Study Guide Exam 2
Study Guide Exam 2 Comm 1500
Popular in Interpersonal Communication
Popular in Language
This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashleigh Notetaker on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Comm 1500 at University of Georgia taught by Kristin Andersen in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Interpersonal Communication in Language at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
Exam 2 Review 10102015 Chp 5 Hearing v listening 0 Hearing the sensory process of taking in and interpreting sound 0 Listening the five stage process of receiving attending to understanding responding to and recalling sounds and visual images during interpersonal encounters Listening process 0 Receiving attending understanding responding recalling Feedback 0 verbal and nonverbally communicating attention and understanding while others are talking 0 Positive or negative will shut down a conversation or can be positive Back channel cues o Verbal and nonverbal responses that signal you ve paid attention to and understood specific comments Paraphrasing c When you say the same thing back to the person for clarity Can also be perceived as taunting 5 functions of listening 0 Receiving first step in listening seeing visual and hearing auditory input 0 Enhance receiving by becoming aware of and controlling noise pollution 0 Attending devoting attention to the information you ve received 0 Salience what s important to uscatches our attention 0 What makes us not want to listen Voice know what they re going to say don t like them uh um rambling bad eye contact credibility o What makes us want to listen Good story tellers like the person care about the topic good eye contact bring it to your level interactive credibility 0 Know your audience l frame it 0 Understanding interpreting meaning by comparing newly received information against past knowledge 0 Past experiences media etc schema o Responding clearly and constructively providing feedback to the speaker 0 Not always good at that 0 Feedback verbal and nonverbally communicating attention and understanding while others are talking Positive or negative will shut down a conversation or can be positive Paraphrasing back to people what you said a Discussion response types 0 Recalling remembering information after you ve received attended to understood and responded to it 0 Accuracy depends on the situation 0 Influenced by conflict remember our behaviors as more positive and our partners as more negative Keeping consistent with view of self Multitasking n Less is absorbed n Think you said something but you didn t n Those who are attached to their phones Skews memory because certain information is absorbed listening styles 0 Peoplecentered therapist 0 Listening with concern for others emotions and feelings 0 You support them affects how you engage with other people 0 Actioncenteredpolicebusiness 0 Listening with a preference or emphasis on organized accurate and concise messages 0 Quickest actionresponse after information Contentcentered judge 0 Listening with a focus on the facts and details of the message 0 Pick out factsdetails of the message what actually happened 0 Most objective view possible 0 Timecentered 0 Listening with a focus on conveying a message in the shortest amount of time possible 0 Get the information out as quickly as possible 0 Conversation is short and sweet readers digest narcissistic listening 0 You re not really listening fully listen for things that apply to youlook for thing that can turn the conversation back to you 0 Lack of skill with being empathetic with another person selective listening 0 Only pick out certain information in an interaction Somethings are more salient to others 0 Avoid certain pieces of information we shut down 0 Health communication talking to smokers shut down when listening to PSA s but not changing the conversation pseudolistening o Pretending to listen but you re not 0 Good eye contact and motions but your mind is distracted aggressive listening 0 Listening to pick out weaknesses to a person s argument 0 Ex lawyers find a weak spot then go after them message overload c When we receive more messages than we can reasonably process 0 Ex multitasking receiving messages from various sources at one time 0 Netflix and hw prejudgment Stop listening because you think you know what that person is going to say 0 Tuning them out 0 Sometimes we don t get the whole story miss details chp 6 constitutive rules 0 guidelines that define word meaning according to a particular languages vocabulary regulative rules 0 guidelines that govern how we use language when we verbally communicate spelling and grammar as well as conversational usage ex cursing in public is inappropriate denotative meaning 0 The literal conventional meaning 0 Subject to change 0 The dictionary definition connotative meaning 0 Contextrelationally based and can vary between person to person 0 Call someone baby but they re not actually a human infant communication accommodation theory 0 People adapt their language when they 0 Seek social approval 0 Ex mirroring interactions showing liking 0 Want relationships 0 View others language usage as appropriate 0 Convergence 0 Accommodation adaptation of language to the person event etc o Divergence o Overaccommodation trying too hard 0 Underaccommodation not trying at all emphasize difference 0 Ex someone from Cali talking to someone from Georgia If we see someone as similar to us we re more likely to accommodate communication apprehension the fear or nervousness associated with communicating with others cooperative communicationcooperative principle 0 the idea that we should make our verbal messages as informative honest relevant and clear as required given what the situation requires linguistic determinism the view that the language we use defines the boundaries of our thinking linguistic relativity 0 the theory that languages create variations in the ways cultures perceive and think about the world symbols symbolic nature of language 0 Words are the primary symbols we use to represent people objects ideas events etc 0 Shared understanding of symbols allows communication 0 language is o Arbitrary Not intrinsically connected to what they represent a Ex book no rhyme or reason why we can call it something else but the function would be the same 0 Ambiguous Meaning is not clear cut variance other people have different ideas a Ex affordable depends on your financial situationthe price a Subjective 0 Abstract Not concrete or tangible n Ex freedom 0 Not an object personal idioms 0 words and phrases that have unique meanings to a particular relationship ex kat calling me small one high context v low context cultures 0 high cultures that presume listeners share extensive common knowledge and therefore rely more on the context of a conversation than on the words themselves for meaning Asian countries 0 low cultures that rely on words themselves rather than on the conversational situation to convey meaning resulting in direct verbal communication US naming creating linguistic symbols to represent people objects places and ideas speech acts 0 the actions we perform with language such as the question Is the antique clock in your window for sale and the reply yes let me go out and show you crafting conversations o interactive at least two people 0 local management decisions regarding who speaks when and for how long exchange turns 0 universal foundation of interpersonal communication scripts rigidly structured patterns of talk I v we v you language 0 l communication that uses the pronoun Ito emphasize ownership of your feelings opinions and beliefs 0 We communication that uses the pronoun we to emphasize inclusion 0 You communication that states or implies the pronoun you to place the focus of attention on blaming others Defensive communication o lmpolite messages delivered in response to suggestions criticisms or perceived slights Verbal aggression o The tendency to attack other s selfconcepts appearance behavior or character rather than their positions Chp 7 Proxemics types of space 0 Communication through the use of physical distance Sociopetal space 0 Interpersonal communication and cohesiveness promotes it 0 Ex lunch tables Sociofrugal space 0 Separate and solitary 0 Separate from people very focused on work 0 Ex my desk 0 Territoriality o Happens all the time we protect it Ex sitting in the same seat everyday l if someone sits there you d be pissed o Creatures of habit people have to be allowed into your space extension of us I own it o 4 social spaces intimate embracing touching or whispering 018 inches people you re closest to 0 personal interactions among good friendsfamily members general interactions comfortable space 154 ft 0 social distance interactions among acquaintances professional 412 ft if you stand close and break down boundaries people becomes more comfortable with you more quickly 0 power move public distance public speaking big distance 1225 ft or more Haptics the nonverbal communication code of touch Functionalprofessional task dentist Inappropriate outside of this context Socialpolite social norms handshake Friendshipwarmth liking hand on shoulder when they re upset Loveintimacy affection kiss on cheek bye Sexualarousal physical stimulation wandering hands Aggressivehostile violence slap across the face Chromemics o A nonverbal code that represents the way you use time to communicate in interpersonal encounters Mtime o A cultural orientation toward time that values careful scheduling and time management US Ptime 0 Cultural orientation toward time viewing it loosely and fluidly and valuing human relationships over strict schedules punctuality may be sacrificed to savor a conversation Mexico Vocalics 0 Vocal characteristics we use to communicate nonverbal messages such as volume pitch rate voice quality vocalized sounds and silence 0 Ex pause signals discomfort creates tension or heightens drama Kinesics communication through body movements Facial expression 0 Eye contact Gestures Artifacts and environment 0 things we possess that we use to express our identity to others such as objects 0 Fixed feature artifacts 0 Large objects or things that cant be moved o If you see a white board on the wall it tells you it s a classroom Semifixed artifacts 0 Can be moved but aren t usuallyare hard to move 0 Bed and bed position 0 Can focus attentionpromote interaction 0 Personal artifacts 0 Communication through objects 0 Things you owncarryare in your room 0 Identify you as a personwho you are 0 Ex posters pictures instrument sports equipment Types of touch 0 Emblems gesture in place of a word 0 illustrators gestures enhance verbal o regulators manage with nonverbal behaviors adaptors selfbody or object lmmedicacy lecture psychological and physical closeness warmth positive effect and liking Adapters 0 Touching gestures often unconsciously made that serve a physicalpsychological purpose 0 May be gestures that provide comfort signal anxiety or are unconscious habits Regulators 0 Gestures used to control the exchange of conversational turns during interpersonal encounters avoiding eye contact with professor when packing up Expectancy violation theory 0 Expectancy o framing devices that characterize and structure interpersonal interaction o What you m will happen I expect that if I make a move they wiH reject me Changes based on personrelationship think schema Expectancies are primarily based upon Social norms n Elevator example a Stand from others and face door norm 0 What if someone turned around We have many social norms a Don t call people out in public 0 Relational norms Not sleeping with one another Don t date ex s best friend 0 Selfdisclosure Specific characteristics of the communicators reward value c Violation o Breach of what an individual expects will happen in an interaction 0 Cause increased awareness o Compel the recipient to make cognitive appraisals of the violation and response outcomes 0 Violation valance 0 positive or negative 0 Can depend upon the liking between two people 0 Halo effect comes into play 0 Violation importance 0 Extent to which it is perceived to impact the relationship 0 Violation expectedness o Extent to which behavior varies from range of expectations 0 How unexpected is it 0 Ex awkward sidestep when passing people not too unexpected 0 Communicator reward value 0 Physically attractive powerful highly com petenttypically seen as more rewarding than those who do not have any or all of those characteristicshow do you feel about the person what do you have to gain or lose from this encounterwhen a rewarding communicator interacts at a closer than expected distance we are likely to evaluate the violation positively and viceversa with a nonrewarding communicator Chp 8 Power 0 the ability to influencecontrol other people and events Interpersonal power 0 Interpersonal power the ability to influence relationship partners Power currencies 0 resource currency 0 thingsobjectsresources people want 0 influencecontrol over others ex friend has nice TV D be nice to you can watch the game there expertise currency 0 knowledge is power 0 when younger kids are managers at Av Pav l they have more knowledge 0 social network currency 0 based on who we know 0 ex giving Preston RA contacts 0 going to the friend of someone you re interested in 0 personal currency 0 if you don t have knowledge you re okay as long as you have a good personality 0 intimacy currency 0 close relationships with other people 0 can call on a friend to help you out ex drive to the airport call someone at 2 am and drive x hours Dependence power 0 The control that a person who is LESS dependent on the relationship has in the eyes of the person who is more dependent o More dependent on a person less power you have Appears the partner may be willing and able to leave the relationship 0 Ex how I felt Dumbass would just leave 0 The influence gained by a person because they are perceived as likely to inflict punishment harmwithhold reward 0 Taking punitive action in the form of aggressive behavior l can lead to chilling effect 0 Ex parentchild if you don t x I m going to y Referent power 0 power you havepeople have over you because you admire them 0 ex if a celeb likes something you re more apt to like it Legitimate power 0 statusposition 0 taking on a certain role ex listen to a teacher because they re a teacher Reward power cohesive l have influence over you so if you do this I ll give you X Dyadic power theory 0 People with only moderatesymmetrical power are the most likely to use power plays Complementary power don t need to do this 0 Symmetrical and complementary relationships 0 symmetrical relationships balanced roughly equal likely our goal is to get more power I m attempting to get more control power plays 0 complementary relationships imbalanced cant influence relationship causes topic avoidance already know it s not going to work use less power plays attempt wouldn t work Conflict management styles 0 Collaboration 0 Individual has high concern for achieving partner s goals and hisher M goals Achieving both partner s goals entirely 0 Find way that both goals are COMPLETELY achieved better in theory than practice Ex bf wants a job and gf wants to live in Charlotte need to figure out job in Charlotte n Drawback cognitively takes a lot of energy humans don t like that Compromise 0 Individual has a moderate concern for achieving partner s goals and hisher own goals More about moderate goal W o How can we meet our goals halfway Ex gf wants to live in Dallas and bf wants to go to NYC I Charlotte NC is compromise n Both m something Competition 0 Individual has high concern for achieving hisher own goals little to no concern with partners goals 0 May use May result in a person being overly critical defensive or aggressive 0 Can lead to symmetrical escalation Someone is using more assertivenegative behavior then the other person will match it level will rise and cycle repeats D Can lead to W 0 Be all end all do this or else no room for negotiation Accommodation 0 Individual has more concern for partners goals than hisher own goals 0 Person submits to the wants of the other person partner achieves goals 0 Benefits flexible o Drawbacks pushover lack of wants 0 Avoidance 0 Lack of concern for self and partners goals 0 Minimizeevade conflict interactions Denial of conflictproblem changing the subject 0 Don t care enough to pursue what you want but don t want your partner to pursue it either Deny an issue 0 Includes Skirting avoiding topic Sniping speak negatively about situation and drop it 0 Can lead to W Can only avoid a topic before something sets you off and you lose it o Withdrawing from a conversation and or changing topics Can lead to poor mental health 4 communication pattern types 0 symmetrical escalation 0 Someone is using more assertivenegative behavior then the other person will match it level will rise and cycle repeats symmetrical withdrawal 0 Partner 1 avoids engaging withdraws 0 Partner 2 mirrors behavior and also withdraws 0 Both avoiding conflict 0 demandwithdraw behaviors 0 One partner continues discussing the conflict 0 One partner withdraws has power 0 Prompting the other partner to pursue Ex trying to talk about something and wont answer the phone keep nagging 0 symmetrical negotiation 0 Each partner mirrors the others positive negotiating behaviors 0 Listen to the other and reflect back what they have heard 0 Ideal kitchen sinking a response to a conflict in which combatants hurl insults and accusations at each other that have very little to do with the original disagreement reactivity 0 a way of handling conflict by not pursuing conflictrelated goals at all and communicating in an emotionally explosive and negative fashion instead serial conflict 0 a series of unresolved disputes all having to do with the same issue chilling effect 0 People avoid discussing certain topics out of fear of the other relational partner 0 Wants to avoid negative personal and relational consequences 0 Results in a climate of fear anxiety and suppression 0 Will discount the severity of the issue so that they don t feel the need to engage in conflictdiscuss the topic 0 Leads to anxiety l negatively affects mentalphysical health 0 Suppressing this is detrimental 0 Start to discount the situation and you believe it powerdistance o The degree to which people in a culture view the unequal distribution of power as acceptable conflict interdependence incompatible goals conflict 0 The interaction between interdependent people who perceive that they have incompatible goals and interference from each other in achieving these goals 0 Interdependence o Communicators are interconnected and rely on and need each other 0 Communicators view others as keeping them from reaching their goals 0 incompatible goals 0 dissimilar goals reciprocity Common tendency to mirror a person s behavior 0 Positive or negative 0 Ex someone trying to stay clam so you do that complementarity o Responding in the opposite manner of a partner 0 Ex confrontation from one partner accommodation from the other 0 Ex I was direct and the other person withdraws and drops it adaptability skills Conversation management 0 Smooth flow of discussion taking turns Composure 0 Displaying relaxation and confidence 0 Other orientation 0 Giving attention empathy good listening 0 When you re focused they re focused more likely to solve issues 0 Expressiveness 0 Animation uses gestures affection make sure to use conflict 0 Less expressive during conflicts than usual 0 Attend to the relationship meaning of the conversation focus on greater meeting 0 Other orientation listen support the other person don t shut out 0 Own your feelings thoughts and issues 0 l 0 We focus on relationship us against problem 0 You accusatory 0 Check perceptions 0 Look for points of agreement brainstorm solutions team up 0 Look for ways to preserve other s face 0 When we re critical of the other it reflects back to you stress and health on conflict families with lecture notes 0 Lack of sleep results in more negative emotional and less positive emotions Less likely to recognize partner s emotions Cant read other people One night of sleep impairs problem solving Poor sleep predicted conflict the following day
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