CSD Test 2 Study Guide
CSD Test 2 Study Guide CDS 212
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This 26 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexis Hanford on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CDS 212 at Syracuse University taught by Tammy Kordas in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 291 views. For similar materials see Intro to Comm/Sci & Disorders in Art at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
Test 2 What is the difference between uency and dis uency Fluency speech that is easy rhythmical and evenly owing Dis uency between word llers pauses revisions within wordsrepetition prolongation block unusual stuttering What is the de nition of stuttering Stutter unusual number of repetitions prolongations blocks dis uency is combined with excessive physical and mental effort to resume talking stutterers have negative perceptions of their communication abilitiesmay develop love self esteem What are the primary behaviors of stuttering Repetitions repeating sounds at the beginning or in the middle of words Prolongations holding a sound for a long period od time Blocks silent prolongations What are the secondary behaviors of stuttering Counterproductive adaptations circumlocutions avoidances Movements eye blinks pursed lips change words Note These behaviors become less successful and more intrusive with time What are the causes of stuttering lnternal inherited traits temperament cognitive abilities language knowledge informationprocessing mechanisms and speech control External cultural parental expectations childrearing practices educational experiences relationships with siblings and peers Assessment of Stuttering lnterview case history identi es genetic link Temperament attitudes Culture family interactions educational experiences Speech samples samples from dialogue and oral reading stuttering severity instrument Measures of stuttering select a 4 or 5minute representative sample transcribe 50 utterances divide the number of dis uencies by the total number of words stuttering like behavior is a score of 3 or more Chronic stuttering a stuttering that progresses into adolescence and adulthood Treatment of Stuttering Stuttering modi cation therapy designed to teach the stutterer to change the way he stutters cancellations pullouts and preparatory sets Fluency Shaping Therapy designed to teach a new speech style that is free of stuttering used with children 38 involves slower rates of speech relaxed breathing easy initiation of sounds and smoother transitions between words slow down the rate of speech then gradually increase in small increments What is Articulation Articulation the joining of two structures the ability to produce sound by moving the articulators lips tongue teeth jaw and velum Articulationphonological disorders the most common types of communication disorders this includes dif culty producing sounds wed for red and sound sequences top for stop What are the stages of early speech production 03 years M B N W D P H 24 years T K G F V CH J 46 years SH TH S Z L R ALL sounds mastered by 78 years39 old What is Phonology Phonology the study of combining phonemes to make words a linguistic approach to studying sound production What is a phonological disorder Phonological disorders dif culty implementing the rules for producing sounds and sound sequences may have dif culty making contrast between words dop for stop cop top What is the difference between Phonological disorders and Articulation disorders Articulation few sounds in errors usually 5 r l Phonological very unintelligible many sounds in error What are the Common Phonological Processes Common phonological processes reduplication weak syllable deletion cluster reduction nal consonant deletion velar fronting interdentalization gliding of liquids stopping of fricatives What does SODA refer to for articulation errors SODA substitutions omissions distortion addition What is the difference between Delay and Disorder Delay articulation errors or phonological processes that are seen in younger children Disorder articulation errors or processes rarely seen in normally developing children What are the degrees of impairment Mild problems with only a few sounds speech is intelligible to most listeners Moderate more dif culty producing sounds mostly intelligible to familiar listeners Severe speech is unintelligible to most listeners many errors may have unusual errors Etiology of Phonological and Articulation disorders Functional speech impairment cause of differences of speech cannot be determined Perceptual incoming sound is compromised Structural something physical in the oral cavity cleft pallet Motor neurological impairments Genetic inherited syndromes down syndrome Assessment of Phonological and Articulation disorders 0 Determine the severity of the disorder or the delay and identify goals for treatment Spontaneous language sample 0 Single word articulation test 0 Hearing screening 0 Oral examination 0 Describe child39s speech 0 Types of errors 0 Number of errors Stimuability can the child produce the sound when given instruction Treatment for Phonological and Articulation disorders Articulation focus of repetitive motor practice and attention to place and manner of articulation Phonological may focus on building a persons metaphonological awareness of speech sounds What is a Voice Disorder Voice Disorders disruption or change in voice quality loudness pitch and quality are used to describe how we perceive a normal voice What are the different types of voice disorders Erythematous redness of in ammation of the vocal folds Aphonia total loss of voice Dysphonia abnormal voice disturbed phonation What are the voice quality descriptors Harsh excessive muscle tension ampli es the high frequency component of the voice ex Speaking as if you are furious but without yelling Breathy produced with a partial whisper vocal folds are vibrating but are not fully adducted during phonation Hoarse combination of harsh and breathy presence of vocal fold tension coupled with breathiness What are the causes of voice disorders Discrete diffuse tissue enlargement Reduction in tissue atrophy Increased muscle activity Hyper function Reduced muscle activity Hypo function Muscle dysfunction myopathy Psychological disorders Voice disorders due to neurological impairment damage to the cerebral cortex pyramidal tract peripheral nerves or neuromuscularjunctions Unilateral vocal fold paralysis affected vocal fold can not be fully adducted resulting in a breathy voice attempts to increase the adductory function of the unaffected fold to over adduct Spasmodic dysphonia rare 1 to 210000 defect in the basal ganglia of the brain causes dystonia disordered muscle tonicity muscles working against each other treated with BOTOX Nodules quotcallusesquot that develop on the vocal folds in response to trauma which adversely affects voice hoarse voice most common form of vocal fold abnormality SLP39s responsibility Is to help patient eliminate vocal abuse or misuse Polyps hemorrhagic or serous 2 types Serous Polyp pendunculated polyp narrow stalk with a balloon top Sessile polyp spread over a large area Result from vocal abuse once time occurrence unilateral Contact ulcers appears as open sore granulation tissue caused by excessive production of low pitch frequent nonproductive cough throat clearing GERD lntubation Papilloma39s human papilloma virus HPV cause warts will go away with time surgical removal if airway is threatened Carcinoma 11000 new cases per year slowly form with smoking synergistic relationship with alcohol invades body of folds may metastasize Treatments of voice disorders Endoscopy allows clinician to visualize vocal folds and surrounding areas Stroboscopy a device that causes a light to pulsate at a particular frequency the movement characteristics of the vocal folds can be carefully examines Arti cial larynx a mechanical device used to create a spectrum of tones which are modulated by the articulators to produce intelligible speech Esophageal speech air supply for phonations originated in the upper portion of the esophagus air is released and the walls of the esophagus are drawn into vibration speech is low pitched and limited due to mass of esophagus loudness variability is restricted due to limited volume of air Tracheoesophageal speech air is routed from the lungs to the esophagus longer phrase length greater pith and loudness variability than esophageal speech What is the difference between language and communication Communication an exchange of meaning between a sender and a receiver animals can communicate can be verbal or nonverbal can be intentional or unintentional Language A socially shared code or conventional system for representing concepts through the use of arbitrary symbols and rulegoverned combinations of those symbols doesn39t have to be spoken Symbols may be sounds as in speech letters as in writing or hand movements as in sign What is speech Speech The oral expression of language Mechanical aspects of planning and producing sounds for language Speech cannot exist without language What is the difference between receptive language and expressive language Receptive Language Understanding comprehension eg listening reading a book watching a person sign Expressive Language Producing language to send a message eg talking writing signing What are the three classifications of language 1 Productivitv quotgenerativequot can be used in novel ways say sentences never said before Ex quotThe snake39s intelligent siblings lack the ability to ambulate in an erect fashionquot English word order can be used to express this new idea 50 English can be considered a language 2 Semanticitv express ideasconcepts words stand for something speci c Ex a 4month old baby cries but cannot speci cally express speci c concepts such as hungry thirsty tired so the baby is not using language at this point 3 Displacement can talk about things not in timespace physically Ex a dog cannot express quotI saw a burglar with a gun outsidequot Thus the dog s bark is not language because he cannot tell about anything speci c that is not present What are the key pieces of language Semantics meaning of language linguistic representation of objects ideas feelings and events also the relations between phenomena THIS IS CONTENT Semantic Disorder problem with understanding or using words meanings vocabulary ex You ask a child to point to a bird and they point to a cat Phonology rules or governing the sound system of the language Phonemes THIS IS FORM Phonology disorder problems applying the rules of the sound system on the language Syntax grammar rules by which sentences are made organizing word order word combinations Syntax disorder problems forming sentences wrong order Morphology internal organization of words small units of meaning Morphemes smallest unit of language that carries meaning THIS IS SOUND Free morphemes can stand alone as one word Bounds morpheme changes the meaning of words adding their own meaning but can only be used as attachments of free morphemes Morphological disorder child may omit morphemes What is MLU MLU mean length of utterance average number of morphemes in an utterance To nd this we add the number of free morphemes and bound morphemes and then divide by the total utterances Pragmatics rules for language in social context conversation deciding what to say to who how to say it and when Pragmatic Disorder problem with one of those pragmatic skills Autism Asperger syndrome children have dif culty learning the social rules for language Ex turn taking humor topic maintenance topic elaboration requesting clari cation indirect requests is Jane there commenting making eye contact using politeness 0 Ex Codeswitching using different dialectlanguage in different situations with different communication partners understanding background knowledge of communication and have dif culty learning the social rules for language What is dialect Dialect variations of a language that is understood by all speakers of a language Know the AampP of the ear Outer Ear Pinna tragus concha Iobule helix antihelix EAM 0 Function of outer ear Middle Ear TM 0 Malleus o lncus Stapes o Muscles o Eustachian Tube 0 Function of Middle ear Inner Ear Cochlea Scala tympani Scala media Scala vestibule Organ of Corte Sits on the basilar membrane 0 Functions What are the Transformations of energy AcousticSound energy in canal MechanicalPhysical movement of ossicles HydraulicTraveling wave within cochlea ElectricalFiring of hair cells at 8th nerve What is an Otoscopy Examination of pinna EAM and TM identify landmarks pull pinna up and back to straighten canal What is the difference between a Screening audiometer and a Diagnostic audiometer Screening used in schools or public health programs has basic functions frequency decibel hearing level tone interrupter Diagnostic used in hospital and clinical settings has all functions that screening has PLUS options for speech testing and special testing What is air conduction testing Tests the integrity of the entire peripheral system Identi es degree of hearing loss not type of loss What is bone conduction testing Pure tones are presented through a bone oscillator identi es type of hearing loss What are audiograms Graphs used by audiologists to plot hearing What are the types of hearing loss Conductive Hearing LossBone conduction responses are normal Air conduction are below 25 dB HL ie 26 Problem exists in the outer and or middle ear Sensorineural Hearing LossBone conduction responses are equal to air conduction responses and both are below 25 dB HL ie 26 Mixed Hearing LossA combination of the two Air and bone conduction are both below 25 dB HL AND there is a greater than 10 dB HL gap between air and bone What is threshold ThresholdThe least intensity required to perceive the stimulus 50 of the time What are the Degrees of hearing loss 0 lt26 Normal Hearing 0 26 40 Mild o 41 55 Moderate 56 70 Moderately Severe o 71 90 Severe 0 gt90 Profound Hearing disorders Pathology A disorder of the hearing organ such as the outer ear middle ear inner ear hair cell auditory nerve auditory cortex Outer Ear o Macrotialarge pinna o Anotiaabsent pinna o Microtiasmall pinna o Atresiacomplete blockage of ear canal Middle Ear o Otitis Media active in ammation or andor infection of the middle ear space Cholesteatoma growth of epithelium tissue in ME or mastoid Ossicular Discontinuity disruption or interruption of normal articulation between ossicles Inner Ear o OtotoxicityResult of the action of certain chemicals that damage the cochlea or vestibular portion of the inner ear 0 Noise Induced Hearing Loss hearing loss dues to noise exposure Hearing Aids Candidacy audiometric test results can be used as a good predictor for success What are the hearing aid components Electroacoustic device Converts acoustic energy into electric signal Electrical signal is manipulated made louder Converted back to acoustic signal and delivered into ear canal Microphone Picks up acoustic energy Ampli er Manipulates the sound BatteryPower source Volume control Receiver Delivers sound into ear canal Classi cation by size Body aid used on profoundly deaf infants Eyeglass aid not common early attempt making aids discrete Behind the ear used on severe and profound losses and children Open t BTE new feedback controlled with new technology In the ear ITE most common Classi cation by circuit Conventional analogue small screw set controls on hearing ad that can adjust certain parameters least expensive Programmable analogue programmed in office rather than by hearing company more exible can make changes while in the ear remote control middle cost Digital has a digital signal processor clearer sound most expensive What is the difference between Monaural and Binaural Monaural one aid Binaural two aids Advantages of a binaural fitting Better sound localization Less volume requirements Better resolution in noise Avoids Auditory Deprivation contested theory that states that an unstimulated auditory nerve will die off more rapidly Practice questions and Activities MORPHOLOGY PRACTICE freebound divide by utteranceMLU 1 The dogs are barking 42 6 She hated that idea 51 5 Mom walks too slowly42 6 That is Alex s house 41 5 Is she going with us 51 6 They walked to the store5166 They lived happily ever after 52 7 The man crashed the truck 51 6 We will go swimming tomorrow 51 6 He likes the picture 41 5 TOTAL NUMBER OF MORPHEMES 58 MEAN LENGTH OF UTTERANCE MLU 58 Review 1 1 Which speech sounds are among those that are typically mastered before age 5 B D W 2 Omission of speech sounds ls normal in the speech of young children 3 When a tenyear old substitutes w for r in speech production It can negatively affect how other view the child 4 phonological processes Describe patterns of sound errors that affect multiple sounds 5 A young child says I sink its funny meaning I think its funny This is an example of speech sound substitution 6 The occurrence of dis uency in speech Can be normal at any age 7 Stuttering most commonly involves Repetition of sounds at the beginning of words 8 Dis uencies that are most characteristic of stuttering include Prolongations of sounds of words 9 stuttering Can include nonverbal behaviors 10 The majority of Children who stutter Will overcome stuttering through maturation or therapy Review 2 1 What does SODA refer to Substitutions Omissions Distortion Addition 2 When you say Momma baked lemon chicken where should the velum be The velum should be lowered on the nasal sounds and raised on the vowels and consonants 3 What is a semantic approach to articulation therapy emphasis the change and meaning that mispronounces produce 4 Which of the following is a congenital condition cleft palate Review 3 BSD 212 Language Disorders For each sentence in Column 1 identityr whether it is an example of a disorder in FORM CONTENT or USE Then tn Cotiurnn identify whether the example shows a problem in PHONOLOGY MORPHO SYNTAX SEMANTICS or PRAGMATlCS Column 1 7 ColrumniZ A child talks in lengthyiparagraphs about their own 7 interests f t quot is r t t torrent r 1 Be vewy quiet l m hunting wabbits Age 1quot Mt 39 quot r4 4 l ii 75 i 5 West A child has difficulty understanding jokes Point to the one that is the biggest chooses smallest Why him bite me Depttrey the Dira e is the mastot for Toys R Us I tought taw a paddy tat Looksou t the Windomr for pets When ith raining cats and dogs l is sleeping j 39 l used the thing to um gesture hammertng the nail A child talks over their communtcation partner eta tryset A child interrupts the conversations of others frequently ratta When wife hands you wemons make wemonade t either h c Show me mommy s shoe points to own foot She eatted my cookie quotthe r 39 it s iw 39 All I want for Chrithmath ith my two front teeth m n EC 1 I yl Lotta doggtes goed in there if me on A child talks only about toy trains WW itsmotif r Colorless green ideas sleep furiously f v q DRE tTat l 39I I i 1 Cleft LipPalate Syndrome inherited condition with a unique constellation of symptoms ex Down syndrome fragile x syndrome cleft lip and palate Gene Mutations occur in 2 ways inherited and acquired through drugs xrays certain viruses Once mutated will continue to replicate in mutated form Disorders with suspected genetic etiology stuttering autism childhood apraxia dyslexia cleft ip palate Cleft lipA cleft lip is an opening or split in the upper lip that occurs when developing facial structures in an unborn baby don39t close completely Cleft lip may be unilateral or bilateral Babies with cleft lip may also experience a cleft in the roof of their mouths if a child develops this it will be within the rst trimester of pregnancy because that is when the velum develops Cleft Lip25 of clefts involves only the lip can involve ip up through and including alveolar ridge Cleft palate25 of clefts involves only the palate can range from a difficult to see hole to complete absence of the roof of the mouth Cleft lip and Cleft PalateRemaining 50 of all clefts involve both Cleft can be bilateral both sides or unilateral one side Why do clefts form Lip and palate form during the 5th through 12th weeks they form through the fusion of tissues from top and sides Insults to the fetus during this time interrupts normal development What are the causes of clefts Genetic disorders Clefting is associated with over 400 genetic anomaly syndromes Major syndromes include a Pierre Robin Syndrome n Treacher Collin s Syndrome n Velocardiofacial Syndrome n Apert Syndrome Teratogenically induced Environmental factors a Drugs Dilantin thalidomide excessive aspirin retinoids n Ingestion of alcohol nicotine and caffeine n Xrays a Certain viruses Mechanically induced l Factors that impinge directly on the fetus n Amniotic rupture n Intrauterine crowding n Uterine tumors What is a Sub Mucous Cleft Cleft that forms later in fetal development intact mucous membrane separating the oral and nasal cavities but bones don t fuse Three de ning characteristics l Notch in the hard palate not visible l Abnormal orientation of soft palate musculature I Bi d uvula What are the complications of cleft Difficulty feeding your baby Ear infections and hearing loss Dental problems Challenges of coping with a medical condition Speech dif culties What is Velopharyngeal Closure It is necessary for oralnasal contrast of speech sounds it involves movement of soft palate posterior pharyngeal wall lateral walls Management of Cleft LipPalate Prosthetic management I Speech bulb or pharyngeal extension appliance Used in patients with short soft palate or deep nasopharynx Similar to retainer Acrylic material lls the velopharyngeal area I Palatal lift Used in patients w inadequate muscle control Lifts the weak velum and closes off velopharyngeal area Surgical Management Surgical repair of lip occurs during rst 3 months of life paate around 12 months Cheiloplasty ip surgery I Cosmetic only I Cleft of lip alone does not impair speech Palatoplasty palate surgery I 80 to 90 will have adequate velopharyngeal closure l 10 to 20 will need secondary management
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