Mid Term 2
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Adnaan Beg on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 202 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Jeffery B Henriques in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
Professor Jeffrey Henriques Psychology 202 MidTerm Exam University of Wisconsin 1 Classical Conditioning 0 A phenomenon that occurs when a neutral stimulus produces a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally produces a response 0 Pavlov 0 The presentation of food to the dogs was the Unconditioned Stimulus 0 The dog s salivation was the Unconditioned Response 0 Pavlov soon discovered that he could make the dog s salivate to other stimuli such as a sound of a buzzer or the ash of a light Each of these stimuli was a Conditioned Stimuli 0 When the buzzer was paired with the unconditioned stimulus such as the sight of food the animal will learn to associate food with the sound and eventually the CS is sufficient to produce a response such as salivation This is called Conditioned Response 0 If the CS caused the response it s a CR 11 Components of Classical Conditioning 0 Unconditioned Stimulus US something that reliably produces a naturally occurring reaction in an organism 0 Unconditioned Response UR A re exive reaction that is reliably produced by an US 0 Conditioned Stimulus CS a stimulus that is initially neutral and produces no reliable response in an organism 0 Conditioned Response CR a reaction that resembles an unconditioned response but is produces by a conditioned stimulus III Generalization a A process in which the CR is observed even though the CS is slightly different from the original one used during acquisition b The more the new stimulus changes the less CR is observed IV Discrimination a The capacity to distinguish between similar but distinct stimuli b By displaying diminished responding to that new stimulus it also tells us that it notices a difference between the two stimuli V Extinction a The gradual elimination of a learned response that occurs when the US is no longer presented b What would happen if they continued to present the CS buzzer but stopped presenting the US food Behavior declines abruptly and continues to drop until eventually the dog ceases to salivate to the sound of the buzzer VI Habituation a One very basic form of implicit learning A general process in which repeated or prolonged exposure to a stimulus results in a gradual reduction in responding b Living near a busy highway can be unpleasant Most people who live near major highways become habituated to the sound of traffic VII Spontaneous Recovery Professor Jeffrey Henriques Psychology 202 MidTerm Exam University of Wisconsin a The tendency of a learned behavior to recover from extinction after a rest period b Pavlov wondered if extinction was permanent To explore this question he extinguished the classically conditioned salivation response and then allowed the dogs to have a short rest period When they were brought back to the lab and presented with the CS again they displayed spontaneous recovery VIII SecondOrder Conditioning a Conditioning in which the stimulus that functions as the US is actually the CS from an earlier procedure in which it acquired its ability to produce learning b Pavlov paired a new CS a black square with the nowreliable tone After a number of training trials his dogs produced a salivary response to the black square even though the square itself had never been directly associated with the food IX Explanations of how classical conditioning works a Pavlov Stimulus substitution Cr is not always strong as UR CR can be different that the UR Information theory i Rescorla amp Wagner ii Cognitive perspective f Biological mechanisms i Cerebellum X Principles of Classical Conditioning a Second order condition b Generalization c Discrimination d Extinction e Spontaneous recovery XI Classical conditioning in humans a Phobias Watson and little Albert b Counterconditioning Mary Cover Jones and Peter XII Exceptions to the rule a Garcia Conditioned taste aversion XIII Operant conditioning a Thomdikes s Law of Effect b Reinforcement increases the likelihood of a response occurring i Positive ii Negative c Types of reinforces i Primary reinforces ii Secondary conditioned reinforces d Punishment decreases the likelihood of a response occurring i Positive given ii Negative taken away 990 Professor Jeffrey Henriques Psychology 202 MidTerm Exam University of Wisconsin e How do we sort this all out i Q1 What is the effect on the behavior 1 Increase reinforcement 2 Decrease punishment ii Q2 Is something being taken away or give 1 Given positive 2 Taken away negative XIV Punishment does not always work a Behavior may only be temporarily inhibited or hidden b Punishment does not teach a more adaptable response c Punishment may be reinforcing d Punishment can arouse fear anger frustration leading to retaliation tuning out running away XV Hidden cost of reward a Effects of reward on coloring behavior b 3 groups of children i Students asked to draw pictures no reward ii Students told hey would get a certificate if they drew pictures Reward iii Students asked to draw pictures and then got a surprise reward Unlinked reward XVI Principles of operant condition a Shaping b Chaining c Instinctive Drift XVII Schedules of reinforcement a Based on number of responses i Fixed ratio ii Variable ratio b Based on time elapsed i Fixed interval ii Variable interval XVIII Partial reinforcement extinction effect a It takes longer for a partially reinforced behavior to extinguish XIX Cognitive perspectives a Edward Tolman cognitive maps b Skinner s superstitious pigeons c Supersttitiuos sports fans d Julian Rotter reinforcement in uences behavior only if we perceive the two as casually connected Karl S f Learned Helpnessness XX Tolam and Honzik 1930 a Group 1 rewarded with food every day b Group 2 no food reward FD Professor Jeffrey Henriques Psychology 202 MidTerm Exam University of Wisconsin c Group 3 no food reward for first 10 days 1 Group3 Will then perform better than Group 1 on the 11th day XXI Observational learning a Bandura we learn by watching others i Bandura s Bob Doll studies XXII The components of observational learning a Attention b Retention c Reproduction 1 Motivation Professor Jeffrey Henriques Psychology 202 MidTerm Exam University of Wisconsin I Encoding a The process by which we transform what we perceive think or feel into an enduring memory b Semantic judgements requires people to think about the meaning of the words c Rhyme judgements think about the sound of the words d Visual judgements think about the appearance of the words e Elaborative encoding i The process of actively relating new information to knowledge that is already in memory ii Studies reveal that elaborate encoding is uniquely associated with increased activity in the lower left part of the frontal lobe and the inner part of the left temporal lobe The more activity there the more likely the person will remember the information f Visual Imagery Encoding i The process of storing new information by converting it into mental pictures ii In Athens in 477 BC the Greek poet Simonides had just left a banquet when the ceiling collapsed and killed all the people inside Simonides was able to name every one of the dead simply by visualizing each chair around the banquet table and recalling the person who had been sitting there g Organizational Encoding i The process of categorizing information according to the relationships among a series of items ii Researchers found that as soon as the waitress left a customer s table she immediately began grouping or categorizing the orders into hot drinks cold drinks hot foods and cold foods The waitress grouped the items into a sequence that matched the layout of the kitchen first placing drink orders hot food and finally cold food orders II Storage a The process of maintaining information in memory over time b Sensory Storage i Holds sensory information for a few seconds or less ii Participants were asked to remember rows of letters that were ashed on a screen for just half a second When asked to remember all 12 of the letters they had just seen participants recalled fewer than half iii Iconic memory fastdecaying store of visual information iv Echoic memory fastdecaying store of auditory information c Shortterm storage i Holds nonsensory information for more than a few seconds but less than a minute Professor Jeffrey Henriques Psychology 202 MidTerm Exam University of Wisconsin ii Information can be held in short term memory store for about 15 20 seconds iii Rehearsal the process of keeping information in shortterm memory by mentally repeating it 1 If someone gives you a telephone number and you don t have a pencil you say it over and over to yourself until you find one Each time you repeat the number you are reentering it into short term memory giving it another 1520 seconds to shelf life iv Most people can keep approximately 7 items in short term memory but if they put more new items the old ones begin to fall out V Chunking combining small pieces information into larger clusters or chunks vi Working memory active maintenance of information in shortterm storage d Longterm Storage i A type of storage that holds information for hours days weeks or years ii Relatively permanent type of memory iii Hippocampal region acts as a kind of index that links together all of these separate bits and pieces so that we remember them as one memory Hippocampal region is critical when new information is learned becomes less important as memory ages 1 When this region is damaged patients suffer from a condition known as anterograde amnesia the inability to transfer new information from the short term store into the long term store EX HM 2 Retrograde Amnesia the inability to retrieve information that was acquired before a particular date usually a date of an injury or operation III Contents of Memory a Explicit declarative memory when people intentionally or consciously retrieve past experience i Episodic memory personal experiences ii Semantic memories facts b Implicit nondeclarative memory i Non conscious memories that in uences behaviors wo our awareness ii Procedural memories nonconscious memory for how to do a task are one type of implicit memory iii Priming previous exposure to stimulus make is easier tor recognize the stimulus in the future IV Retrieval a Retrieval cue external information that is associated with stored information and helps bring it to mind Information is sometimes available in memory even when it is momentarily inaccessible and the retrieval cues help us bring in accessible information to mind Professor Jeffrey Henriques Psychology 202 MidTerm Exam University of Wisconsin b Encoding specificity principle a retrieval cue can serve as an effective reminder when it help recreate the specific way in which information was initially encoded i Divers learned some words on land and some other words underwater they recalled the words best when they were tested in the same dry or wet environment in which they had initially learned them bc the environment itself served as a retrieval cue c Statedependent retrieval the tendency for information to be better recalled when the person is in the same state during encoding and retrieval i Retrieving information when you are in a sad or happy mood increases the likelihood that you will retrieve sad or happy episodes 1 Students should spend more time testing themselves on the tobelearned material rather than studying it over and over V Forgetting a Decay Theory i Information in longterm memory fades over time ii Transience iii NOT key mechanism in forgetting iv The Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve b Interference i Retroactive new memories interfered w old ii Proactive old info interferes with new info c Blocking tipof thetongue phenomenon i Cuedependent theory we don t have the cues necessary for retrieval ii Encoding failure theory information never made it into memory VI Distortions of Memory a Schemas mental frameworks representing our knowledge and assumptions about the world i They in uence our perception of what is relevant ii Allow us to elaborate on what we learn b Absentmindedness a lapse in attention that results in memory failure Lack of attention c Memory Misattribution forgetting where we learned an event Suggestibility suggestions made by other people are incorporated into our memories Bias previous beliefsknowledge that in uence the recall of an event Loftus memories can be distorted by later misinformation Presence of a weapon Cross race identification roger i Eye witness transference VII Recall a Recall is like writing an essay using only your brain to recall all the information on a specific topic Professor Jeffrey Henriques Psychology 202 MidTerm Exam University of Wisconsin Professor Jeffrey Henriques Psychology 202 MidTerm Exam University of Wisconsin 1 Language Basics 3 Phonemes the smallest unit of sound that is recognizable as speech that than as random noise b Phonological Rules a set of rules that indicate how phenomes can be combines to produce speech sounds c Morphemes the smallest meaningful units of language 1 Morphological Rules set of rules that indicate how morphemes can be combined to form words e Syntactical Rules set of rules that indicate how words can be combines to form phrases and sentences II Meaning 3 Deep structure underlying the meaning of the sentence b Surface structure the arrangements of words c We are better to remember deep structure 111 Theories of language development a Behaviorist Explanations focus on reinforcement from pares to child b Nativist theory people are With innate languages c Interactionalist theories a function of both social experiences and innate abilities IV Language Development a Distinguish speech sounds b Babbling in babies is a neutral part in the learning of the language development process Occurs in both hearing and deaf babies c First words occur in the first 1012 months 1 Fast mapping learn new word in a single exposure e Telegraphic speech two word sentences that develop at 24 months of age Professor Jeffrey Henriques Psychology 202 MidTerm Exam University of Wisconsin 1 Concept Formation 3 Artificial concepts formal concepts than can be clearly defined by a set of rules EX fruit b Natural concepts casual or fuzzy concepts that do not have a precise set of properties EX automobiles 11 Problem solving a Trial amp Error simplest strategy inefficient b Algorithms step by step procedure that guarantees a solution c Heuristics mental shortcuts or rules of thumb d Analogies using an old solution for a new problem 111 Mental set a Error in problem solving b We get into a mental rut in our approach to problem solving continuing to use the same old method even though another approach might be better EX Luchin s Water Jug Problem IV Confirmation Bias 3 The tendency to look only for evidence that will verify our beliefs V Belief Perseverance a What happens when we confront information that plainly contradict our beliefs i We cling to our discredited beliefs We DO NOT revise our views as logic would dictate VI Functional fixedness a The failure to use familiar objects in a novel ways to solve problems VII Heuristics e g representative availability 3 Mental shortcuts or rules of thumb b Availability Heuristic The tendency to use one stimulus as an anchor or reference point in judging a second stimulus c Representative Heuristic The tendency to assume that if an item is similar to members of a particular category it is probably a member of that category itself i Three questions to consider 1 How closely does it resemble the items in category A 2 How closely does it resemble the items in category B 3 Which is more common category A or B ii Base Rate Information Data about the frequency or probability of a given eventitem how rare or common it is Most people ignore this information VIII Algorithms a step by step procedures that guarantees a solution IX Impediments to problem solving 3 Mental stumbling blocks b Sometimes the difficulty in problem solving lies now within the problems but within ourselves X Reasoning Professor Jeffrey Henriques Psychology 202 MidTerm Exam University of Wisconsin a Inductive from specific to general b Deductive from general to specific XI Conjunction Fallacy The belief that the probability of 2 events occurring together is greater than the probability of either event occurring by itself Professor Jeffrey Henriques II III IV V VI VII VIII Psychology 202 MidTerm Exam University of Wisconsin Models of intelligence Binet a Binet suggest that we might assess children s intelligence based on their mental age Mental age also suggest an appropriate school placement for a child according to mental rather than chronological Spearman a Children who score scored high on one measure tends to score high in other measures there is a positive correlation b Twofactor theory of intelligence i General ability g ii Specific ability s Gardner a The word intelligence as used does not adequately encompass the kinds of genius found in great musicians poets dancers and athletes b Argued that there are multiples intelligences each linked separate and independent system within the brain c Eight types of Intelligences i Linguistic temporal lobe speaking ii Logical mathematical computer programming iii Spatial right hemisphere sense of direction iv Musical Blossom early childhood v Bodily Kinesthetic muscle movements vi Interpersonal understand other people s feelingsmotivation vii Intrapersonal knowing yourself make good decisions viii Naturalist appreciate nature Sternberg a Suggested that we measure intelligence by using an intelligence quotient IQ a ratio of mental age MA divided by chronological age CA multiplied by 100 b Triarchic Theory i Three kinds of human intelligence 1 Componential Analytic Intelligence 2 Experimental Creative Intelligence 3 Contextual Practical Intelligence street smarts ii Three level hierarchy 1 General Intelligence G 2 MiddleLevel Abilities M memory reasoning verbal skills 3 Specific Abilities S solving logical problems giving speeches Factor analysis a Proposed that general intelligence g underlies all mental abilities Triarchic model of intelligence analytical creative practical g and s Professor Jeffrey Henriques IX XI XII XIII XIV XV XVI XVII XVIII XIX XX Psychology 202 MidTerm Exam University of Wisconsin a general intelligence b specific intelligence Reliability 3 The dependability or consistency of a measurement instrument Validity a The extent to which a given test assesses what it is supposed to measure Wechsler a Intelligence Scales i Scores are expressed as deviation IQ s ii Tests yield three scores 1 Verbal score 2 Performance score 3 Overall score Measuring Intelligence a Binet suggest that we might assess children s intelligence based on their mental age Mental age also suggest an appropriate school placement for a child according to mental rather than chronological b Lewis Terman translated Binet s test into English i Rewrote questions and added materials Lewis structured the test scoring to produce ratio IQ s instead of mental age ii Known as StanfordBinet Ratio IQ a Used for children Deviation IQ a Commonly scores for many intelligence tests are calculated such that the average score is set to 100 b Roughly 66 of the population fall bw 85115 and about 95 of the scores fall bw 7010 Mental age Percentiles Crystalized and uid intelligence Nature versus Nurture genes amp SES Hereditability 3 Intelligence is in uenced by genetic factors but not entirely determined b Genetics People are more similar in intelligence the more biologically similar they are c Environment individuals are more similar when live together than apart Stereotype Threat a Africans as a group score 15 points lower than whites on IQ tests and 100 points lower on SAT tests b Group differences are not necessarily genetically based Professor Jeffrey Henriques Psychology 202 MidTerm Exam University of Wisconsin c White people on average grow up in a more af uent homes and have more educational opportunities which can account for IQ differences 1 Black children adopted by White middleclass homes average IQ is 110 e Flynn Effect significant gains in IQ over time XXI Cattell a Two types of g i Fluid problem solVing reasoning ii Crystalized specific knowledge
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