Chapter 3- Sensation and Perception
Chapter 3- Sensation and Perception Psychology 121-4
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily Arne on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psychology 121-4 at Missouri State University taught by Dr. Sarah A. McNew in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology 121 in Psychlogy at Missouri State University.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
Psychology 121 92815 Chapter 3 Sensation and Perception Sensation a process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energy Perception a process of organizing and interpreting sensory information enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events 9 Sensation 1 Absolute threshold Least energy for correct stimulus detection 50 of the time 2 Just noticeable difference Smallest difference detectable 50 of time Examples of absolute thresholds Vision Touch Taste Hearing Smell 9 Habituation a form of learning in which a person ceases to respond to a stimulus after repeated presentations Essentially the organism learns to stop responding to a stimulus which is no longer biologically relevant For example a person may habituate to repeated sudden loud noises when they learn these have no consequences 9 Sensory adaptation a change over time in the responsiveness of the sensory system to a constant stimulus For example a pool may feel very cold when you first jump in but you don t feel as cold after a few minutes even though the temp of the pool has not changed Structure of the eye 1 Cornea bends light waves so the image can be focused on the retina 2 Aqueous humor clear liquid that nourishes the eye 3 ris its muscle control the size of the pupil 4 Pupil iris opening that changes size depending on the amount of light in the environment 5 Lens changes shape to bring objects into focus 6 Retina contains photoreceptor cells 7 Fovea central area of retina greatest density of photoreceptors 8 Optic nerve sends visual information to the brain 9 Blind spot where the optic nerve leaves the eye There are no photoreceptor cells here Parts of the Retina 1 Light passes through ganglion and bipolar cells 2 It reaches and stimulates the rods and cones 3 Nerve impulses from the rods and cones travel along a nerve pathway to the brain 9 Cones located in the fovea color vision best in bright light sharpness 9 Rods located in the periphery black and white detect changed in brightness best in low light n trichromatic theory the three types of cones combine to form three different colors much as these three colored lights combine Afterimages 9 Opponentprocess theory Four primary colors with cones arranged in cones Kinesthetic Sense sense of the location of body parts in relation to the ground and each other Vestibular Sense the sensations of movement balance and body position Sensation 1 Bottomup Processing 9 analysis hat begins with the sense receptors and works up to the brain s integration of sensory information 2 Topdown Processing 9 information processing guises by higherlevel mental processes 9 as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations Perception 1 The gestalt principals 9 these principals are based on the idea that people has a natural tendency to force patterns onto whatever they see 2 Figure and ground organization of the visual field into objects figures that stand out from their surroundings ground 3 Depth perception 9 the ability to perceive the world in three dimensions Monocular pictorial depth cues nterposition Linear perspective Relative sixe Texture gradient Motion Parallax 9 Binocular depth cues Cues for perceiving depth based on both eyes Convergence Binocular disparity
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