Midterm #2 Study Guide
Midterm #2 Study Guide Comm 2331
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Megan Hageman on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Comm 2331 at Ohio State University taught by Erik Nisbet in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 190 views. For similar materials see Strategic Communication Principles in Journalism and Mass Communications at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
COMM 2331 Midterm 2 Study Guide Oct 28th 1 Consumer decisionmaking process 2 1 Problem Recognition out of stock dissatisfaction new needswants related productspurchases marketinduced recognition new products Psychological process relates to motivation Maslow s hierarchy of needs 2 Information Search Psychological process relates to perception Cognitive Dissonance Selective Perception selective exposure selective attention selective comprehension selective retention 3 Alternative Evaluation objective price features warranty service and subjective image style performance Psychological process relates to attitude formation memorybased model based on accessibility of beliefs and the weight of those beliefs 4 Purchase Decision based on purchase intention and brand loya y Psychological process relates to integration online model overall impression of a brandproduct from all encounters you have had with it 5 Postpurchase Evaluation either satisfaction or dissatisfaction if dissatisfaction then cognitive dissonance Psychological process relates to learning classical conditioning learning is associate process by building relationships between conditional stimulus and response operant conditioning behavior leads to a reward or punishment Problem Recognition sources Out of stock Dissatisfaction productspurchases Marketinduced recognition Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs Physiologicalljl Safety Sociall Esteem Selfactualization needs Psychoanalytic approaches motivations that underlie behavior and lie in the subconscious Adv reveals hidden feelings drives fears highlights importance of symbolic factors shifts attention from what to why and quothowquot Dis Qualitative results from small samples varying subjective interpretations difficult or impossible to verify or validate new needswants related new products 3 4 5 6 7 8 Individual differences matter in perception We avoid certain messages based on personal preferences and experiences Selective perception only allows us to see pay attention to comprehend and retain the things we want to Selective exposure Selective Attentionl Selective comprehensionl Selective retention Cognitive Dissonance makes us seek opinions that are consistent with our existing beliefs Consumers either evaluate brands objectively price features warranty service or subjectively image style performance Memorybased model attitude toward a brand is based on accessibility of available beliefs in one s memory and how much weight each belief is given To change an attitude with this model you have to change beliefs about an important attribute change weight given to an attribute make a new attribute available in uence the accessibility of available attributes Online Model the overall impression of a product based on a series of evaluative impressions formed at the time of info exposure Different from memorybased model because you are recalling all information and not just the memory of your attitude towards a product Postdecision evaluation steps either satisfaction or dissatisfaction if dissatisfaction then results in cognitive dissonance Cognitive dissonance if you are not happy with your purchase then you will feel cognitive dissonance and next time you will search out an alternative Behavioral learning classical conditioning learning is an associative process by building relationships between conditional stimulus and response Operant conditioning a behavior leads to either a reward or punishment and then increases or decreases the probability of repeat behavior External in uences on consumer behavior situational determinants reference group social class subculture and culture 9 The communication process Creating messages encoding Interpretation of messages decode meaning Transmission channel Elicit a response Dynamic feedback process 10 Semiotic Perspective how images and symbols related to brands and products are interpreted by audiences 11 AIDA model developed to depict the stages in the personal selling process Hierarchy of effects model shows the process by which advertising works Innovation adoption model shows the stages a consumer passes through in the process of adopting a new product Information processing model a model of the process through which a consumer must pass to be in uenced by advertising All models have a cognitive affective and behavioral stage Awareness is key and also moving beyond awareness to understand attitudes and behaviors 12 KAB models decide which is appropriate to use by Amount of involvementmotivation Differentiation between choicesOptions Learning model KAB supplied info lead to attitude formationchange which in uences behavior high involvement high differentiation Affinity model AKB product doing well try to get those who have already purchased to do it again Rational model KBA gain info on a product to make a purchase then form attitude after using the product lowinvolvement minimal differences Grudging Acceptance model BKA times when people are forced buy something Dissonance model BAK behaviors lead to attitudes then serve as a basis to gain knowledge choose between 2 alternatives 13 Elaboration Likelihood Model ELM extent to which a person carefully thinks about arguments in a persuasive communication decide either central or peripheral route by motivation and ability Central Route informationbased cognitive response elaboration likelihood is high strong message arguments strong argumentpositive CR s weak argumentnegative CRs Peripheral route elaboration likelihood is low heuristic cues 14 Cognitive response elaboration goes beyond paying attention or comprehending a message but also involves generating one s own thoughts about a central idea or message 3 categories of thoughts Productmessage thoughts counterarguments or support arguments Sourceoriented thoughts source derogation or source bolstering Ad execution thoughts thoughts about ad itself affect attitude toward the ad 15 17 Problems with ELM Not purely central or peripheral Not all message factors are central not all input variables are peripheral Source can act as an argument We think that the message with most arguments is best We complete the feedback loop by Exposure Attention Comprehension Message acceptanceyielding Retention Purchase behavior Sources direct or indirect Source Attributes 18 Credibility process internalization source is perceived as accurate Attractiveness process identification adopts similar beliefs attitudes or behaviors after seeking relationship with source Power process compliance accepts position of source to receive rewards and avoid punishments Limitations of credible sources high and low credibility sources are equally effective when arguing for a position opposing their best interest Sleeper effect persuasiveness increases over time for low credibility sources Source attractiveness similarity familiarity likeability 3 requirements for source power Perceived control Perceived concern Perceived scrutiny Primacy effect argument at beginning better when audiences are opposed Recency effect argument at end audiences who have a favorable opinion already Open Vs Firm conclusion depends on Educationprior knowledge Audience involvement Longterm or shortterm goal Complexity of topic Assume central or peripheral route Onesided message when audience already has favorable attitude Twosided message when audience has an unfavorable attitude lnoculation when a twosided message leads to audience agreeing with the argument you made against your product 19 Fear appeals Adv activates attention may motivate receiver to resolve threat more likely to process centrally Dis too much fear less persuasive Humor appeals Adv attract and hold attention best remembered put audience in positive mood Dis doesn t aid persuasion may harm comprehension doesn t aid source credibility may wear out fast Four threat factors Severity of threat Susceptibility Response efficacy Selfefficacy 20 Selfpaced media can look at it at your own pace and take longer to get more info better for long complex messages newspapers magazines direct mail internet Externally paced media can t control how much time you spend on it better for getting attention radio TV 21 Context affects how you see a message Clutter if there is too much clutter on a channel then advertisements won t be seen or remembered by the audience 22 Hard sell based on logic Soft sell based on emotions Rational appeals feature competitive price news popularity Categories of feelings Personal safety security fear love affection joy nostalgia sentiment excitement sorrow Socialbased recognition status respect involvement embarrassment affiliation rejection acceptance approval 23 Transformational ads ads create feelings meanings images beliefs to make the product richer warmer more exciting and enjoyable Teaser ads build excitement without actually showing the product Reminder ads link product with an activity 24 Selling strategy Finding the inherent drama Use a unique selling proposition buy product to get a bene t must be a unique product that rivals don t offer must be strong enough to move mass millions Positioning Create a brand image 25 Lecture serious instruction given verbally Drama provides lessons and allows consumers to draw conclusions Sliceof life solve a problem you encounter in everyday life Demonstration demonstrate how the product works Spokesperson a personality symbol related to the brand Straightsell factual information Testimonial person reveals their personal experience 26 Language and syntax Use positively worded statements Use active sentence structure Central Route complex sentences Peripheral Route Simple Sentences Lexical Diversity Use a number of different words
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