Daoism and Confucianism
Daoism and Confucianism REL 10200 4
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Faith Giokas on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to REL 10200 4 at Rowan University taught by Professor Pizzuto-Pomaco in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Religions of the World in Religious Studies at Rowan University.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
DaoismConfucianism TEXT BOOK NOTES Introduction Coexist as complementary value systems Worship and divination Prehistorically evidence of worship of ancestors o Graves lined up in rows near villages 0 Funeral offerings such as ornaments pottery and tools 0 Suggests a belief in the after life 0 Early Chinese people worshiped a great variety of invisible spirits 0 Plants animals rivers stones mountains stars cosmic forces 0 All parts of the natural world are vitalized by cosmic energy and many personi ed honored and consulted as deities Belief in great variety of demons 0 Such as a thorn demon and a water bug demon o Ghosts of people who had not been properly honored after their death 0 These beings were seen as causing so much mischief that man effort were seen to thwart them Shangdi the highest god the LordonHigh 0 also known as Shang Ti 0 Understood as a masculine deity who ruled over important phenomena such as weather crops battles and the kings heath Cosmic Balance 0 Belief that the cosmos is a manifestation of an impersonal self generating physicalspiritual substance called qi o The quotstuffquot of which all things that exist are composed Yin the dark receptive female aspect Yang the bright assertive quotmalequot aspect o Wisdom lies in recognizing their evershifting but regular and balanced patterns and moving them with them 0 Dao the way or creative rhythm of the universe Teachings of Daoist sages Speci c origin of Daoist philosophy and practices is unclear The 2 salient texts of classical Daoism o 1 Dao de jing quotThe Classic of the Way and its Powerquot Centra philosophy is a practical concern with improving harmony in life It says that one can best harmonize with the natural ow of life by being receptive and quiet Several basic principles 0 One is to experience the transcendent unity of all things rather than separation o 2 Zhuangzi even when dif culties arise the sage does not panic and take unnecessary action The result of we wei is noninterference Nothing is evil but things may be out of balance oThe world is in natural harmony o Dao is our original nature Civilization with its intellectual attempts to improve on things and its rigid views of morality actually leads to world chaos Great value on withdrawal from the madding crowd to a contemplative life and love of nature o Classic Daoist seeks to nd the still center save energy for those when action is needed and take a humble quiet approach to life Designed to harmonize humanity with the cosmos ethical effects o Heaven earth and humanity all arise from the same source The Dao rst cause of the cosmos o Coming from the same source all things on earth are to be loved and allowed to exist and develop according to their nature There should not be a great gap between the rich and poor oThe rich should desire to share with the poor ust like heaven makes adjustments between surpluses and de ciencies Popular religion and organized Daoism Burning incense and making offerings have been ways of communicating to the invisible spirits Feng shui geomancy determining natural ows of qi through the earth as revealed by the ows of wind and water 0 by observing the contours of the land and the ows of wind and water specialists in feng shui can reportedly determine the best places for the harmonious placement of a temple dwelling place or grave o The ancient practice of worshipping certain people as divine appointed to heavenly office after they have died encompassed by organized Daoism 0 Example quotConsort of Heavenquot or quotMatsuquot Inner alchemy 0 Individual spiritual practices for the sake of inner transformation selfcultivation longevity and perhaps immortality Daoist texts refer to powerful ascetic practices traditionally passed down secretly from teacher to pupil The aim of the longevity practices is to use the energy available to the body in order to become strong and healthy and to perceive the order of the universe 0 quotThree Treasuresquot 0 within our body spiritual microuniverse necessary for the preservation of life 0 Generative force jing 1 o Vital life force qi 2 0 Spirit shen 3 0 Process of quotinner alchemyquot involves circulating and transmuting quotjingquot energy from the lower body into quotqiquot energy and then to quotshenquot energy to what is called the quotimmortal fetusquot o This can reportedly raise the Heavenly Gate at the top of the head and leave their physical body for various purposes 0 Including preparation for life after death Daoist Sects olnstitutionalization of such ancient esoteric and popular practices into distinctive religious movements with revealed texts detailed rituals and priests serving as ritual specialists oDeveloped as the Han Dynasty 206 BCE220 CE was declining o Zhang Daoling was appointed the Dao on earth and given the celestial master title o Advocated similar practices of healing by faith o Developed a quasimilitary organization of religious officials attracting numerous followers oLady Wei 0 Another aristocratic family in exile 365 CE o Revelations of the names and powers of newly discovered deities meditation methods alchemy and rituals were recorded in exquisite calligraphy o Elite group called their practices quotHighest Purity Daoismquot oThey looked down on the Celestial Master traditions The La ntern Festival The end of Chinese New Year celebrations Festival begins on the 23rd or 24th day of the 12th month of the lunaryean 0 Thought to be the day the gods go to heaven to offer their respects to the supreme god the Jade Emperor The actual lantern festival begins on the night of the 15th fay of rst lunar month People roam joyfully through the streets carrying and looking at a great array of paper lanterns lion dances dragon dances parades plays reworks acrobatics and sticky sweet rice balls Great cultural festivals in the name of pleasing the gods entertain people Daoism Today All forms of Daoist practice are still actively undertaken today in communist Mainland China Taiwan Hong Kong and Chinese communities The communist party is still officially antireligious with the Marxist theory that religion will die out as unnecessary in a socialist state Hundreds of local Daoist associations in the provinces of china as well as the Daoist Association of China centered in the white cloud monastery in Bejing o Nuns and monks are of equal status The Hong Kong Taoist is developing schools to combine education with Daoist enlightenment and characterbuilding giving lectures encouraging morality building and repairing Daoist temples and organizing festivals observed by all Daoist temples Taiii guan was developed in the 18th century as a training for martial arts 0 Practiced today by many Chinese at dawn and dusk for their health o It looks like slow swimming in the air with continual circular movement through a series of dance like postures 0 Also often physically bene cial in controlling blood pressure muscular coordination and balance and this is useful to elderly people Falun Gong a new religious movement combining Buddhism and Daoism energy practices 0 During the 1990 s Chinese masters made the techniques even more popular by advertising that one could attain supernatural powers through them Confucianism Introduction 0 Based on the ancient Chinese beliefs in Heaven ancestor worship and the efficacy of rituals For 2000 years Daoism Buddhism and Confucianism have co existed in chine contributing mutually to the culture Master Kond s Life Confucious was born in 551 BCE 0 During the Zhou dynasty 0 Born into a family whose ancestors had been prominent in the previous dynasty Married at the age of 19 and had 2 children 0 Mother died when he was 23 and during the last 3 years of mourning he lived ascetically and studies ancient ceremonial rites Ii and imperial institutions 0 When he returned to social interaction he gains some renown as a teacher of II and of the arts of governing 0 During a period of political chaos Zhou Dynasty central power began too weaken 0 Confucius felt that a return to a classical rites and standards of virtue was the only way out of the chaos o Unsuccessfully sought rulers who would adopt his ideas 0 Began training young men to be wise and altruistic public servants Confucius proposed that the rulers should preform classical rites and music properly so that they would remain of visibly high moral character and this inspire the common people to be virtuous Instructed his students the quotSix Classicsquot which are now known as the Confucian Classic and there are only 5 o 1 the yiiing poetry history rituals music and dance and the spring and autumn annals of events in his state 0 2 The Book of Rites contents includes not only ritual instructions but also philosophical discourses 3 The Great Learnind 4 Doctrine of the Mean these 2 discourses are part of the Confucian classic 5 o 5 Analects of Confucius this text includes what appears to be sort of an autobiographical statement After learning about the Way of Heaven he ultimately manifested it in his own life o The Confucian Classics did not become signi cant until the 2nCI century BCE o Became a basis of training fpr the scholarof cials who were to serve in the government The Confucian Virtues o Ren lienl translations of this central term include quotinnate goddnessquot quotlovequot quotbenevolencequot quotperfect virtuequot quothumanenessquot and quothuman heartednessquot o Confucius felt this virtue could have saved society 0 Modern chinese character for ren is a combination of quottwo and person conveying the idea of a relationship Those relationships that were emphasized by Confucians are the interactions between parent and child older and younger siblings husband and wife ruler and subject and friend and friend 0 ln Confucians ideal world there is a reciprocal hierarchy in which each knows his place and respects those above him 0 Essentials of strong government 0 Adequate troops adequate food and the peoples trust 0 To earn his faith the ruling class should quotcultivate themselvesquot 0 Lead lives of virtue and decorum o Continually adhere too ren always reaching upward cherishing what is right rather than reaching downward for material gain 0 3 grades of lial piety o The lowest is to support ones parents 0 The second is not to bring humiliation to ones parents or ancestors 0 Highest is to glorify them parentsancestors Li are the earthly expressions of the natural cosmic order 0 Everything should be done with a sense of propriety Divergent followers of Confucious o2 of the most signi cant o Mengzi Mencius born a hundred years after Confucius died Major addition to the Confucian tradition was his belief in the inherent goodness of human nature o Xunzi Hsun Tzu born when Mengzi was an old man Argued that human nature is naturally selfcentered and that heaven is impersonal operating according to natural laws rather than intervening Carefu reasoning provided a basis for the new legalistic structure of government Three basic points situate Confucianism within the academic category that can be referred to as Religion The goal of Confucian learning is to become a junzi fully cultivated ones inner virtues and always acting according to righteousness in accord with the Way of Heaven The State Cult 0 During the Han dynasty Confucian s teachings were last honored by the state 0 Book of Rites and Etiquette and Ritual were reconstructed with an increased emphasis on offerings practices since ancient times 0 These rites were thought to preserve harmony between humans Heaven and Earth 0 Government officials were responsible for ritual sacri ces to beings such as gods of re literature cities mountains water the polar star sun moon and former rules and to Confucius 0 Most important ceremonies were performed by the emperor to give thanks and ask blessings from Heaven Earth gods of the land and agriculture and the dynastic ancestors NeoConfucianism Confucianism stressing the importance of meditation and dedication to becoming a sage established during the Chinese Song Dynasty 0 The civil service examination system became fully developed as the chief means of attaining government postions Further developed the metaphysical basis for Confucianism the individual is intimately linked with all the cosmos Stress the importance of meditation and dedication to becoming a sage CLASS LECTURE NOTES Harmony with Cosmos A central idea in these ancient ways and this ideal is expressed in differing ways in Daoism and Confucianism Daoism 0 Two branches Philosophical amp Religious Daoism Date Debate o More or less simultaneous evolution of both branches Inward Training in Daoist amp Confucian Context 0 Deals with the cultivation of heart minded through quotholding fast to the onequot meditation 0 Important themes 0 jing vital o qi vital energy or breath o shen numinous or spirit rituaism discouraged 0 de virtuepower inner power attached through integrity and alignment with Dao 0 Institutional Daoism seeks to be seen as higher form of religion Daoism Historical origin unknown Said to be started with yellow emperor Daoist Sages Dao de jing amp Zhuangzi Dao De Jing o The classic of the way and its power 0 Written by Laozi 6th century 0 Can live by harmonizing self with universe Zhuangzi 0 Best approach to life is detachment o quotactionless actionquot Daoist paradox of wu wei The Dao Extremely different to express 0 Eternally real unnamable a mystical reality that cannot be completely grasped by the mind 0 To live in harmony with the Dao one should experience the transcendent unity of all that is and cease to feel any person Wu Wei Actionless action 0 Daoism frequently uses the image of owing water to illustrate the ideal life Government the rulers guide society without interfering with its natural course 0 The Dao is our original nature but civilization obscures it Chinese Folk Religion 2ncl century CE began using longstanding practices such as alchemy Faith healing sorcery and power objects Divination amp the Pantheon of Spirits head of the pantheon lord on high Shanghai 0 Kings took rule of shamari rituas were part of governance 0 Nature spirits rivers and mountains Celestial spirits sun and moon oAncestor Mandate of Heaven 0 Tianming 0 Right to rule was conditional on moral character Rites Performance amp Principles Complementary of male and female duities Yin shady female receptive and passive o Yang male bright and assertive Kitchen Gods oOne of the familiar spirits amp may be propitiates with animal offerings oAnnual report to Jade Emperor about families virtues and failings oLantern festival 0 Kitchen god may be offered something sweet or intoxicating Key Terms 0 Celestial Master Daoist tradition with hereditary lineage of priests representing celestial deities Complete Perfection A monastic tradition combining inner alchemy meditation and social morality Dao Taol The way or path the Nameless o Falun Gong A new religious movement combining Buddhism and Daoist energy practices 0 feng shui The art of architecture that harmonizes with natural energy ows 0 Highest Puritv Daoism An elite tradition of celibates who meditate on puri cation of the body for spiritual elevation Li Ceremonies rituals and rules of proper conduct in the Confucian tradition Literati lntellectuals and scholars NeoConfucianism Confucianism stressing the importance of meditation and dedication to becoming a sage established during the Chinese Song Dynasty Humanity benevolence the central Confucian virtue Wu wein Daosim quotnot doingquot in the sense of taking no action contrary to the natural ow Yaq In Chinese philosophy the bright assertive quotmalequot energy in the universe M In Chinese philosophy the dark receptive female energy in the universe
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