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Bio 132 Notes

by: Meghan Wilkerson

Bio 132 Notes BIOL 132 - 01

Meghan Wilkerson
Bio 132
Peter Christmas

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This is a clean and concise layout of all of the notes and side notes talked about in class. Very easy to understand.
Bio 132
Peter Christmas
Study Guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Meghan Wilkerson on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 132 - 01 at Radford University taught by Peter Christmas in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Bio 132 in Biology at Radford University.


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Date Created: 10/22/15
Favorable means delta G is less than 0 always include units has to be negative ATP Adenosine Triphosphate AdenosinePPP ATP AdenosinePPP Delta G 7 Kcalmol gtAdenosinePPPi inorganic PPhosphate ADPPi gtATP Delta G7 kcalmol ATP DG DG 7 7 ADPPi Ex C gtDDelta G1O kcalmol ADPPi Delta G7kcalmol over Delta G3 kcalmol ATP acts as a common energy currency in the cell Exergonic reactions make ATP and ATP can then be used to drive endergonic reactions ATP is a renewable resource following hydrolysis to ADPPi ATP can be regenerated anything that stops ATP regeneration will quickly lead to cell death supplies energy by transferring its phosphate group to other Thermodynamic componentdetermines how likely the reaction is Kinetic componentdetermines how fast the reaction is The faster the reaction the smaller the hump smaller activation level The higher it is the slower it will be Catalysts and Enzymes A catalyst is a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction by reducing the activation energy All reactions in living organisms are catalyzed by a special class of catalysts called enzymes Enzymes are proteins and each enzyme is usually specific for one chemical reaction Adding an enzyme to the reaction you will speed it up It lowers the activation energylt does not change the Delta G Active Site is a highly specialized part of the 3 dimensional structure of an enzyme which binds to specific substrate molecules Induced Fit enzyme changes to fit with the substrate Recycling substrate Some enzymes can only work when they are associated with certain nonprotein molecules called cofactors Ex lron copper zinc required as trace elements in our diet Inhibitors competitive inhibitors and noncompetitive inhibitors non polar covalent bonds are hydrophobic CHAPTER 7 Diffusion is the tendency for molecules to spread out every and to move from regions where they are in large amounts high concentration to regions where they are in smaller amounts low concentration Each molecule moves to randomly but based on probability there is a net movement of molecules from high to low concentration until equilibrium is reached we say that the molecules pass down there concentration gradient a chemical gradient means the same thing Concentration gradient high concentration to low concentration the slope on the graph going down showing the concentration level Molecules don t move sideways it moves randomly everywhere Net diffusion a membrane is permeable to the diffusion of a solute yellow circles meaning that the solute can pass through the membrane net movement across membrane until there is an even amount of solute between the two it will reach equilibrium ex water can pass directly through the belayer The diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane is called passive transport because it does not require energy from the cell to make it happen no work has ago be done Facilitated Diffusion is still passive transport because solute moves down its concentration gradient no energy is required Delta G is still less than 0 however the solute cannot pass directly through eh lipid bilayer it need transport proteins that acts as channels or carriers Channel proteins provide a tunnel or corridor that allow a specific molecule to pass Carrier proteins bind to material being transported the solute they undergo a subtle change in shape Active Transport rather than going high to low concentration you go low concentration to high concentration For this to happen Delta G would have to be above 0 In order for this to happen you have to couple it to something What do you couple it to Some transport proteins can move against their concentration gradients pumps ATP is used to drive active transport Diffusion of a charged lon H will depend not only on its concentration gradient but also on the membrane potential Osmoregulation controlling water balance Traveling membranes vesicle transport very highly coordinated functioning as one systems membranes moving through all of the organelles Two major routes through this membrane system Secretry the membranes are processed through Rough ER to Golgi to Plasma membrane exocytosis have sugars added to them endocytosis Plasma membraneEndosomelysosome outside to inside What do living organisms do take simple molecules and they build them up into complex molecules and cells and tissues simple to complex this is called anabolic they are also endergonic lf Detla G is greater than zero a change is not allowed For this Delta G is greater than zero so what we do is couple So overall delta G is still less than 0 They couple to complex molecules that break down Food complex molecule simple molecules catabolic exergonic which means Delta G is less than zero If you can couple to each other then you can go from simple to complex You use ATP The break down of ATP ADP Pi Delta G is less than 0 then ADPPi to ATP Delta G is greater than 0 to add phosphate to make ATP and then you take it off Phophoralated is just adding phosphate Delta G Delta H T Delta S Radius 1 to 10 to 100 The surface area will go up to 1000 fold The volume is increasing at a faster rate than the surface area SA divided by volume As cell gets bigger SA over volume ratio goes down SA is a fundamental limit to cell size because it cant let in anymore inside the cell endoplasmic reticulumgolgi apparatus microscopy images which type of microscope was used to look at each image phase contrast black and white two d images look for scale bar is in like 40 micrometersflorescence microscopy striking colors transmission scale bar 2 micromoters or less or 50 nm would have to be this scanning striking 3 d images Osmosis water outside 03 m sucrose environment 01 sucrose the questions as a semipermeranle membrane that allows the transport through it for glucose and fructose and now sucrose what direction do they moves Sucrose stays where is is because it is not permeable glucose will move out because the concentration is higher inside the fructose will move into the bag because it has a higher concentration outside of the bag What direction will the water move A the glucose and fructose will equilibrate the sucrose cant move so at the end there will still be more solute inside the bag The water goes to higher solute concentration so it goes into the bag If everything was equal for example the water would have no net movement Osmosis only happens when the outside is permeable Break cell homogenization


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