Test 2 Notes
Test 2 Notes HIST 1112
Popular in Emergence of the Modern Global Community
Popular in Global Studies
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Date Created: 10/22/15
Eurasia in Transition Europe 16001750 A Religious Wars amp the Modern Era Constant possibility of religious wars occurring a Warfare amp the modern state end of feudal warfare i Large permanent armies Requires larger states with money to maintain ii Huge cost only large states can afford iii Increased complexity 1 Professional of cer corps 0 Military schools amp academic establishments 2 Artillery and supply unit b Development of modern diplomacy To make sure if you re going to war that it s over something important i Avoid expensive squabbles ii Idea of a Balance of Powers B Absolutism in France a Louis XIII r 16101643 and Louis XIV rl643l715 i Ability and longevity ii Help of Cardinal Richelieu served 16241642 amp Cardinal Mazarin 16421661 b Absolutist policies i divine right of kings 0 Kings didn t claim to be God just chosen ii Ignore the EstatesGeneral l6l4onward 3 parts of Elite rulers church local aristocrats and commoners iii Palace of Versailles Government business and residence PARALLELS WITH TOKUGAWA JAPAN Control of the Aristocrats Court ceremony Alternative residence Spies c Pattern for European monarchs Prussia Austria Italian states Russia etc They all aspire to be like the French king all powerful 0 England does not aspire to this C English Reiect Absolutism a Strong parliament required for taxes Protestants amp Catholic king in opposition b Religious controversy Catholic King Charles I 9 c Civil War 16421649 Protestants with the helprule of Calvinists i Beheading of Charles I ii Victory of parliamentary and Puritan forces 9 iii Commonwealth l649l660the dictator Oliver Cromwell Good ruler but poor administrator Cromwell was intolerable of everyone except Calvinist d Restoration 9 Glorious Revolution i Death of CromwellBIG English mistakes 0 Killed Charles I but ii iii iv vi vii Invited return of Charles II then James II both strong Catholics and opponents of parliament Politicalreligious tension resume 0 Back to Square One Parliament seeks a Protestant alternative 9 William Orange Dutch and Mary daughter of James II Glorious Revolution because it took place without a drop of blood 0 There is now a new regime Triumph of Parliament and William amp Mary Principle of parliamentary supremacy why critical 0 Monarch with check and balance instead of absolutism Kind of democratic stability House of Lords and House of Commoners D English Economic Rise a Domestic economic growth i ii iii iv Improved agricultural practices enclosure movement commercial agriculture land grab by wealthy takes away common land 0 Independent farmers are now employees Tenants in rural areas Farmers pushed to cities factory laborers b Colonies amp foreign con ict state leadership 1 ii iii iv v vi vii Navigation Act 1651 control American colonies Create royal companies mercantile monopolies Wars vs the Dutch 1652 amp 1672 Seven Years War 17561763 aka French and Indian War lSt truly global war British victory over France and Spain Consequences for British power Gains area and knocks off enemies TSARDOM OF MOSCUVY also afraid of Mongols E Rise of Romanov Dynasty a Anarchy after the death of heirless Ivan IV b Romanovs selected for Czar by nobility 1613 0 Tsar Michael Romanov was first c Russia s Absolutist rule i ii iii Czar sole source of power Nobles 9 bureaucrats parallel with Japan Taxes that crush peasants d Westward expansion i ii iii Peter the Great r 16821725 Changes the country s mentality 0 Real shift of mentality and geography to make them much more involved in the European scene St Petersburg 1703 on Baltic Sea New capital of Russia Ukraine amp Crimea iv Armenia amp Georgia Introduction to Culture A A chapter on culture a C What is culture High vs Low Mainstream vs Alternative 0 Highthat of the elite Lowmain peopleeveryday people Class wealth and status determine the highs and lows 0 Alternative music is generally a critique to mainstream music What does culture include partial list9 music amp dance sculptures food architecture personal dress gender relations etc What does culture show us 9 social values economic wellbeing or not tradition vs innovation in a society synthesis of different societies and values B 15001780 Themes a b H2999 Global connections Relative prosperity Due to the rebirth New states remaking themselves a period of change Pride in old traditions and making new traditions Sometimes leaps of creativity Geography amp culture 0 Proximity and trade routes make it easy to tap into other cultures C Divisions of chapterlectures a b c Cultures Elaborated Islamic States amp China Cultures in Change Japan amp Latin America Enlightenment Culture Europe Cultures Elaborated Islamic amp Chinese 15001750 A The Ottoman Empire a b Traditional Islamic Culture Sources of some cultural growth i Internal 1 Religious amp ethnic diversity in large empires If you want to be successful you must be tolerant of other cultures 2 Secular AND religious law for diverse empire 0 Complex legal systems were needed 3 Varieties of education a Islamic basic literacy taught b Governmental western knowledge for government business and military 0 Su 3rd branch of Islam were heretics of mainstream ii External 1 Fear of imperial decline a Military losses b Political challenge from a rising Europe 2 Interest in Western secular knowledge Copernicus Galileo Descartes 0 Have to learn from them because their ideas are now being used B The Mughal Empire a b 0 Traditional Islamic culture for Mughal rulers Islamic converts Existing Indian cultures allowed Internal sources of some cultural growth i Mughal interest in Hindu art music amp literature ii Akbar r 15561605 height of cultural interest Tolerant of differences iii Artistic mix in Taj Mahal of Shah Jahan r 1628165 8 Cross of Hindu and Muslims d Limited external impact awareness of European science but not great interest 0 There is no fear of the west in India There is some interest but not much because they are so far away C China s Qing Empire a Traditional culture and traditional scientific knowledge water clock tower 0 Time could be told precisely and in accordance to the stars No need for the common people to know just start work with the rooster and end with the dark 0 No need for scientific inventions in an agricultural society b Qing economic prosperity amp spread of cultural enjoyment tea house marketplace religious events c Some cultural growth books i Increased printing ii More than Confucius iii Too many books for the government censors to control iv Women poets a voice for a literate female audience d China s scientific pastlimited interest in Europe s scientific revolution Cultures in Change Japan amp New World Hybrids 15001780 A Tokugawa Japan a Factors for cultural change i The Great Peace 9 PROSPERITY l Edo Tokyo had 1 million people largest city in the world 2 Tokaido Road route for alternative residence 3 Wealth supports new cultural activities 0 Puppet shows ii Search for Japan s identity 1 United and wealthy 2 Not inferior to China but who are we iii Slight European in uence 1 Through Dutch merchants Means the Japanese have a window to the world 2 Some examples of western art in uence Concept of perception b Chonin culture i Urban merchant class ii New culture of the oating world for new wealth floating world world of fantasy and make believe 1 Geishas Women of entertainment 2 Kabuki theater Live theater performances for long a day or so 3 Haiku poetry Shows you are literate 0 Example of mass literacy iii Significance l Merchants not samurai enjoying rich life 2 Money gains access not title or family background 3 Emphasis in culture on common people Love Suicide play of chikamatsu 0 Play for the common people The actor were also common people Eventually banned because of the in uence it had on population c Searching for a Japanese Identity 1 ii iii iv Shinto religion and the emperor Searching Confucianism to support Japanese culture hierarchy opposite of Chonin culture native learning local wisdom as a reaction to Chinese in uence Samurai values detailed need for identity role models just as samurai are becoming bureaucrats d Dutch Learning i i iii iv H Japanese Dutch dictionary Schools to learn Dutch Window to European science and technology Largely limited to government officials v No real interest in European culture B The Hybrid Americas Native African amp Europeans a Europeans missionary impulse protect amp convert Not only for gold and power but also preservation of culture and saving souls b Native amp African responses i ii iii Christianity added to native spirit would throughout the Americas Secret world of indigenous gods 1 Mayan cave ceremonies 2 Santen a of Cuba 3 Vodun spirit worship in Dominican Republic amp Haiti 4 CamdombleAfroBrazilian mixed with Catholicism bit of Islam and native God Was banned because it lead to slave uprisings a The importance of dance amp special powers b Dancemartial arts slave anticolonial revolt now social dance Learning Christian messages of freedom keep hope alive slave masters teach Christian message of the better world waiting in heaven c Racial mixing non British area few European women i ii Spanishmestizos Frenchmetis d New SpanishPortuguese social hierarchy i ii iii iv Peninsular privileges by being born in Spain or Portugal top elites Keep pure Spanish blood line officials Creolelocalborn SpaniardsPortuguese looked down on by the peninsulars Become strong as a group overall offspring of pure blood Spanish but not born there Mestizosall people of mixed parentage Indigenous amp African descendants Political importance of hierarchy revolutions vs Spain and today s societies in Latin America Revolution in Culture the Enlightenment ca 15001776 A Definition WHAT a Desire for universal and objective knowledge search for natural laws b Questioning of traditional ideas institutions and authority gures 0 Both scientific and social revolutions c Three phase development of the Enlightenment a 200 year process i Scientific revolution especially mathematics 0 Examples initial thoughts of Locke and Smith ii Anticlerical antimonarchy reaction to Absolutism amp Church and state linkage iii Eventually ideas of modern democracy B Origins amp Growth WHY amp WHO a Renaissance rediscovery of Greek and Roman thought b Growing awareness of other people and ideas consequence of explorations c Greater selfconfidence in the newly discovered world d New wealthy nonaristocratic class merchants lawyers entrepreneurs doctors etc C Spread of Ideas HOW a Print pamphlets books newspapers increased literacy in better economic times Way to educate more people b Personal correspondence and social gatherings reaching people in remote areas via letters and urban meeting to discuss new ideas c Universities and military schools Many of our advantagesadvances come from people here who are thinking more logically D Thinkers specifically WHO a Scientists and philosophers 1500early 1700s i Galileomath physics and astronomy ii Andres Vesaliusastronomy iii Sir Frances Baconscientific method iv Rene Decarteslogic and rational thought b Social thinkers 1700s i Voltairereligious tolerance ii Rousseaubelief in man s good nature and capacity for government iii Adam Smith invisible hand of marketplace Wealth of Nations 1776 End of mercantilism c John Lockeprogram for political change 0 Balance of powers E Centers WHERE a The leaders Paris France and England b Small pocket Europe c Commercial cities Amsterdam and Edinburgh d Colonial ports Philadelphia and Boston F Signi cance a Religious secular scienti c challenge to establish religious beliefs b Political democratic challenge to absolute rule c Commercial free market challenge to mercantilism d Science destroys old dogma and creates methods for rational inquiry The Era of Global Revolutions A Why Global Revolution a b C Enlightenment develops a political agenda enlightenment thinkers of the 17005 Social and economic changes i Global trade 9 creation of new wealth ii Newly wealthy demand change Colonial dissatisfactions i Economicantimercantilism ii Social resentment of British officialspeninsulars B Character of Revolutions a b All the revolutions were radical for their time Most revolutions in the Americas seek political not social change 0 Regime change new ruler but same policies The Haitian exception Most radical social change as well as political French Europe goals of complete and immediate political democracy social transformations of society class amp gender To get rid of all titles every one known only as citizens C Why the British colonial revolt a b Hated mercantile restrictions Disappointment with Seven Year s War i Proclamation of 1763 restriction migration Colonists cannot travel west to settle in the new land ii King s policies of taxation to pay for the costly war 0 Rich people can afford the taxes New taxes are for specific people iii Colonists see tax issue within Enlightenment ideas of just rule and rational self government D Democracy amp the American Revolution some social change during the fight later abandoned a b tieWop Continental Army based on volunteers a people s army Revolutionary in its composition everyday people not skilled professionals Gender relations Daughters of Liberty during the fight no political participation later 0 Amy Adams s Remember the Ladies Role of elections i Military and civilian leader ii Built on colonial traditions of local rule Continental Congress rise of the legislature over executive Voting property restrictions vs poor white men Return of executive power Shay s rebellion 1786 Checks and Balances in the new constitution i Enlightenment John Locke ii But also conservative slows legislative action 0 Even rational people can act irrational but if given time you may be able to change their minds h No slave freedom Prosser s Rebellion 1800 Slave revolt was put off by a hurricane The slaves were armed and dangerous people E Why Creole Led Revolutions in Central and South America a Fear of revolt from below 1780 Andean Indian revolt Tupac Amaru of Peru Spain was not afraid of the Creoles but not more so of the Indians The revolt is put down but the fear is still there Creole resentment of Peninsulares Inspiration from French and American revolutions Napoleon s invasion of Spain F MeXic a Revolt of the masses 18101813 Fr Miguel Hidalgo and Fr Jose Morelos Priests church going against the State b Elite return to power thanks to Spanish troops c Creoles Army seize power 18201821 G South America 18101824 a Simon Bolivar Venezuela b Jose San Martin Argentina c Making of modern states localism over united continent Bolivar s goal d BUT Military landlord alliance comes to dominate H HLiti a Class of the slave population vs white elites sugar superwealthy French colony b Haitian leader Toussaint L Ouverture Questioned French Are you hypocrites Used French beliefs as foundation for appeal c 1082 French Intervention under Napoleon d Nonrecognition by France and the US to subvert the former slave state 0 France did recognize for political reasons The US was afraid a successful slave revolt would spark interest in their country I Causes of the French Revolution PAY ATTENTION TO TIMESEQUENCE OF EVENTS a Enlightenment critique of the monarchy b Growth of nonaristocrat class and wealth c Louis XVI s financial woes i Upkeep of the aristocrats at Versailles ii Financing the American Revolution iii Peasants overtaxed d Crop failures in 1788 and 1789 malnourished city residents Now not only the elite but also the common people hate the crown J Outbreak of Revolt a King calls the EstatesGeneral into session to raise taxes b Their consent is required for tax increases on the Estates EstatesGeneral always had 23 majority rule Dilemma of the Third Estate alliance of the 1st and 2Ild Estates Revolt of the Third Estate tennis court oath e Creation of National Assembly June 1789 0 Marks the beginning of the revolution f Summer 1789 spontaneous peasant revolts in rural areas g Storming of the Bastille in Paris on July 14 Sole purpose was the get military supplies not to free the people h Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen August 26 Paired commentary on the relationship between government rights and citizens Politically mature for this time K The Jacobins amp the Reign of Terror a Rise of the Jacobins 17891794 i WHAT new kind of political organization 999 90 ii WHO member profile is nonwealthy middle class Not titled or Third Estate iii WHY powerful 1 Tight central control 2 National scope iv Strong minority party in the National Assembly Created in Paris V Radical evolution Due to the frustration created by the behavior of the King and Queen The people were dissatisfied with the slow movement b Role of Robespierre Power of the J acobins and part of the Third Estate pushes for a quick change i Fanatical follower of Rousseau ii Dictatorlike personality gives power and squashes dissent c J acobins create National Convention September 1792 i Replaces National Assembly ii Elected by universal male suffrage iii J acobins in majority iv Moderates ejected May 1793 d The Terror Jan l793July 1974 i Beheading of Louis XVI January 1793 Once caught trying to escape he was charged with acts of treason ii European monarchs attack iii Committee of Public Safety 1 Headed by Robespierre Uses J acobins to impose a new order 3 Attack on Catholic Church Not only to end it as an institution but also as a religion 4 Creating a new society No one had any type of title AT ALL Attempt at democratic society Searching for enemies of the revolution 6 Executions 40000 People close to Robespierre become fearful for their lives iv End of Terror Robespierre executed July 1794 by J acobins afraid of their unstable leader L Napoleon Bonaparte 17691821 a Personal background 0 From country of French possession but not French b November 1799 coup amp power grab i 1799 First Consul ii 1802 First Consul For Life iii 1804 Crowned Emperor Napoleon brought back the Pope who in returns gives him the crown c Napoleon s moderation policies i Concordat with the Pope 1804 ii Uniform legal code iii Strengthen bureaucracy Now based on merit not connections iv Limits on rights mail censorship speech voting women s rights U39 d Wars of Conquest i Attack neighbor kingdoms and spread democracy ii Sparking nationalism in reaction to French invasion e Napoleon overreach i Peninsular War 18081813 Spanish resistance 9 costly guerilla war Napoleon put his incompetent brother in charge ii Failed invasion of Russia 1812 Russian Winters are bad soldiers are not properly clothed lack of food all leads to Napoleon surrenders iii Defeat at Waterloo M European Reaction the Congress of Vienna 18141815 a WHAT European monarchs representatives not an elected Congress b WHO Prince Clemens won Mettemich of Austria c Results i Concert of Europe Created to suppress internal enemies ii Mutual assistance against future revolutions iii Control Europe until the revolutions of 1848 brought
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