Midterm Study Guide
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Date Created: 10/21/15
SCOM 240 Midterm Notes Communication amp Rhetoric The study of communication ebbs amp flows Two main schools of thought Rhetoric sophists Defend opinion There is no truth Role of communication self defense establish relationship influence others World in constant flux Philosophy philosophers Defend truth There is truth Role of communication find know tell truth World of stability Four Rhetorical Periods Classical Period Medical Period Modern Period Contemporary Period Communication Studies Scientific Humanistic Theory characteristics Each theory is a perspective Each theory has a historical context Theories A set of systematic informed hunch about the way things work Judee Burgoon Types of theories Common sense theory created by your own experience Working theory generalizations made about the best techniques Scholarly theory using systematic research Purpose theory to understand communication Different types of theories Context and form Communication and relationships Cultural communities Context and situation Classification of theories Epistemology knowledge with regards to methods validity and scope Truth Objective scientific quantitative Truth is singular Interpretive rhetorical humanistic qualitative Truth is subjective How To Know If A Theory Is Worth Believing Ontology the study of being Objective OB Interpretive Epistemology discover truth OB acknowledge multiple realities Human Nature determined OR free will Highest Value objectivity OB emancipation Purpose discover universal laws OB find interpretive guides Objective Prediction A B or B A Explanation predictive claim explanation theory Parsimony less more Falsifiable testable no test bad theory Practical useful application good theory Quantitative universally define measure and control variables ex experiments and surveys Interpretive Clarifies values xray vision New Understandings access to multiple realities Aesthetic Appeal Connection Community Agreement 1 part head nod 3 parts scrutiny Reform of society open new possibilities Qualitative give context to the specific Communication Context amp Theories Contexts environments in which communication takes place Intrapersonal with oneself Interpersonal face to face Small Group groups or teams Organizational within and among large extended environments PublicRhetorical large groups of listeners public address MassMediated large audiences through mediated forms Cultural between andor among members of different cultures Theoretical Traditions SocioPsychological Objective Generalize to find trends Focus on what is not what ought to be Causeeffect Cybernetic Objective Communication as a system of information processing Social networks and systems Rhetorical Transition towards interpretive Art of using persuasion and argumentation Key strategy Logos Semiotic Interpretive Signs amp symbols Verbal amp nonverbal SocioCultural Interpretive As people talk they produce and reproduce culture The structure of language shapes what people do Critical Interpretive Critiquing what in society has power over what Karl Marx Phenomenological Analysis of every day life experience from the standpoint of the person living it Emphasis on people s perception and interpretation of their own experience Individual story is more important Symbolic lnteractionism gives interpretive guide for meaning Interpretive SocioCultural Interpersonal About the theory Relies on the symbolic meaning that people develop and rely upon the process of social interaction People are a product of their environment Social Construction Stimulus gt Interpretation gt Response Interpretations are not autonomous They are shaped by symbolic interaction Depends on our abilities to take the perspective of the other The source of meaning taught from an early age Stimulus yourself The Self Humans are unique in the ability to be both the subject and the object of thought ex you can think about yourself The human self is a result of this process This process is always involves the perspective of others One might even say the perspective of others causes the self I spontaneous part of yourself first reaction Me the part of yourself that reflects on how other people view me Expectancy Violation Theory focus is structure of nonverbal messages Objective SocioPsychological Interpersonal Proxemics The study of people s use of space as a special elaboration of culture Key Points For any interaction we have expectations for behavior Its hard to describe those expectations Based on a number of factors relational characteristics communicator characteristics and context EVT Points Not all expectational violations are negative Critical factor in evaluating a violation is the reward value of the other and we tend to respond more positively to violators Others can be less rewarding used on look Communicator Reward Valance the sum of positive and negative attributes brought to the encounter plus the potential to reward or punish in the future Social Penetration Theory process of self disclosure amp intimacy Objective SocioPsychological Interpersonal Definition Identifies the process of increasing selfdisclosure breadth and intimacy depth within a relationship SelfDisclosure Anything you reveal about yourself Private or unknown information Between two or more individuals Where one intends to deliberately divulge something personal Breadth range of topics Depth degree of intimacydisclosure in a specific area of one s life Disclosure Positive disclosure doesn t increase with intimacy Negative disclosure is related to intimacy Selfdisclosure is reciprocal Fast in the beginning but slower with each layer Mark Kopp s Model of Relational Development L Initiation nonverbal and verbal communication is tentative perceptions URT Experimentation disclosing information touch STP breadth EVT SIT lntensification SPT depth more touch SIT Integration social unit borrow artifacts in platonic and romantic relationships SIT Bonding ceremonial ex moving in together getting engaged throwing party SIT Differentiation still like each other but wanting more me space me time RD SIT Circumscribing communication lessens Stagnation relationship does not progress QPONFDQT P N Avoidance 10 Termination Relational Dialectics intentional analysis of everyday life Interpretive Phenomenological Interpersonal Definition A dynamic knot of contradictions in personal relationships an unceasing interplay between contrary or opposing tendencies RD Points All satisfying longterm relationships have four characteristics liking trust commitment and control motility Satisfaction in the relationship comes from Positivity Openness Assurances Networking Sharing Tasks Intimate relationships are in a state of constant flux Five Dialogue Strands dialogue as constitutive dialogue as an utterance chain dialogue as a dialectical flux dialogue as aesthetic movement dialogue as critical sensibility 1O Aristotelian Rhetoric Not a theory More objective Rhetoric is counterpart to Dialectic Because truth and justice have a natural tendency to prevail If bad decisions are made we should blame the speaker Because some audiences are incapable of understanding philosophically derived truths We use rhetoric to instruct them Because we should be able to see both sides of an issue so that we can make a stronger case and find fault with false claims Because rhetoric is not inherently evil It is no different than any other good thing It can be used for good or evil Rhetoric An ability in each particular case to see the available means for persuasion An intentional act of using words to have an effect A systematic study of the relationship between the speaker speech and audience Contexts The Courts Forensics Speaking Issues of the past Questions of the past Judges and juries who decide what is justice Ceremonies Epideictic Speaking Issues about the present Questions of blame or praise Audiences who are moved by values The Legislature Deliberative Speaking Issues about the future 11 Questions about expedience Attempts to influence public policy Forms of Artistic Proof Logos Lines of argument Syllogism deduction Enthymeme deduction Example inductive Pathos striking a responsive emotional card Aristotle is skeptical of pathos Earliest systematic discussion of psychology Ethos Generally limited to what the speaker does during the speech Today reputation comes with you Perceived intelligence Cicero 5 Cannons of Rhetoric SocioPsychological Invention what do I want to talk about Arrangement outline Style what words Delivery how Memory make your speech memorable 12 Public Sphere a place of the people Interpretive Definition the sphere of private people who come together to form a public it is formed around principles of consensus rationality and equality Jurgen Habermas from representational cultural to dialogic culture Concerns Public and private lines were being blurred Social inequality hurts dialogic culture Big corporations are taking over Thomas Goodnight amp Three Spheres of Communication Private interpersonal Communication about private affairs Unique to the individuals involved Rules are implicit Technical experts to experts Community of experts Standardized technical language Specific language amp rules Public society Members of a public Participatory democracy Diverse with common values 13 Kenneth Burke s Dramatism Rhetorical critic Analyzed the language that speakers and authors used so he could discern their messages Critics task is one of assessing motives Rejected the commonly held notion that communication is primarily a process of message transition Dramatism A technique of analysis of language and thought as basically modes of action rather than a means to convey meaning Life is Drama Old Rhetoric persuasion New Rhetoric identification God Terms democracy patriot freedom equality Devil Terms socialist heretic terrorist Guilt Burke s catchall term to cover every form of tension anxiety embarrassment shame disgust and other noxious feelings intrinsic to the human condition GuiltRedemption Cycle Getting rid of guilt is the ultimate motive for public rhetoric Rhetoric is the public search for a perfect scapegoat Burke regarded almost every rhetorical act as part of a continuous pattern of redemption through victimization Mortification Confession of guilt and request for forgiveness Option to purge guilt through selfblame Victimization 14 The process of naming an external enemy as the source of all personal or pubic ills scapegoa ng Most common Burke s Approach The Pentad Act What Agency How Agent Who Scene Where Purpose Why Focusing on scene takes blame off agent 15 Public Communication Situational amp Constitutive Rhetoric Situational Rhetoric Old Rhetoric SocioPhycological NeoAristotelian Lloyd Bitzer Communication is a response to context Constitutive Rhetoric New Rhetoric SocioCulturalCritical Sophist Maurice Charland Rhetoric creates and shapes text Lloyd Bitzer Rhetorical Situation situation that calls for communication Exigence an imperfection marked by urgency an obstacle something waiting to be done It invites an utterance response Audience The people who can do something about the problem Not just those who hear the words Constraints The factors that control and shape communication the message The circumstances the rhetor does not control Maurice Charland Three Aspects of Constitutive Rhetoric Explicit Agenre Provide a collective identity for audience Make the audience a subject in a historical narrative Call the audience to act in accordance to story Implicit 16 17 All audiences have collective identity When speaker does call on identity explicitly speaker calls on previously constituted identity or reinforces existing identity Speaker always constitutes reality through speech and communication Public Relations Situational Crisis Communication Theory Public Relations a strategic communication process that builds mutually beneficially relationships between organizations and their publics What is a crisis Surprises Threat Short response time Change Situational Criss Communication Theory Coombs 2007 Three types of crisis Victim Low Organizational ReSponS39bmty Organization is victim Natural disaster rumor workplace violence product tampering Accident Organizational actions lead to unintentional harm Operational error product recall Preventable Intentional human errors and organizational misdeeds High Responsibility RGSPODSibiIiW V Deception stealing breaking laws Strategies Primary Deny Attack the accuser Denial Scapegoat 18 Diminish Excuse Jus ca on Rebuild Compensation Apology Bolstering Reminder Ingratiation Victimization 19 Agenda Setting amp Framing Tversky amp Kahneman 1981 Agenda a collection of problems understandings of causes symbols solution and other elects of public problems to come to the attention of the public the news media and governmental officials Agenda Setting Telling us what you think about Cause and effect relationship between media agenda and public agenda Three Agendas Public people News media Policy government Framing to select some aspects of a perceived reality and make some more salient in a communication text Media tells s how and what to think particular attributes promotes a particular way to think of a story James Tankard 4 Issues in Media Framing Selection Emphasis Exclusion Elaboration 20 Health Communication Extended Parallel Process Model Definition primarily concerned with the role of communication theory research and practice in health promotions and health care Extended Parallel Process Model Kim Witte 1994 Appraisals are evaluated on scale of high moderate and low Message Components Threat Efficacy Appraisal 1 Threat Susceptibility Severity Appraisal 2 Efficacy Selfefficacy Responce efficacy 21
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