Study Guide for Midterm!
Study Guide for Midterm! Psych 101
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Audrey Notetaker on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 101 at James Madison University taught by Dr. David Daniel in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 228 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
Types of Psych and Sciences Neuroscience How the body and brain enable emotions memories and sensory expe ence Evolutionary How the natural selection of traits has promoted the survival of gene cs Behavior Genetics How our genes and our environment influence individual differences Psychoanalytic How behavior springs from unconscious diverse conflicts Behavioral How we learn observable responses Cognitive How we encode process strive and retrieve info SocialCultural How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures ll Current Perspectives Neuroscience Biological psych new technology connection both brain and bodybehavior Evolutionary natural selection functionalismwhy does this do what it does whats the purpose everything si done for the survival of the species Behavior Genetics genes and environment individuality Psychodynamic unconscious drives below the surface conflicts effect on behavior Behavioral learning behaviors observable responses to stimuli Cognitive Studies the mind and how we manipulate process memory and processing compares mind to machine study smaller parts to understand how the mind works info influences how we behave Social Cultural Presence of otherscultural societal familial influences behavior and thinking vary as a result of different situations and cultures lll Biopsychosocial Approach combo of biological psychological and socialcultural factors Biological Influences natural selection generic predisportions brain mechanisms hormonal influences Psychological Influences learned fears learned expectations emotional responses cognitive processingperceptual interpretations SocialCultural Influences presence of others culture society family peer and group influence compelling models the media ALL BEHAVIOR OR MENTAL PROCESS MAMMMMMMM IV Early Schools of Thought Structuralism Wundt Kitchener INTROSPECTION looking inward how we do something how things work REDUCTIONISM smaller parts to understand the big idea breaking down and examining parts Functionalism James Darwin why is it therewhat does it do for us understanding the function Behaviorism Pavlov Watson Objective sciencestudy what you can measure behavior is the only thing that can be observed behavior is a reaction to environmental stimuli NOT a consequence of choice NO reference to mental process Humanism Rogers Maslow FREE WILL people have the ability to become who they want to be human potential emphasis on personal growth and fulfillment of potential V People and Ideas Frued Concept of the unconscious what is common across the whole species you can be affected by the study you aren t aware of psychoanalytic theories there is always a conflict unconscious forces drive behavior emphasis on childhood early experiences lifelong consequences Skinner organisms repeat behaviors with positive outcomes and do NOT repeat behaviors with neuralnegative outcomes no free will people don t take on the responsibility when they have free will Vl Sleep Awake Beta low voltage high frequency Alpha slow drowsy Stage 1 Theta NEM 1 fantastic images resembling hallucinations hypnagogic sensations Stage 2 NEM2 bursts of rapid rhythmic brainwave activity mixed EEG activity Stages 3 amp 4 Delta NEM3 slow wave sleep deepest sleep REM Sleep paradoxical sleep vivid dreams muscles are relaxed heart rate rises breathing rapid and irregular Vll Consciousness conscious awareness is selective what you re aware of mental process thoughts feelings perceptions allows access to memories and other info Levels conscious aware of events and mental processes precocious mental events are outside awareness but can be brought into awareness unconscious mental events are actively kept out of consciousness nonconsciousmental processing si totally removed from consciousness Dual processes a part of you acts without the other part knowing subliminal messages Bottomup Processing starts from the senses analysis of stimuli using senses works its way up to the brainmind TopDown Processing always first starts with an ideatheory making assumptions ahead of time efficient Vlll Psychoactive Drugs Depressants alcohol heroin Stimulants caffeine methamphetamine cocaine nicotine ecstasy mile hallucinogen marijuana mild hallucinogen Hallucinogens LSD IX Dreams wish fulfillment problem solving activation synthesismake sense of random internal signals EXAMPLE QUESTIONS CH 6 a Tinnitus is a phantom sensation b visual 0 auditory d taste 9 touch When leaning to the left by sitting in a leftleaning chair people lean more left in their expressed political attitudes This best illustrates a sensory adaptation b the volley principle c embodied cognition d the McGurk effect Hubel and Wiesel discovered feature detectors in the visual a fovea b optic nerve c iris d cortex According to the classic gatecontrol theory activation of smaller spinal cord nerve fibers pain and activation of larger spinal cord nerve fibers pain a decreases decreases b increases increases c decreases increases d increases decreases A door casts an increasingly trapezoidal image on our retinas as it opens yet we still perceive it as rectangular This illustrates a retinal disparity b interposition c shape constancy d linear perspective The term gestaltmeans a grouping b sensation c perception d whole Although several students in the classroom are talking loudly Jim39s attention is focused on what his girlfriend is saying In this instance the girlfriend39s voice is a a figure 8 10 11 12 b gestalt c perceptual set d perceptual adaption Gay men were more accurate in guessing the angle of a geometric figure if it had been in the same location where a nude briefly appeared a moment earlier Straight women were more accurate if the geometric figure had been in the same location where a nude briefly appeared a moment earlier a woman man b man woman c woman woman d man man Although Manuel was sitting right next to his parents he smelled a skunk minutes before they did Apparently Manuel has a lower for skunk odor than his parents have a critical period b tolerance level c absolute threshold d sensory adaption On the day she is to be interviewed for an important new position Rachel awakens with a severe toothache During the interview she feels no pain not until 30 minutes later does she become aware again of the troublesome toothache Rachel39s experience is best explained by a the opponentprocess theory b weber s law 0 the gatecontrol theory d frequency theory The study of perception is primarily concerned with how we a detect sights sounds and other stimuli b sense environmental stimuli c develop sensitivity to illusions d interpret sensory stimuli When visually restricted infant monkeys were first allowed to see they could not visually distinguish a between dim and bright lights b between differentcolored objects c figures from backgrounds d circles from squares 13 14 15 Evidence that some cones are especially sensitive to red light others to green light and still others to blue light is most directly supportive of a Weber s law b the YoungHelmholtz theory c the gatecontrol theory d the opponentprocess theory The minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 percent of the time is called a retinal disparity b the absolute threshold c perceptual set d the just noticeable difference The auditory nerve carries neural messages to the auditory cortex located in the lobe a frontal b temporal c occipital d parietal EXAMPLE QUESTIONS CH 4 Compared with younger adults older adults take time to solve perceptual puzzles and time to remember names a more more b less less c more less d less more According to Piaget the preoperational stage is to the concrete operational stage as is to a assimilationaccommodation b object permanence stranger anxiety c egocentrism conservation d responsive parenting temperament Marlys is a sensitive responsive parent who consistently satisfies the needs of Sara her infant daughter According to Erikson Sara is likely to a form a lifelong attitude of basic trust toward the world b encounter some difficulty in overcoming the limitation of egocentrism c encounter some difficulty in forming an attachment to her father 4 d achieve formal operational intelligence more quickly than the average child Which of the following was not found by the Harlows in socially deprived monkeys a they had difficulty mating b they showed extreme fear or aggression when first seeing other monkeys c They showed abnormal physical development d the females were abusive mothers Monkeys raised in total isolation have been observed to a imprint to the first moving object they observe b become very fearful or aggressive when brought into close contact with other monkeys their age 0 form a close attachment to the first money with whom they experience bodily contact d show complete apathy and indifferences to the first monkeys they encounter One study of 4 to 6yearold children in 10 American cities found that the children39s rate of aggressiveness was influenced more by than by the amount of time they spent in daycare programs a children s temperaments b parents caregiving sensitivity 0 family s economic and educational levels d all of these factors Professor Appledorn emphasizes that whether people flourish in later life depends on a continuous interaction among their inborn temperaments their personal relationships and their mental expectations regarding the aging process The professor39s viewpoint best illustrates a longitudinal study b a developmental stage theory 0 an intuitions perspective d a biopsychosocial approach Boys who mature at an early age tend to be more a physically uncoordinated b sexually inhibited 0 popular and selfassured d academically successful Psychologists who view the developmental process as a sequence of distinct stages generally believe that isare the same for everyone a both the order and the timing of the stages b the order but not the timing of the stages 10 11 12 13 14 I 1 c the timing but not the order of the stages d neither the order nor the timing of the stages A failure to practice important motor skills can result in a loss of agility because unused neural connections a habituate b assimilate c imprint d are pruned Maturation is to education as is to a accommodation assimilation b nature nurture c imprinting critical period d environment learning Among employed women the task of raising children is especially likely to be associated with marital satisfaction The departure of mature children from the home is typically associated with marital satisfaction a increasing decreasing b decreasing increasing c increasing further increasing d decreasing further decreasing Compared with environmentally impoverished rats those rats housed in enriched environments experienced a dramatic increase in the number of their a telomeres b schemas c synapses d teratogens Threeyearold Zara calls all fourlegged animals kitties Her tendency to fit all four legged animals into her existing conception of a kitten illustrates the process of a conservation b assimilation c accommodation d egocentrism EXAMPLES CH 9 Those who emphasize the importance of the 9 factor would be most likely to encourage a discontinuing special programs for intellectually advantaged children b deriving adult intelligence test scores from the ration of mental age to chronological age c using a small standardization sample int he process of intelligence test construction d quantifying intelligence with a single numerical score When retested on the WAIS people39s second scores generally match their first scores quite closely This indicates that the test has a high degree of a reliability b content validity c heritability d predictive validity Chimpanzees are capable of learning to a understand spoken words b communicate with gestures c string signs together into a meaningful sequence d do all of these things The fact that young children generate all sorts of sentences they have never heard before suggests that a language skills are not developed simply through the processes of imitation and reinforcement b language acquisition does not proceed in an orderly sequence c language acquisition develops normally even in the absence of social interaction d parents overemphasize correct grammatical usage It has been suggested that Alaskan Eskimos39 rich vocabulary for describing snow enables them to perceive differences in snow conditions that would otherwise go unnoticed This suggestion most clearly illustrates a universal grammar b the availability heuristic c linguistic determinism d telegraphic speech To qualify for the office manager39s job 55yearold Mariel must take a series of psychological tests Her performance on the test of is likely to be poorer than if she had taken it as a 25yearold a general knowledge b spemng c abstract reasoning d vocabulary 7 Current intelligence tests compute an individual39s intelligence score as a b c the ratio of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100 the ratio of chronological age to mental age multiplied by 100 the amount by which the testtaker s performance deviates from the average performance of others the same age the ratio of the testtaker s verbal intelligence score to his or her nonverbal intelligence score 8 Which of the following provides the strongest evidence of environment39s role in intelligence a adopted children s intelligence scores are more like their adoptive parents scores than their biological parents children s intelligence scores are more strongly related to their mothers scores than to their fathers children moved from a deprived environment into an intellectually enriched one show gains in intellectual development the intelligence scores of identical twins raised separately are no more alike than those of siblings 9 The accumulation of knowledge that comes about with education and experience has been classified as a b c d crystallized intelligence plastic intelligence fluid intelligence rote memory 10 A 9yearold who responded to the original StanfordBinet with the proficiency of an average 12yearold was said to have an IQ of a b c d 75 115 125 133 11 Whorf39s linguistic determinism hypothesis states that a b c d language is primarily a learned ability language is a partially an innate ability the size of a person s vocabulary reflects his or her intelligence our language shapes our thinking 12 Emotional intelligence is a specific aspect of a b creativity social intelligence c d analytical intelligence convergent thinking 13 Research suggests that women are more skilled than men at a b c d avoiding emotional uncertainty preventing emotions from distorting reasoning detecting other people s emotions delaying emotional gratification in pursuit of long term goals 14 The ability to learn from experience solve problems and use knowledge to adapt to new situations is known as 15 A enpeoeoce divergent thinking test reliability intelligence factor analysis ommon problem in everyday reasoning is our tendency to accept as logical those conclusions that agree with our own opinions accept as logical those conclusions that disagree with our own opinions underestimate the accuracy of our knowledge accept as logical conclusions that involve unfamiliar concepts
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