Exam 3 Study Guide
Exam 3 Study Guide 80887 - BIOL 3150 - 001
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This 25 page Study Guide was uploaded by Abigail Towe on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 80887 - BIOL 3150 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Tamara L. McNutt-Scott in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 589 views. For similar materials see Functional Human Anatomy in Biological Sciences at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
Chapter 15 Brain and Cranial Nerves 1 True or False The brain can control multiple activities simultaneously 2 Does size correlate with intelligence a Yes men have larger brains so they are smarter b No it s all about the wiring that s what equals intelligence Raised part of brain is Deep grooves in brain The directional term that means toward the nose The directional term that means toward the tail The brain development begins at the end of the neural tube TrueFalse The brain development occurs at equal growth rates in different regions 9 What limits the structure of the brain 10The brain growth has 2 flexures that bend brain toward brain stem and 11What allows brain mass to fit within cranial cavity 12There are two distinct neural tissue areas and 13 Brain has protection from a cranium rigid support b meninges connective tissue membranes that protect and partition c cerebrospinal fluid cushioning fluid d bloodbrain barrier filters blood for harmful substances e all of the above 14Cranial meninges are made up of connective layers What are the 3 layers WNW 15All together the 3 layers function to a separate soft tissues from skull enclose blood vessels form partitions to limit movement of brain circulate cerebrospinal fluid drain blood from brain f all of the above 16 Brain ventricles are expansions within the brain that are continuous and connect 9997 with the 17The ventricles are filled with and lined by cells 18 Ependymal cells are a type of cell that are ciliated 19The cerebrospinal fluid serves to help with and 20Where is cerebrospinal fluid created 21 Cerebrospinal fluid originates from and is produced by secretion from 22The flow of cerebrospinal fluid starts in choroid plexus gt then through the cerebral aqueduct into the where it flows into subarachnoid space through the lateral apertures into the central canal of spinal cord 23truefase Cerebrospinal fluid removes waste products as it circulates 24The excess cerebrospinal fluid flows into then out of dural VGHOUS 25An of pressure on CSF in subarachnoid space stops from entering subarachnoid space 26The maintain stable environment by isolating brain from the general circulation there is a barrier which is continuous endothelium of capillary tight junctions 27This barrier is not absolute but it s 28Cerebrum 2 hemispheres Responsible for and Match the functional areas of the cerebrum using the word bank below frontal parietal temporal occipital Broca area of frontal lobe insula wernicke39s area gnostic area 29 language area 30what s pulling in information to understand 31 Primary motor cortex 32 primary gustatory cortex 33 premotor cortex 34somatosensory association area 35 primary auditory cortex 36 primary visual cortex 37 primary somatosensory cortex 38frontal eye field 39visual association area 40auditory association area 41 motor speech area 42 primary olfactory cortex 43TrueFalse Body size correlates with the amount of cortex area associated 44Central white matter is composed of a myelinated axons b unmyelinated axons c dendrites d all of the above 45When myelinated axons are bundled it s referred to as a tract b fiber c nerve 46 Myelinated axons are classified into a association fibers provides communication within hemisphere b commissural tracts provides communication between hemispheres c projection tracts provides communication between cerebral cortex and caudal of brain and spinal cord d all of the above 47Caudate nucleus is responsible for 48 Lentiform nucleus controls at subconscious level 49Claustrum processes at subconscious level 50amygdaloid body expresses control behavior activities development of 51 Diencephalon is made up of and 52 contains pineal gland and habenular nuclei a pineal gland responsible for body s circadian rhythm b habenular nuclei relay for limbic system visceral and emotional response to odors 53 made up of thalamic nuclei a serves as first and last relay point for sensory information except olfaction b serves as information filter removes unwanted information c determines where information originates from 54 deals with homeostatic control a controls body temperature emotional response regulate food intake regulate water balance and thirst sleepwake cycles endocrine functioning 55What connects the cerebrum diencephalon and cerebellum to spinal cord 56 are pyramidal motor tracts that descend into spinal cord and are associated with voluntary movements 57 is periaqueductal gray matter associated with pain and aggressive behaviors 58 made up of superior visual reflect and inferior startle part of brain colliculus double butt structure in brain 59 is made up substantia nigra and red nucleus 60substantia nigra regulate to skeletal muscles 61 red nucleus red because it houses a responsible for baby s ability to crawl and possible with arm movement while walking Functions are debatable 62 Pons forms wall of composed of and houses center 63 Medulla also forms wall of leads into Medulla has additional nuclei a autonomic nuclei cardiovascular centers deals with how many beats per minute heart performs respiratory center dictate number and depth of breaths per minute b vomiting gagging swallowing salivation coughing amp sneezing unique about vomiting center doesn t have blood brain barrier to monitor what39s found in blood circulation 64Cerebellum has symmetry 65The outer cortex is matter but found internal is matter 66 Functions of cerebellum a coordinate body movements by anterior amp posterior lobes b ensures correct pattern for smooth coordinated movements of skeletal muscles by storing memories Functions subconsciously c adjusts posture to maintain balance by flocculonodular lo e d all of the above Overall cerebellum smoothes everything out tells muscles when to contract and how much to allow fine movement adjustment It works in the background but it is the main coordinator subconsciously 67What system is involve in motivation emotion and memory with emotional association It includes cerebral and diencephalic structures Also known as emotional brain 68TrueFalse It s easier to remember things if it has an emotional association to it Answers true B gyrus sulcus rostral caudal rostral false the growth rate is disproportional NFDQ39IPF ONTL 9 the membranous skull made up of fibrous tissue at this time 10 midbrain cervical 11bendsfoldsconvolutions 12gray matter white matter 13 E 14pia mater dura mater arachnoid mater 15 F 16central canal of the spinal cord 17fluid ependymal 18glial 19buoyancy protection and environmental stability 20choroid plexus collection of capillaries enclosed by ependymal cell layer that is supported by folds of pia mater 21blood plasma ependymal cells 22third ventricle fourth ventricle 23true 24arachnoid villi sinuses 25 increase blood 26blood brain 27 selective 28conscious thought processes origin of all complex intellectual functions 29 wernicke39s area 30gnostic area 31 frontal 32 insula 33frontal 34parietal 35temporal 36 occipital 37 parietal lobe 38frontal 39 occipital 40 temporal 41 Broca area of frontal lobe 42temporal 43false 44 myelinated axons 45tract 46 D 47 rhythm of walking 48 muscle movement 49visual information 50emotion mood 51 epithalamus thalamus hypothalamus 52epithalamus 53thalamus 54 hypothalamus 55brainstem 56 cerebral peduncles 57cerebral aqueduct 58tectum 59 Pigmented nuclei 60 motor output 61non 624th ventricle conduction tracts autonomic respiratory 634th ventricle spinal cord 64 bilateral 65gray white 66 D 67 Limbic 68True Chapter 16 Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves 1 The spinal cord nerves is a pathway for amp impulses 2 The spinal cord itself is cm or inches the shape is in a crosssection has longitudinal depressions and doesdoes not line up with the vertebrae 3 The longitudinal depressions are and 4 There are two enlargements in the spinal cord and Why are these present 5 The official end of the spinal cord is the The ends of this is in shape of a and tapered end 6 After the official end of the spinal cord the axons project further out that is similar to a horse39s tail This region is referred to as 7 With the help of the conus medullaris is anchored to the coccyx with a thin strand of 8 The spinal cord is suspended and anchored t with the help of triangular extensions of pia mater known as 9 How many spinal nerves are there 10 What are the blue circle structures around the lumbar and sacral crosssections r 39 quot 4 J 11 The spinal cord is surrounded by spinal cord that protect and encapsulate These are continuous with cranial 12 The epidural space is between the and This is where drugs are administered for pain 13 TrueFalse dura mater is the outer layer that protects spinal cord and extends out of intervertebral 14 What kind of fluid does the arachnoid mater have 15 What is the layer that is at the surface of spinal cord itself 16 How can you tell posterior from anterior side of crosssection of vertebrate and spinal cord 17 List the components of white matter seen in cross section of spinal cordvertebrate 18 List the components of gray matter seen in cross section of spinal cordvertebrate 19 Anterior horns have cell bodies of neurons a innervates skeletal muscle 20 Lateral horns have cell bodies of neurons a innervates smooth muscle cardiac muscle and glands 21 Posterior horns have axons of neurons a Has two types of receptors i somatic pain pressure receptors in skin ii visceral stretch receptors in visceral smooth muscle walls 22 The gray commissure function is to provide a communication route between the and sides of gray matter 23 The posterior root ganglion has 24 Spinal nerves are mixed nerves meaning they have and components 25 The funiculi of white matter contains both and tracts 26Spinal nerves are composed of rootlets gt gt nerves 27The anterior roots have neurons 28The posterior roots have neurons 29 TrueFalse rootlets for posterior and anterior are anatomically present as two separate roots and remain separate when they exit and are distributed throughout the body 30 When the spinal nerves leave the foramen they split into branches called 31 When an area of skin is supplied by nerves of a single spinal root this area is a 32 A is organized so that all the axons of each anterior ramus extends through different branches 33 The principle plexuses a cervical b brachial c lumbar d sacral e all of the above 34The advantage of a nerve plexuses is that when the single spinal nerve is damaged 35 The reason that thoracic is not a plexuses is because these spinal nerves help innervate muscles Therefore they are referred to as nerves 36 Reflexes are a rapid automatic voluntary in reaction to stimuli A B and D only A and D only g all of the above 37 Put the events in order for what happens for reflex arc a stimulus present cameos motor neuron transmits nerve impulse to effector receptor activated effector responses to impulse from motor neuron nerve impulse is processed in integration center brain by interneurons to relay the info to brain f nerve impulses travels through sensory neuron to the spinal cord 9997 38 Sensory uses pathway 39 Motor uses pathway 40 The carries out the response that was determined by the integration center 41 reflex is the direct communication between sensory and motor neurons a example patellar response knee response 42When a interneuron facilitates the sensorymotor communication sends information to brain this reflex is 43 To describe the position of the sensory and motor receptors means that they are on the same side of vertebratespinal cord cross section while means they are on opposite sides 44 To test the integrity of the nervous system you can perform a test a this also can be used to test specific musclesspinal groups depending on location of test 45When you take a blunt object and run it along the lateral side of the bottom of foot the toes should curl When they don t it s a sign which means that something isn t right Answers 1 2 4gt N W sensory motor 45 18 cylindrical 2 does NOT a explanation the spinal cord does not line up perfectly with vertebrae because when you re born it s about 22 inches and then spinal cord doesn t grow much after that ends up being 18 inches Because of the different lengths the roots of lumbar and sacral spinal nerves travel inferiorly to reach the intervertebral foramina that they are supposed to exit out of anterior median fissure amp posterior median sulcus cervical and lumbosacral enlargements a cervical responsible for upper limb innervations b lumbar lower limb innervations conus medullaris cone cauda equina filum terminale pia mater dura mater denticulate ligaments 39 10 spinal nerves of the cauda equina 11meninges meninges 12 dura mater vertebrate 13true 14cerebrospinal fluid spinal fluid 15pia mater 16 The posterior root ganglion bump on posterior side 17 posterior lateral and anterior funiculus Plus white commissure 18posterior lateral and anterior horn Plus gray commissure Posterior Central canal Gray matter Posterior horn Gray commlssure Lateral horn White matter median sulcus Posterior iuniculus Lateral funiculus White commissure Anterior horn Anterior iuniculus Anterior median fissure Anterior a Gray and white matter 19 somatic motor 20autonomic motor 21 sensory 22eft and right 23 unipolar axons 24sensory motor 25ascending descending 26root 27motor 28sensory 29 false They bind together 30rami 31 dermatome 32 nerve plexuses 33 E 34 There is not a complete loss of innervation to region of skinmuscle 35 thoracic 36 E basically they are rapid automatic meaning involuntary in reaction to stimulus 37a c f e b d 38 sensory 39 motor 40 effector 41 monosynaptic 42 polysynaptic 43 ipsilateral 44 contralateral 45 Babinski Chapters 17 Pathways and Integrative Functions 1 The Central NS communications with peripheral body structures through pathways Ascending pathways carry information while the descending pathways carry information a Uses white matter to connect CNS to peripheral nerves Pathways and nucleus Sensory pathways conduct information about a limb position b touch sensation c temperature d pressure and pain e all of the above Sensory pathways includes a sensory receptors of skin muscle and joints b sensory receptors of visceral What are the three major types of somatosensory pathways The process of sensory pathways begin with detecting sensory stimuli the or brainstem filters incoming info then sends impulse to cerebrum How many neuron chains does sensory pathways use to transmit stimulus information to CNS Of the sensory pathway a the pathway conducts information on limb positioning fine touch precise pressurevibration b the pathway coordinates body movements Inputs into cerebellum c the pathway conducts info on crude touch pressure pain temperature sensations Pathway located in anterior lateral white funiculi The other major type of pathway is a descending pathways of brainspinal cord to control skeletal muscle 10 Each descending pathway has at least motor neurons They are 11 2 types of somatic motor pathways and 12 Pyramidal pathways are pathways that originate in pyramidal cells in primary motor cortex of the frontal lobe of cerebrum These pathways descent through and forms 3 motor tracts a Corticobulbar muscles of head eye throat and some superficial muscles of neckback b corticospinal control of voluntary motor activity i anterior axial muscles ii lateral appendicular muscles skilled movement 13 For indirect pathways upper motor neurons originate from that initiate motor commands at subconscious level a Alters motor neuron sensitivity and activation of feedback loops 14 Indirect pathways are grouped into a pathways precise control tone in flexor muscles of limbs b pathways regulate muscles of head neck proximal limbs and trunk muscles 15 The cerebral nuclei receives impulses from 16The output of the cerebral nuclei is mostly to primary 17 Cerebellum regulates function of pathways lt receives plans for movement and follows up to make sure the activity is carried out correctly if not generates a signal It specifics exact timing of control signals to different muscles to coordinate movements closely 18 The cerebrum is divided into hemispheres Parts of the hemisphere is specialized for specific tasks 19consciousness sensation awareness control of motor activities higher mental processing activity of large areas of 20 R F diffuse network of nerve pathways in brainstem spinal cord cerebrum cerebellum Answers sensory motor tract E somato viscero posterior funiculus anterolateral spinocerebellar receptors spinal cord CNS 2 or 3 a posterior funiculus medial lemniscal pathway b spinocerebellar pathway c anterolateral pathway 9 motor 102 upper and lower motor neurons 11direct indirect 12direct internal capsule 13brainstem 14a lateral b medial 15cerebral cortex limbic system 16 motor cortex 17 motor errorcorrecting 18two 19voluntary cerebral cortex 20 Reticular formation PONFDP P 3 Chapter 18 Autonomic Nervous System 1 ANS governs voluntaryinvoluntary actions 2 Works with N8 to regulate body organs and maintain homeostasis a this N8 is part of the peripheral NS that is associated with skeletal muscle voluntary control It has afferent and efferent nerves 3 The autonomic NS consists of a neuron cells myelinated large diameter gt faster communication i this neuron cell produces acetylcholine b neuron cells unmyelinated small diameter gt slower communication i is variety of neuron transmitters 4 There are two divisions of autonomic NS that both originate in preganglionic neuron a division BRAKE i rest and digest response ii bring body to homeostasis iii originates preganglionic neuron cells of brainstem nuclei and sacral segments of spinal cord b division GAS i responsible for response to emergency flight or fight ii also involved with homeostasis iii originates preganglionic neurons in lateral horns of thoracic segments of spinal cord 5 The preganglionic neuron cells different between the PNS amp SNS a a lot of collateralbranching on synaptic side amp longer post ganglionic a b longer preganglionic axons c xon a is more simplisticcomplex b active when body must process nutrients conserve energy and return to homeostasis Actions are discrete and localized c because the preganglionic neurons originate from one of these two areas it s referred to as the division 7 SNS a b C because the preganglionic neurons are housed between T1 L2 spinal segments division can be single or multiple efforts If multiple effectors are responding for crisis puts you in heightened state of alertness so that you re 8 Back to broad view of ANS a b c Answers involuntary somatic preganglionic postganglionic PONFDP P 3 a parasympathetic a SNS simplistic thoracolumbar a autonomic plexuses a a both divisions innervate organs through bundles i but they do NOT interact with each other when an organ is innervated by both divisions regulated system gets help from cerebrum hypothalamus brainstem spinal cord PNS amp SNS work together in antagonistic pairs to regulate body subconsciously b sympathetic bPNS b craniosacral b mass activation b duel innervation Chapter 19 Senses 1 any changes of environment internal or external 2 the conscious awareness of incoming sensory information a only aware of a small portion of sensations 3 Two types of stimuli detected by a senses temperature pain touch b sense gustation olfaction vision 4 sensory receptors that change stimulus energy gt nerve impulse i converting energy of one form to a different form b the pattern of nerve impulses help with interpretation and importance i for example fast rapid nerve impulses are more important than slow soft impulses 1 CNS notes the speed and strength of nerve impulses a structures that detect stimuli has a wide range of complexity i sends signals to CNS b the receptive fields where the stimuli occurs differs between each loca ons i ranges from precise to less precise 1 more precise gt more sensitive to stimuli ii examples 1 small receptive fields on hand precise location a more sensitive on finger tips 2 shoulder large receptive field iii it s advantageous for us to have areas of high sensitivity in some places but only in certain places because it has a cost to have these sensitive areas 6 receptors act continuously a processes stimuli continuously as long as stimulus is there b example balance receptors in ear 7 receptors react then adapt a they detect a new stimulus but after analyzing it and determining that it doesn t bother the body the receptors adapt to this stimuli and you don t really notice the stimuli anymore b example you can t feel your underwear 8 reduction in the sensitive to a continually applied stimulus 9 receptors located throughout skin and organs 10 receptors are housed within regions of head 11Three ways to classify sensory receptors a 39 i general senses ii special senses b of i exteroceptors stimuli from outside of body touch pressure temperature interoceptors stimuli from within the body chemical changes proprioceptors responds to internal stimuli from skeletal muscles joints tendons ligaments and connect tissue of bone and muscles 1 these are important to tell you where you are how you are standing how bent you are of chemoreceptors chemicals in solution thermoreceptors temperature photoreceptors light energy mechanoreceptors mechanical force baroreceptors pressure within body structure nociceptors potentially damaging stimuli that result in pain 1 all receptors function as nociceptor at some point if overstimulated tells you something is wrong but it s hard to manage clinically syndrome c ii iii iv v vi 12 1 2 i can be very debilitating you can t stop the pain because the sensory pathway is being activated somehow 1 as long as there is a pathway then pain can be sensed ii associated with body part that has been removed 13General Senses a misinterpretations information send from same ascending tract from two different locations b example when you have a heart attack then you feel pain down left arm because an organ is using the same ascending pathways as a dermatome region mislocalizedmisinterpreted receptors of skin are most numerous type of receptors typically mechanoreceptors a tactile receptors has connective tissue surrounding nerve Ruffini corpuscle gt stretching of skin Lamellated Pacinian corpuscles gt deep pressure vibrations Tactile Meissner s corpuscle gt discriminative touch fine touch amp texture tactile receptors no CT free nerve endings gt temperature and pain root hair plexus gt displacement of hair Merkel cellsdiscs gt texture and shape 14 List all of the Special Senses 15 sense of taste a housed in taste buds on tongue and in oral cavity more specifically in papillae 16 17 90 9065 chemical receptors reason why we have salvia as a medium for taste chemicals gustatory receptors located in taste buds walls of oral cavity 4 types of taste buds i Vallate houses many taste buds not on surface taste buds are located on side because certain foods rub away surface epithelium taste buds ii Filiform papilla texture of foods iii Foliate only important as a baby health receptors during infancy and early childhood development then disappears iv Fungiform few taste buds Taste sensations more sensitive to sour amp bitter i sweet elicited by organic substances i souracid especially H iii salty metal ions inorganic salts iv bitter alkaloids as well as toxins or poisons v umami amino acids glutamate and aspartate only sense that does not run through thalamus detects odor chemicals type of receptor chemoreceptor adapts quickly located in olfactory epithelium a pseudostratified epithelium i contains supporting cells gt sustain and support receptor cells ii olfactory neurons bipolar cells turnover cells iii basal cells dominant sense the continuous lining of external and internal surface of eyelid made from specialized stratified squamous epithelium i external surface of eye ocular conjunctiva exception not over cornea ii internal surface of eyelid palpebral conjunctiva goblet cells secrete mucin protein that lubricates and moistens eye lacrimal gland placed on lateral side because of the shape of the ey i when you blink it brings the tear to the opposite corner of the eye lacrimal caruncle produces green material that is produced during the night while you sleep i people with allergies experience this extrinsic eye muscles help move the eye i offers most precise and rapid skeletal muscle movements components of eye i orbital fat adipose tissue on lateral amp posterior sides of eye to cushion support protection and provide vasculature ii hollow interior contains lens 1 lens flexible so that it can change shape as light comes into focus it directly on retina a made up of crystallin structural protein that is water soluble filled with water i when it comes in contact with water it becomes transparent 1 so when it clouded up in lab it s because the water was removed iii wall 3 tunics 1 fibrous tunic sclera cornea a dense avascularCT b sclera tough to protect and sturdy for attachment site of extrinsic eye muscles c cornea transparent i beyond reach of immune system gt easy to transplant d limbus sclera and cornea junction to provide con nu y 2 vascular tunic iris ciliary body choroid a has blood vessels lymphatics and intrinsic eye muscles b choroid highly vascular c ciliary body 4 layers of smooth muscle in shape of ring ciliary muscle d iris controls pupil size 3 retina pigmented layer neural layer a has optic disc blind spot where optic nerve exits eye b has fovea centralis area of sharpest vision mostly cones c neural retina contains photoreceptor cells rods and cones i rods more abundant see dim light ii cones see bright light d bipolar cells converges information from photoreceptors e ganglion cells neuronal convergence i amacrine cells assist bipolar cells to integrate visual information 4 outermost fibrous gt next vascular gt finally inner layer is retina tunic iv internal cavities 1 humor fills tunics and cavities to help maintain shape a anterior cavity contains aqueous humor brings in nutrients and removes wastes continually renewed i made up of anterior and posterior chamber b posterior cavity vitreous humor jellylike fluid i helps to transmit light H supponlens iii hold neural retina in position iv contribute to intraocular pressure 1 important to counter eye movements from extrinsic eye muscles v vitreous humor last a lifetime 18 a ear serves as soundwave collector b more complex hearing and equilibrium c is divided into 3 distinct anatomical regions i outside body 1 sound is funneled by auricle through external acoustic meatus to the tympanic membrane 2 auricle a composed of elastic cartilage covered with thin skin b function directs sound waves into external acoustic meatus 3 external acoustic meatus a composed of elastic cartilage amp carved temporal bone i also lined with hairs and ceruminous glands ii ceruminous glands produces cerumen earwax iii functions to keep insides soft so that it can vibrate 4 Another part tympanic membrane a thin membrane by connective tissue b external side skin C internal side mucosa d transfers sound energy to ossicles ii middle ear 1 airfilled cavity that is lined with mucosa 2 tympanic cavity 3 has two openings a oval window b round window 4 houses opening for auditory tube 5 auditory ossicles malleus incus stapes a transmits vibratory motion from eardrum to oval window which amplifies sound i the amplifying sound may cause damage so 2 skeletal muscles stapedius and tensor tympani reduces vibrations for protection of ear HL innereah 1 found in petrous region of temporal bone 2 bony labyrinth a because system of oddshaped bones filled with perilymph i perilymph very similar to spinal fluid ii 3 distinct regions 1 vestibule 2 cochlear 3 semicircular canal b the perilymph fluid can move in different directions so we need to be able to determine what direction c Can also tell us rates 3 also has fluid filled membranous cavity membranous labyrinth a filled with endolymph b this is where receptors for equilibrium and hearing are located i macula static equilibrium sensory receptors a linear acceleration forces 2 found on wall of vestibule in these structures a utricle horizontal forwards and backwards b saccule vertical up and down C activated by gravity ii Crista ampullaris hair cells 1 dynamic equilibrium sensory receptors a rotaryangular movement 2 found in ampulla of semicircular canals iv Structures of hearing 1 located in cochlea snailshaped spiral chamber 2 has modiolus a spongy bone axis with bony shelves spiral lamina 3 has thick sensory epithelium with hair cells and supporting cells on basilar membrane of spiral organ 4 sensory receptors activated with there is distortion which comes from pressure waves arriving at tympanic membrane Sound Wave Pathways Through the Ear PUPPON sound waves enter ear tympanic membrane vibrates the auditory ossicles moves sound waves are amplified stapes at oval window generates pressure waves in perilymph within scala ves buH vestibular membrane moves gt pressure wave formation in endolymph within cochlear duct hair cells in spiral organ are moved nerve signal initialed in cochlear branch of CN Vlll remaining pressure waves sent to scala tympani and exit inner ear via round window 99 Sound wave interpretation 0 Frequency Hz hertz o number of sound waves that move through point during time period 0 Wavelength 0 distance between 2 consecutive crests troughs O shorter wavelengths higher frequency o humans can hear between 2020000 Hz I 1500 4000 Hz have greatest sensitivity 0 Pitch o different sound frequencies o high or low deep 0 Amplitude decibels dB o high of wave o intensity 0 loudness subjective interpretation of sound intensity thalamus assists you to localize sound 0 also the pathway that will activate the sensor tympani in the inner ear to dampen sound if it s loud Movement of basilar membrane produces nerve impulses that are propogated along cochlear nerve axons Cochlear nerve axons terminate in the cochlear nucleus in the medulla oblongata Two sensory pathways extend from the nucleus Axons from secondary neurons in the cochlear nucleus project directly to the inferior colliculus Axons from some secondary neurons in Tha39amus the cochlear nucleus project to the superior olivary nucleus first before Primary synapsing with other neurons that auditory cortex project to the inferior colliculus Primary auditory cortex Medial geniculate Axons from neurons in the inferior nucleus colliculus project to the medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus Inferior colliculus Axons from thalamic neurons project to the primary auditory I cortex where the nerve I a is j Cochlear branch of CN Vlll impulses are perceived as sound E 39 a v i r iquot J 14 Superior olivary nucleus Cochlear nucleus Answers 1 stimuli 2 sensa on 3 receptors a general b special 4 transducers 5 receptors 6 tonic 7 phasic 8 adaptation 9 general 10 special 11a receptor distribution b origin of stimuli c modality of stimulus 12 pain a phantom limb b referred pain 13 tactile a encapsulated b unencapsulated 14Gustation olfaction vision hearing 15 gustation 16 olfaction 17vision 18hearing
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