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midterm review

by: Summer mendez

midterm review ENG 175WI

Summer mendez
GPA 3.4
Nature of Language
Berriman, Elizabeth

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open note review.
Nature of Language
Berriman, Elizabeth
Study Guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Summer mendez on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ENG 175WI at Central Michigan University taught by Berriman, Elizabeth in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 444 views. For similar materials see Nature of Language in Foreign Language at Central Michigan University.


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Date Created: 10/21/15
ENG 175 Berriman Midterm study questions Fall 2015 The midterm is an openbook opennotes exam the questions will include but are not limited to reference to the following 1 General Nature of Language questions a What is the difference between linguistic competence and linguistic performance 0 Chomsky separates competence and performance he describes 39competence39 as an idealized capacity that is located as a psychological or mental property or function and 39performance as the production of actual utterances In short competence involves quotknowingquot the language and performance involves doing something with the language The dif culty with this construct is that it is very difficult to assess competence without assessing performance b Language is productive Explain with examples from at least two of the levels in our definition of language 0 In linguistics productivity is the degree to which native speakers use a particular grammatical process especially in word formation It compares grammatical processes that are 39modern to more 39unfashionable39 ones a In standard English the formation of preterite and past participle forms of verbs by means of ablaut for example sing sang sung is no longer considered productive Newly coined verbs in English overwhelmingly use the 39weak39 regular ending ed for the past tense and past participle c Language is arbitrary Explain with examples from at least two of the levels in our definition of language 0 Yes most of the meaningful elements in languages are arbitrary with no intrinsic connection to their meaning This is a key characteristic of language d What can we infer from the evolution of the human larynx mouth and tongue and when language developed see hand out on video 2 Child Language Acquisition a What have you learned that supports the theory that language acquisition is innate in humans Give some examples that prove this theory b When Patricia Kuhl provided examples of infants between the ages of 3 and 18 months listening to with brain patterns responding to specific sounds of various languages she referred to infants as citizens of the world What did she mean d e 0 Infants are born quotcitizens of the worldquot and can acquire any language easily Until the age of 6 months they discriminate the phonetic contrasts of all languages something their parents are unable to do By the end of the rst year of life infants show nascent specialization Give some evidence that proves we know that a child is developing rules as he acquires language Give some examples of a child39s being able to classify words into grammatical categories For instance how can we know that a child recognizes a noun as a noun or a verb as a verb 0 Mistakes such as 39l drawed instead of 39I drew show they are not learning through imitation alone Noam Chomslq believes that children are born with an inherited ability to learn any human language Does the quotpractice makes perfectquot approach as in pianoplaying or tennis work in language acquisition Explain No page 66 When children make errors in spoken language why should parents and caregivers not be concerned that the children aren t learning well 56 57 3 Language and the Brain 3 What does a dichotic listening test help prove about the brain and language 0 This shows that dichotic listening performance may be linked to individual differences in traitlike hemisphere asymmetry b How can we compare acquisition of language with learning to walk in terms of critical c age hypotheses 54 The idea is that babies are born predisposed to learn language in just the same way that they are predisposed to walk or to run When immigrants in the US are studied after they have been here for ten years we find generally that if they arrived between ages 18 and 35 they still have heavy accents if they arrived here between ages 10 and 18 they have slight accents if they arrived here before the age of 10 they can have no accents at all Why How does this correspond with changes in the brain 0 According to Lenneberg the window of opportunity for accent acquisition closes at age nine to ten Phonology cutoff age claims supported by foreign language researchers usually range from six to 15 d What is brain lateralization o The term brain lateralization refers to the fact that the two halves of the human brain are not exactly alike Each hemisphere has functional specializations some function whose neural mechanisms are localized primarily in one half of the brain 4 Building our definition of Language b d e g h i Explain with examples what it is that we have in our heads when we truly know a language You should cover the following terms putting them in their appropriate order as discussed in class MORPHOLOGY PHONETICS PHONOLOGY PRAGMATICS SEMANTICS SYNTAX bottom 137 What is a phonetic alphabet and what are the benefits How can it be helpful 0 Phonetic transcription is a system for writing the pronunciation of words It is used in most English dictionaries o the system is very useful because for every word it clearly shows you every sound it contains Explain and give examples of a minimal pair phoneticsphonology and describe the distinctive feature pg88 top Give an example of a morpheme variation based on a phonological rule An example could be the variations of pronunciations of ed pg100 Give an example of a morphological rule in English and explain how the rule works Since English doesn t have infixes explain a morphological rule about a language that does use infixes and explain 0 To make the plural form of a noun add 5 to the end of the noun pg 1 14 o Infixes are common in Austronesian and Austroasiatic languages For example in Tagalog a grammatical form similar to the active voice is formed by adding the infix um near the beginning of a verb Tagalog has borrowed the English word graduate as a verb to say quotI graduatedquot a speaker uses the derived form grumaduaz e Give an example of a structurally ambiguous sentence and explain how rules of syntax can illustrate the two or more possible meanings Contrast this with a sentence that has a word ambiguity in it and explain the difference Explain the difference between the denotative and the connotative meaning of a word Are two words ever truly synonymous No no two words mean the same thing Explain with examples Explain the semantic analysis of words by categories Give an example of how two different languages may categorize differently and explain why colors jobsindian things who use weapons Give an example of presupposition on the part of the speaker in an utterance Do the same with subtle manipulation In the branch of linguistics known as pragmatics a presupposition or ps is an implicit assumption about the world or background belief relating to an utterance whose truth is taken for granted in discourse Examples of presuppositions include i Jane no longer writes fiction o Presupposition Jane once wrote fiction k Have you stopped eating meat 0 Presupposition you had once eaten meat I Have you talked to Hans o Presupposition Hans exists m Why do languages have euphemisms Give an example in English 225 death war


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