions and richer would have more in uence but should not be assigned all the power Why Machiavelli is sometimes called the father of political science 31 Machiavelli is sometimes called the father of political science because he was the first thinker who explicitly reserved the pervious relationship between normative judgments and explanatory analysis He focused on arguments about reality and suggested that moral views must take into account how the real world worked Remembered often for the notions that people tend to be wicked and that unjust actions are acceptable because they are necessary Hobbes View of the state of nature and how it related to good government3132 Hobbes39 view of the state of nature was that people are naturally inclined to fight and threaten each other he thought creating a war against all wars in which everyone s lives would be nasty brutish and short The only escape from insecurity is to form a strong government to impose order internally and protect against attack from other groups externally He created a social contract given the insecure threatening nature of raw human interaction it is rational for all individuals to sign on to a Contract to submit governance by a protective state Individual benefits for average people the state exists to serve the interests of the population not just the interests of the rulers Locke s View of the state of nature and how it related to good government 32 People live fairly well but they would compete with each other for resources and could have some problems with crime More limited kind of government as the rational and desirable solutions with respected a series of individual rights however would make everyone better off Argues everyone has natural rights to life liberty and property Rousseau s View of the state of nature and how it related to good government Argued that human beings are naturally good and that basic human society in a state of nature would be a happy utopia 9 C 09 0 State formed mainly because certain people acquired private property and forced or tricked others into accepting a government that would protect their property setup to protect the rich from the poor enshrining inequality Government and society should work together in best interest of all members Implied that an enlightened government would have to govern strongly redistributing private property and perhaps trampling on other aspects of Lockean individual rights to achieve justice Marx s basic theory about the progress of human history 37 38 In Marx s theory history was built around the group of class of people eXploiting another class The structural distribution of wealth and coercive power in society created con ict between the two classes For example bourgeois capitalists eXploit workers In this phase MarX eXpected to see the rise of political democracy but only to hide eXploitation of capitalism Eventually he predicted the workers would organize and overthrow the capitalists in a revolution opening to abolish private property and no eXploitation The core idea of Adam Smith s invisible hand and why it was significant for liberal thought 3536 Adam Smith s notion that in a free market competition to make money will channel everyone towards their most productive individual strengths sorting people and resources to their best use even without any government leadership Free markets would deliver the best society even without anyone thinking about the collective good Basic idea of J S Mill s tyranny of the majority 132 In electoral representation it runs the risk of tyranny of the majority where a majority might vote for representatives who areas repressive as the most brutal tyrants Mill s point was not just theoretical Hitler won power in a free election in Germany in 1932 Edmund Burke s View of the French Revolution 69 Warned that revolutionaries plans to reshape French society will lead to chaos Core point was that society could only be governed well by tried and true eXperience People are imperfect by nature weak and wicked and only revolutionary plans to leap to a new society with untried concepts and ineXperienced leaders will soon be corrupted and succumb to unintended consequences Thought aristocracies worked well because it was raised and trained gained leadership eXperience and were wealthy enough to focus on broad social problems rather than their own welfare Burke emphasized respect for authority and tradition to preserve social order 10 11 H 0 O O 05 H 4 Relationship between the term classic liberal and the common use of liberal in US today Classic Liberalism is meant to mean the desire for minimal government advocating for Civil liberties and freedom representative democracy and economic freedoms Both political parties branch out from these beliefs but conservatives are closer to this view Liberal in the US is meant for a democrat who believe in government intervention for equal opportunity and equality for all Relationship between the term classic liberal and the common use of conservative in the US and elsewhere today The rest of the world by contrast unlike the US has largely continued to use liberal to mean Classic liberalism Liberalism is often a synonym for conservatism If members of College Democrats from an American University visited similar campuses in Australia they might be confused to find a Young Liberal Club in Sydney who represent Australian political conservatism Relationship between libertarianism and other conservatisms in the US 70 Most of its members are centered on the more purely Classical liberal views Devout libertarians seek the most limited possible government in all policy areas Hardline positions on limiting most government powers like abolishing federal income taX and US Federal Reserve and ending most foreign involvements some support liberties on issues where religious socially conservative Republicans oppose like abortions rights and legalization of drugs Relationship between neoconservatism and other conservatisms in the US 71 Strand of conservatism Champions of a muscular US foreign policy to impose American values of democracy and capitalism on other countries by force if necessary active intervention to Change the world Not very conservative on economic or other social policies almost all religiously devout Theie moral crusade to spread American values is similar in spirit to a social conservative agenda of defending traditional moral values on issues like abortion or marriage Conservatives try to conserve a certain vision of politics and society How fascism is a modern ideology unlike a traditional aristocratic conservatism Fascism is a modern ideology adapted to mass democracy unlike aristocratic conservatism which calls a suppressions of politics Ideas of nationalism national purity defense of the little guy from fascism can be found in pieces in modern democracy O 005 17 05 005 20 Meaning of the precautionary principle 78 One principle of environmentalists they advise living like this Even if uncertainty remains about how much our actions are leading towards catastrophic consequences if we wait to see if the worst scenarios are correct it will be too late to respond So we must Change behavior how as a precaution To lessen the dangers of global warming they call for limiting consumption investing in wind water or solar energy phasing out nuclear power and generally factoring environmental impacts into political decision making Relationship between the Western world and the origins of political Islamism 79 Committed Islamists see the state system as a Western Invention the boundaries of most states in the Muslim world were drawn by Western Colonialism that artificially suggests that states govern these spaces when it fact all authority ows from Islam Islamists most frequently justify attacks outside the Muslim world as related to restoration of correct Islamic governance without outside interference within the ummah Islamists believe that they banish foreign in uence from Muslim lands Similarities between Islamist political concepts and Christian political concepts in the past Unknown The role of rights in liberal democracy from notes Rights Electoral Representation Liberal Democracy Rights the liberal part bolster Choice Safeguard political contestation among potential leaders ensure freedom of speech association religion etc and guarantee access to broad participation Rights limit choice Block popular leaders fdro sti ing competitors block voters from Choosing anti rights leaders and block majorities from excluding minorities J ustifications for illiberal democracy from notes Illiberal democracies typically admit that liberal democracy is the ideal type of government But leaders argue that they must first deal effectively with certain problems in their nations These problems usually require some limitations to rights or democracy and real competition for leadership Different principles of authoritarianism across its four forms 145147 Monarchies are run by a hereditary ruler with a title like king queen emperor sultan or maharaja Their authority was based in traditional notions that some group or family dynasty was superior to other people often with a religious note of divine endorsement authorizing them to rule as they wished O In Theocracy top leaders exercise authority by Virtue of their special faith or expertise in religious doctrines They claim that knowledge of religious teachings allow them to make wise decisions for the common good Theocracy rests on charismatic legitimacy asking people to follow fundamentalist beliefs in ways that often upend traditional society 0 One party Regime base unlimited authority on a charismatic ideology championed by a party organization that claims to be so compellingly good for citizens that nothing can be allowed to obstruct it Such parties typically create a hierarchy of central leaders regional and local bosses and heads of cells in settings like large workplaces universities and neighborhoods 0 Dictatorships argue that their country will be overwhelmed by problems like ethnic con icts or external threats unless they hold ultimate authority Dictatorships can be fairly easy to create but also quickly confront pressures for new justifications They frequently arise in conditions of instability when a military leader steps forward to claim power
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