Exam 2 study guide
Exam 2 study guide Soc 240
Popular in People In Places: Understanding and Developing Community
Popular in Sociology
This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Daniel Meyer on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Soc 240 at Illinois State University taught by Michael Dougherty in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 161 views. For similar materials see People In Places: Understanding and Developing Community in Sociology at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
Danny Meyer s SOC 240 Exam 2 Study Guide Use Value vs Exchange Value Use value value of something based on usefulness for everyday life Exchange value how much you can get for something on the market 0 Old chair I Use value is sitting on the chair it provides comfort every day I Exchange value lower you could sell the chair for a few dollars 0 Brick of gold use value is tiny the exchange value is HUGE 0 Pre capitalism things only had use value Civil Society How societal pressures affect families and public domains Extractive industry Extraction of raw materials out of the ground to be used by consumers Removal of o Metals 0 Minerals 0 Aggregates Examples 0 Extraction of 0 Oil I This aggregate has lots of value I It has high exchange value because people need it to run their cars use value I Its extraction requires human capital I It carries lots of political capital Can be used to pressure other groups Gas Mining Dredging o Quarrying Service industry Tertiary sector Produce services rather than end part 0 Attention 0 Advice 000 0 Access 0 Experience 0 Discussion Examples 0 Transport distribution sale of goods 0 Wholesale 0 Retail 0 Provision of service I Pest control Restaurant 0 Face to face interaction focus of interaction 0 No transformation of good Growing in rural America Biggest in Exurbanamenity based communities People are in a place and need service Manufacturing industry Transformation of raw materials into goods for sale 0 Making goods like cars computer chips or airplane parts 0 Less manufacturing jobs in rural America 0 These get outsourced I Globalization the work can be done elsewhere OPEC oil crisis of the 19705 quotSixDay War 1967 Egypt and Syria lose territory to Israel quotYom Kippur War Egypt and Syria surprise attack Israel US supplies Israel arms 0 US defends democracy Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries proclaim oil embargo Use of oil s political capital UK US Japan Canada Netherlands Price of oil goes from 3 USD to 12 USD in these western democracies Price of grain went up too Farm crisis of the 19805 OPEC Cartel 1973 Fuel prices go up Grain prices go up Russian grain crash US gave away grain 0 US provides aid to those in need 0 Grain prices go up further So in the 1970s people started farming because you could make good money on high grain prices Planting more and more Buying more property and equipment Taking out loans and leasing quotstuf A Farm bubble was forming think of blowing a bubble it gets bigger and bigger then eventually it pops In the 19805 grain prices dropped POP These were dark times in rural America Earl Butts Secretary of Agriculture 0 The plan plant fence row to fence row This means plant as much as possible use your property as much as possible to produce crops 0 quotgo big or go home Corporazation of farming Big debt financed farmingway to go Agriculture rose slowly throughout the nineties The trend has continued since the end of the nineties into the present but seems to be plateauing off Farming has been industrialized it is an vertical integration of fiber and food production Individualism manipulates social meanings of accountability o Cautious farmers view success in terms of family continuity o Ambitious farmers view success in maximized profit and upward social mobility for younger generation The 1980 s farming crisis was caused by farmers not keeping their word to lending institutions 0 They borrowed money and used the money for different things while allowing the farm to tank Farming has been industrialized it is an vertical integration of fiber and food production I Individualism manipulates social meanings of accountability o Cautious farmers view success in terms of family continuity o Ambitious farmers view success in maximized profit and upward social mobility for younger generation Rural rebound People are moving back into rural areas from cities 0 Rural economies are transforming 0 There is growing differentiation between places I Rural places have been losing population for most of the 20th century 0 19705 saw net population gains 0 19805 saw net population losses 0 19905 net population gains trend continues I Economy doing well I More people making money I Rich people building summer homes in rural areas I Employment in agriculture dropping off due to labor saving technology Spatial inequality Unequal access to goods and resources I Certain communities have lots of access to resources and services I Physical space separates high access communities from low access communities I Lack of access stunts upward mobility 0 Rich people in high access communities have lots of opportunities 0 Impoverished people in low access communities have very few opportunities 0 Impoverished people in high access communities have far greater opportunities I My friend went to Naperville North high school He told me inner city kids were relocated to his efficientproductive school district The spatial mismatchhypothesis Service sectorjobs are attracted to the suburbs Cost per square foot of real estate is cheap in the suburbs Jobs leave cities because cost per square foot of real estate is expensive People in the city impoverished need jobs but few are in proximity Spatial inequality Impoverished people less likely to have cars or money for gas OR Public transportation infrastructures are the only way to get to the jobs 0 Bus 0 Train Transportation cost money 0 Fare 0 Gas 0 Dependent on where cities build stations I High property value more tax money more municipal provisions I Spatial inequality Infill Taking a dead place and putting a new thing there urban cities Abandoned buildingfactories replaced with Toys R Us Urban Growth Boundary Control of zoning and land use This function saves land for agricultural use Combats suburban sprawl Redlining Denying neighborhoods loans in attempt to practice safe business 0 Bank literally draws a red circle around a neighborhood with lots of African Americans on a map 0 Consolidates black belts in northern cities Euclidean Zoning Historical Origins of Sprawl Euclidian Zoning 1926 Euclid Ohio city sued by Ambler Reality 0 City setup town by land use types I Areas for residential agricultural manufacturing retail etc o The Supreme Court ended up ruling in favor of the city I The present suburban townsgovernment plans residential housing 0 Single family low income I High density cheapermore bang for buck Suburbs Less SSS per square foot More bang for buck Smallerspace efficient I Low density I Increase in spaceincrease in cost 0 Housing developments I Increase in property sizeincrease in cost ZONING Controlmanipulate Industrial arrangement land use 0 10 feet between houses 0 5 feet on edges of property Frontage requirementshow far you can build near the street 0 In cities buildings are on the edge of properties Height restrictions Amount of space structures can occupy Location of a building on the lot 0 All set backs The Normal historic district is zoned differently from the rest of the city 0 You can t change the face of a home of build onto a house without permission Zoning Variance An exception to a zoning rule like those governing Normal s historic district Being allowed to build on the face of a house or add to the building Federal Housing Administration 1936 Incentivized people to buy suburban homes Insured mortgages and tax deductions for mortgages o Incentivizes people to buy houses 0 Improves banker confidence lending to homeowners Ends up being cheaper than paying in rental markets Similarities in lending or renting 0 You pay for housing with financial capital on varying scales and rates 0 Owning is cheaper in long run Urban Renewal Big infrastructure 0 Bridges o Highways Crush slums put up housing projects Build Stadiums JaneJacobs Critic of urban renewal You can reinvent spaces to be the heart of communities Federal Highway Act 1956 Dwight D Eisenhower signed bill to authorize 25 billion government USD to be invested in building 41000 miles of interstate highway system Ford made cars available to middle income types Cars were originally a luxury for the rich These manufactured goods weren t ordinary commodities Urban renewal pushed for creation of infrastructure highways 0 Middle income types had money to drive out of cities 0 Highways provides channels out of cities 0 To jobs or different neighborhoods The Federal Highway Act allowed people to go anywhere It provides direct access to air force bases Easier for America to defend itself I This is clever infrastructure I quotSmartquot depends on your opinion of growth New markets existed outside cities 0 Economic growth opportunity Cheap land outside cities before sprawl formed 0 Great places to build new suburbs Urban sprawl Advantages of Sprawl Why is sprawl good 0 Schools 0 Cheaper housing more bang for buck I Bigger house per price 0 Millenials sick of pressure created by the hustlebustle of the city I Ordereye contact always o Safer neighbors or so we think ask me about creepy events in on Chicago s north shore full of creative capital Inexpensive convenient goods and services to consume Opportunities for economic development Connects rural and urban landscapes Cheaper housing Safer neighborhoods 0 Economic and demographic growth in suburbs Back when we all knew each other we felt safer Does this make marginalized places safer Safety is a function of social capital De La Soulquotneighborhoods are now hoods because there are no neighbors I Neighbors lookout for one another The costs of sprawl Larger lots Increases in water use Increases in traffic White flight Minorities move into the cities White people move into the suburbs Minorities follow White people move back into city 0 O O O Leapfrog sprawl pattern Building suburbs on cheap land Expensive land quotleapfroggedquot 0 Left undeveloped Creative capitalcreative class Bowling Alone was a big deal it made Putnam a superstar and everyone readit Florida describes the rise of the creative class What is Florida s argument and his critiques of Putnam 0 Calls Putnam outmoded and out of touch 0 Reexplains community of place 0 Explores the true DNA that founds communities People move to citiesdesire city settings 0 The creative class consists of entrepreneurs entertainers and actors o Attracted to places where they can do more stuff I Nightliferecreation I Creative centers Music Art 0 These places are I Politically progressive I Diverse I Tolerant I Open to gay community I Hip happening Creative people are lured to locations where they work What lures them 0 Establishments like I Indian food I Coffee shops I Art galleries I WineCraft beer Florida believes places that are high in creative capital lure creative class then companies follow the creative class Florida promotes creating communities of place that cannot be outsourced Gentrification Change of neighborhood I Young urban people yup yuppies I Not from poverty Move into affordable neighborhood Humbolt Park Wicker Park 0 I ve heard Divison Street described as quotscaryquot before the CabriniGreen housing project was removed failure of urban renewal The demographic is poor and not working yet 0 Its notjust yuppies I Unemployed job seeking I Recently employed college graduates I Skilled artists I Skilled tradesmen I Entrepreneurs I Skilled service professionals 0 Hustlers who make big tips I Waiters I Bartenders I Uber drivers I The locality is diverse and dynamic I Then neighborhood starts to change 0 Property value increases 0 City pays attention 0 Original residents pressured out by high property values I Or they dislike the new vibe in the neighborhood Infrastructure Bthcaphal Transportation Waste Management I Parks Municipal government I Government departments and organizations that preside over infrastructure New Urbanism Tenets of New Urbanism Design movement Pedestrian friendly Green peace Sprawl with new Urbanism Reduced width of car lanes More crosswalks Buildings up to sidewalks Add trees plants foliage Light rails were appropriate 0 Forces pedestrian movement I More window shopping I More eyes safer I Faceface interation Smart Growth Advocating and promoting through new urbanism design approaches This is a policy regime Tenets of Smart Growth Promoting sensible development and livable communities Maintains historic cities and towns Preserves farmland and open space Reduces tax burdens on future generations Strong versus weak social ties Strong ties are those with our family and friends We exchange facetoface interaction often 0 Strong bonds Weak ties are those with acquaintances Acquaintances are people we know but don t often interact with face to face often 0 We get jobs from weak social ties I Dense network of weak ties mean high bridging Social capital Bridging and bonding Face to face interaction between community members 0 Vs Individualism Do groups within the community interact and overlap Rich and Poor interactions Racial interactions Clientelism This relates to the Laguna Chicoj case High bridgelow bonding 0 Social capital has deteriorated o The bonds between social groups are low 0 Communication is worse Exchange of goods and services 0 Consumers are clients I Economic inequality turn citizens into clients The clients are passive rather than active 0 The alternative to clients is citizens I Citizens are active in the community They volunteer o Clientelism is a professional problem outcome I Clients are force served by professionals
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