Test 3 Notes
Test 3 Notes HIST 1112
Popular in Emergence of the Modern Global Community
Popular in Global Studies
This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Re on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 1112 at Georgia Southern University taught by P. Rodell in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Emergence of the Modern Global Community in Global Studies at Georgia Southern University.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
New Economy amp Its Global Impact A England the first Industrial State WHY a b qormg Size of country Raw materials coal and iron 0 Signi cant amounts in close proximity Steam power James Watt i Steam and transportation 0 You can now handle more weight 0 Better timing 0 Inexpensive amp quick transportation ii Power for factories 1 Freedom of location near either raw materials or close to market Parliament positive political environment for free trade spread of British empire Impact of the enclosure movement on food and labor supply increased urbanization Investment capital example Rothschild family Industrial revolution overproduction and A global search for raw materials amp market 0 International markets now break trade barriers B Impact on Africa adapting to the Industrial revolution a b c Ending of the international slave trade 18031867 Denmark to Havana Agriculture exports to service industrial England Rise of African plantation owners and merchants continued use of slave labor C Seizure of India for England 17071813 East India Company 9 British government s colonial office a b C East India Co shift from merchant to conqueror i Decline of Mughal Empire after Aurangzeb in 1707 ii Collapsing Mughal empire creates opportunityneed for British leadership 0 Bengal was very reluctant but became a positive thing 0 The East India Company created its own army iii Bengal Battle of Plassey 1757 Sir Robert Clive Growth of East India Co i Control by indirect rule 0 Local people chosen to control the locals ii Zamindar landlords amp taxes iii East India Company army 1 155000 men by 1805 2 British officers and local troops iv Company profits and competition creates calls for reform 1813 End of East India Co 1813 0 Too bigpower il to just happen things had to be phased out i WHY free trade demands open access to India ii Consequences 1 Culturally insensitive civil servants replace East India Co personnel 2 British industrial good destroy local economy textile industry 0 Economic hardships are now brought down to the village level n0t just the elites D Humbling China for British Commerce 18401842 a Chinese prosperityEngland s negative balance of payments 0 Chinese wanted nothing from the British 0 Europeans wanted Chinese goods but lacked the money to purchase it b Why Chinese weakness i Complacency 0 NOT threatened by foreigners at all ii Bureaucratic corruption court eunuchs 0 Nothing gets done anymore iii Overpopulation 9 poverty c British drug pushers the opium solution annual traditional use 500 chest imported 40 tons 0 Many products contain opium British ooded the Chinese markets i 1821 5000 chests 40 tons ii 1838 40000 chests 3200 tons 1 British balance of payments problem solved e Impact on China i Cash flow to England ii Corruption of bureaucracy iii Criminality iv Human cost of addiction f The Opium War 18401842 i Debate at imperial court legalize vs crackdown ii Commissioner Lin 1 Law and order advocate 2 Crackdown March 1839 3 Destruction of British opium supplies iii British attack and victory 1 Began June 1840 2 No Chinese navy or defenses 3 War over by June 1841 iv Treaty of Nanjing 1842 1 Opening ports to British 0 From 5 to 50 ports 2 Compensation 0 Chinese have to repay British for all the war expenses 3 quotExtraterritorialityquot what and why important 0 British follow ONLY British laws The country becomes really divided E Continued Ottoman Decline a Egypt s thwarted reformed i Impact of Napoleon s defeat of British 1798 ii Muhammad Ali seizes power 1805 0 Begins a series of reforms for change iii Ambitious broad reforms 1 Education 2 Irrigationagriculture 0 Example Egyptian cotton 3 French military advisors 0 Create a stronger army iv Reforms work too well 1 Egyptian military advances in Middle East 2 Europe nervous Scared of possibility of Ottoman capture again V British threaten Egypt 1 Force 80 military cut 0 From army to police group 2 Require free trade access 0 Country now working for The Man 3 Egypt becomes a cotton supplier to England b Istanbul amp European s challenge i Selium III vs Janissaries ii Janissaries overthrow amp behead Salim 1807 iii Muhmud II r 18081839 1 Learns the lesson 0 You don t go against the Janissaries 2 Coalition with clerics vs Janissaries and coup 3 T cmzimat reforms similar to those in Egypt 4 Conservative nature of clerical support limit reforms 41 015 Alternative Visions What the chapter is about 0 Movements of the poor and powerless 0 Reaction against new global industrial system I Resistance by reinforcing traditional values I Resistance by selective adoptions from modern society 0 v Some left strong traditions BUT others were crushed v ALL laid foundations for contemporary movements History from the bottom up not top down Alternative NonEuropean Visions A Islamic Revitalization What is revitalization a WHY concern over rapid rise of the West b WHERE not from traditional Islamic centers but the desert c WHO Muhammad al Wahhab 17031792 0 Sunni who criticized Muslims d WHAT religious ratifications to regain Allah s favor 0 Goal to become a better Muslim e Objects of criticism 0 Capitalist industrial leaders did not have alternative views i Irreligious Islamic rulers ii Shiites iii Sufis iv NOT Westerners B Taiping Rebellion 18501864 a Causes i Continued decline of dynasty Humiliation and loss of respect ii Many impacts of Opium War 0 Hard to recover from iii Protestant missionaries 0 In the cities and countryside protected by British laws b Hong Xiuquan 18131864 i Confucian failure 0 Repeatedly took civil service exam and failed ii Christian in uence 0 Read poorly translated biblical text iii Dream of Heaven 183 7 Old Father and Elder Brother amp the need to purify Chinese society c Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Society 1840s i Peasant protest ii Southern regionalism iii Christian twist 0 They create their own bible based on his beliefs 1 The Revolt 18501864 i AntiQing antiManchu ii 1853 march to Nanjing iii Attempted social revolutions 0 End footbinding practices 0 Regionalism comes into play 0 Literacy classes 0 Political change try democratic practices e The defeat i Failed attack on Beijing ii Elite Chinese and Western counter offense iii Final defeat and slaughter f Consequences i 2030 million people dead ii Dynastic corruption exposed iii Created a popular movement for social transformation iv Inspiration for communist movement under Mao Zedong C 1857 Indian Sepoy Rebellion a WHY underlying causes i British annexation of states created enemies ii India s integration into British economy 0 British goods are travelingselling everywhere iii Increased poverty 0 Due to British success b The Sepoy Rebellion 0 Very bloody especially for the British i Hindu amp Muslim soldiers ii Enfield ri e amp greased cartridges c Popular revolt beyond military mutiny i Peasant revolt ii Indian princes fan revolt ames for their own good 1 Crushing the rebellion i Uncoordinated revolt easy to suppress ii Tragic British overreaction e Longterm significance Rebellion seen as 1st step in long freedom march D Signi cance of NonEuropean Visions a Indicates level of European disruption of other people s lives b Range of responses religious secular Western borrowing etc c Basis for modern religious amp nationalist movements European Radicalism E European Ethnic Movement a C a C Polish rebellions 1830 amp l846 fail to gain independence 0 The people were very dividedspread out This mad it hard to rise up b Greek struggle vs Ottoman Empire l821l829 success with help from European Powers Tragic failure Serbian independence struggle F Socialism Wanted political democracy an end of industrial exploitation b Charles Fourier LOOK OVER HIM IN THE BOOK 1 ii iii iv Vision of a utopian society 0 A perfect society grounded in the past Communal sharing would end poverty 0 Let s live together and work together Idea of phalanx 0 Division of jobs and responsibilities Impact of Karl Marx Early Marxism 1 ii iii Young Marx new journalist reports on urban poor and becomes radicalized 0 His rst encounter with the poor and his feels strongly 0 He begins to seriously doubt society Friedrich Engels 18201883 and others Foyodor Dostoevsky Giuseppe Mazzini etc Critiques by Engels amp Marx 1 Capitalism not focused on society or community 2 Only exploits workers 3 Their alternative vision was economic AND political 4 Union activism before 1848 0 Not inspired by Fourier 5 The Communist Manifesto 1848 a HistoricalMaterialism 0 Our past and lives have been constructed by wealth and material things b Historical analysis amp class struggle Caveman vs Caveman Lords vs serfs slaves vs masters c Hegelian logic Georg Hegel thesis antithesis synthesis 6 World revolution Utopian classless society SOCIALism and COMMUNism 7 Das Kapital Capital detailed economic analysis value amp labor New EuroAmerican States 18501914 A Creation of Modern Nations a b National government imposes on a country Ethnic regional linguistic variations not respected 0 Variation is good and acceptable unless they try to rise up Then they will be crushed Methods of nationbuilding i ii Education ideas of John Dewey citizenship amp industrial skills 0 Due to the large amount of immigration of other people Everyone is welcomed in America 0 Education if open to everyone Skills are being typed rather than concepts Common language iii Compulsory military service for national unity 0 Dual purpose iv Imperial pride 0 Pridecompetition between countries B American Expansion a Ideology of Manifest Destiny i God amp AngloSaxon racism box on p 636 ii Expansionnational vitality amp identity b US Civil War i Establishes regional variations c Economic development i Later Industrial Revolution 1 New materials and technologies steel electricity scientific research 0 Research and development differentiates scienti c research from Europe 2 New business methods a Mass production techniques assembly line 0 Also interchangeable parts allowed lots of pro t to be made and also made it possible to wipe out competition ii Large integrated vertical integrationCarnegie Steel horizontal integrationUS steel 0 Carnegie Steel control suppliesresources 0 US Steel control everyday iii Rise of finance capital JP Morgan US Steel General Electric International Harvester etc 0 Morgan was a banker who saved Americans from irther bankruptcy d Agricultural mechanization amp productivity e Overseas expansion i Economic political and psychological motives ii Convenient Spanish target Cuba Puerto Rico and the Phillipines C European NationStates a Nationalism switched from radical to conservative b Homogeneity religion and language c Liberal and conservative unity vs social revolution and unions 0 Strange coalition 0 Liberal beliefs of the French revolution 0 Conservatives support monarchs D Germany and Italy 18701871 a Astute prime ministers i Otto von Bismark of Prussia 0 Master of manipulation ii Camillo di Cavour of Piedmont b Similar strategies i Smallscale war ii Use of nationalism iii Reliance on monarchs iv Suffrage amp social welfare to counter social revolutions E Russia s Partial Transformation a Crimean War 18531856 loss as a catalyst b Domestic Great Reforms of Tsar Alexander II i 1861 freeing peasants of serfdom 0 They now becomes wageservants to pay off the land ii Mass education 0 The poor serfs have to build the schools iii Industrialization c Political reform i No political reforms under Alexander II ii Reformers adopt Marxism 0 More radical movements iii 1881 anarchists assassinate Tsar 0 Believe that in order for the people to be truly free there should be NO authority d Costly expansion without integration i A conquest of Turkestan 18605 ii Amur River basin 18401860 1 Vladivostok 1860 Russia wants to be a Pacific power 2 TransSiberian Railroad 18901903 0 1 set of tracks with few side rails This made traveltransportation long iii Russification of 1904 nationalities not a success European amp Japanese Imperialism 18501914 A Characteristics of the Period a Industrialization competition for colonial possession b Nationstate need to assert greatness c Nationstate strategic rivalries d Inequalities at home eased by foreign wealth e Romantic adventures for new mass culture media f Missionary lobbying B Colonial State amp Colonial Culture a Nationstate replaces adventurers and private entrepreneurs i India governemnt officials replace East India Company 1813 ii Africa 1 Discovery of quinine opens continent for conquest no malaria Europeans can go into the country without fear 2 Keeping the peace and blocking European rivals 3 Colonial governments tax locals for colonial projects no money from Europe 0 All projects must be paid for by the colonies without any help b Unintended results i India many states into one nation 0 Issue of a spoken language everyone had to be able to communicate with each other ii Africa artificial states example of Sengal French and Gambia British 0 British control ALL agricultural aspects French have rule over everything else 1 Berlin Conference 18841885 partition of a continent over a table 0 Called by Belgium because of interest in a large area of Africa 2 Ethiopian exception under Menlik II C Japan s Modernization 18681905 a The Meiji Restoration 1868 Emperor Meiji r18681912 restoration the rebuilding xing of an empire completely reform society i Weakening Tokugawa rule ii News of British war on China iii The Catalyst Commodore Perry of the United States Navy iv Rebellion to remove the Shogun and restore the emperor to power b Rich nation strong army 0 Importance of sequence build the economy rst everything else falls into place i Businessgovernment decision 0 Important foundation to change ii Modern military reforms 0 French in uence the draft army while keeping samurai of cers but having British naval advisors iii Nationstate ideology similar to Europe D Japanese Expansion a Ryuku Islands 18741879 b Contest over Korea i China was the first rival for dominance 0 Must demolish Chinese in uence in Japan ii SinoJapanese War 19841895 0 Japanese won 1 Dominant position in Korea 2 Taiwan a colony 3 Qing dynasty weakness exposed humiliating loss to the inferior Japanese iii Russia was the next rival 1 Korean and Manchurian prizes 2 RussoJapanese War 19041905 0 Present more of a problem because the Russians are better armed and gunned that the Chinese a Costly Japanese land victories Casualties and nancial needs b Russian eet obliterated at Tsushima Straits 0 Major loss for Russia 3 Consequences for Japan a Complete control of Korea b Dominant in Manchuria c Recognized power on world stage 4 Consequences for Europe a Defeat of white nation by a nonwhite nation leads to fear b Russian Tsar s hold on power weakened allows a parliament 0 This does not last long Tsar begins to take power back bit by bit Resistance to European Imperialism A Africa s Resistance amp Colonial Repression a Uprisings against partition map on page 674 0 All areas of Africa have some form of resistance b Against all colonizers i Germany Herero people of SW Africa 90 killed and MajiMaji in East Africa story of K Ngwale page 667 ii Belgium King Leopold s Congo brutality The land was stripped of its goodsusefulness iii British campaigns vs villagers in Kenya and Muslims in Nigeria c South Africa British vs Boors Boors were Dutch farmers who settled in the interior of the land i British of Cape Colony vs ii Transvaal Afrikaner Dutch iii Bloody war 18991902 massacre of whites and blacks Confronting colonialism s shortcomings Kenya i Jomo Kenyatta and criticism of colonial rule 0 He is not violent not does he use weapons He is educated and uses a pen ii Kenyatta Kenya s first president 0 Makes a link between his background and his plans for the future Pride in race and culture Senegal i Senghor amp Negritude Negritude Yes I m negro and I m proud cultural pride ii Embracing the pejorative to defeat it a cultural explosion and pride 0 Parallel to later Harlem Renaissance and Caribbean events iii Senghor Senegal s first president B China s Boxer Rebellion a Origins 1 Western Spheres of Influence map on page 677 The British were in the heart of China French Germans Japanese and Russians were everywhere else China itself gets the poorest part of the nation ii Failure of 1898 reforms 0 Young prince in line for King tries to lead reforms but it made prisoner by mother iii Reaction against Christian missionaries b The failed Boxer rebellion 18991900 1 Martial arts uprisings vs all things Western missionaries telegraph lines railroads etc 0 Destroy everything to the point where it cannot be xed ii Dowager Empress Cixi allies with rebels June 1900 iii International military intervention 0 Tell the Europeans not to push through and try to break the regime C Appearance of Modern Forms of Resistance a b Dr Sun YatSen of China 0 Compares to Kenyatta and Senghor he has in uence from outside the county he lives in i International education and travel ii Hans Chinese vs ManchuQing rule 0 Nationalism antiforeigner iii 1911 Railroad revolt collapse of Qing dynasty iv Sun s brief government 1912 0 Chinese being to shed their old ways in different ways than before v May Fourth Movement 1919 0 Student demonstration national mobilization of young people as advocates l Shandong Peninsula to Japan in Versailles Treaty vi Rise of Chiang Kai Shek 1920 l Nationalist military leader Sun YatSen s brother in law 3 Strong anticommunist Communism is not the way of the future but the way of death 0 Begins to try to obliterate communism by military means Indian Ideological Creation i Unity of the subcontinent ii English education takes lead l 1 million by 1900 2 Literacy print culture iii revival of Indian past 0 Revive national pride and national identity 1 Rewrite of ancient histories 2 Hindu religion as unifier 3 Indian art literature and science 4 No room for Indian Muslims All Indian Muslim Assn Rise of Ali Jinnah leading Muslims iv Indian National Congress 1885 party Gandhi v Catalyst of 1919 massacre in the Puryab 1 Machine gunning 700 Misunderstanding of a holiday celebration large groups of families gathering together seen as an uprising 2 No apology or charges vs offending generals vi Opposition to the salt tax and boycott of British textiles
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