EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE
EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE COM 107
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Date Created: 10/22/15
Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 8 Newspapers The Evolution of American Newspapers 0 Idea of news is as old as language itself 0 Acta Diurna daily events by Julius Ceaser Colonial Newspapers and the Partisan Press 0 Novelty and entrepreneurial stages of print media development rst happened in Europe with the rise of printing press 0 Public Occurrences and Both Foreign and Domestick rst newspapers 1690 by Ben Franklin Colonies Boston Newsletter by John Campbell Pennsylvania Gazette 1729 New York Weekly 1733 Court allowed newspapers to criticize government after debate Two types of newspapers political or commercial mostly responses to British parliament O Partisan Press generally pushed the plan of the particular political group that subsided the paper 0 Commercial press served the business leaders 0 Elizabeth Timothy rst American woman newspaper publisher 0 The Penny Press Era Newspapers Become Mass Media 0 1820s newspapers cost 6 cents 0 Industrial revolution made them a penny a paper due to middle class OOOOO literacy Penny Papers daily street sales and individual copies Day and the New York S un Human Interest Stories news accounts that focus on the daily trials and triumphs of the human condition often featuring ordinary individuals facing extraordinary challenges J ournalism s ties to con ict of good and evil storytelling 0 Bennett and the New York Morning Herald Independent paper covering a very broad range of topics for the lower and middle class 0 Changing Economies and the Founding of the Associated Press The rst to assign reporters crime stories Shifted economic source from political parties to ads Wire Servies began as commercial organization that relayed news stories and information around the country and the world using telegraph lines then radio then digital Set the stage for modern journalism Middle and lower class attention 0 The Age of Yellow Journalism Sensationalism and Investigation 0 Yellow journalism emphasized pro table papers that carried exciting human interest stories Over dramatic stories 0 Investigative Journalism news reports that hunt out and eXpose corruption in business and government 0 Pulitzer and The New York World 0 Helped working class readers 0 SeX and Sin writing 0 Better conditions for women political improvement 0 Pulitzer Prize 0 Hearst and the New York Journal 0 New York Journal 0 Immigrant readers 0 Published fake media all about the novelty not facts Competing Models of Modern Print Journalism 0 Objectivity in Modern J ournalsim 0 Industrial Revolution facts and news became marketable 0 Newspapers tried to appear more impartial O Ochs and the New York Times l 896 provided informational paper that provided stock and real estate reports to businesses court reports to legal professionals treaty summaries to political leaders theater and book reviews Opposite of sensuality Huge growth in circulation 0 Just the Facts Pleasequot Objective journalism distinguishes factual reports from opinion columns modern reports strive to maintain a neutral attitude toward the issue they cover Also search out competing points Invert Pyramid Style story form for packaging and presenting the kind of reporting Si gnaled the break from the partisan tradition A majority of readers don t continue the front page story off the front page 0 Interpretive Journalism 0 The Promise of Interpretative Journalism Interpretive Journalism aims to eXplain key issues or events and place them in broader historical context Walter Lippman press should make a current record press should make a running analysis of it press should suggest plans Newspapers began to eXpand roles as analysts O Broadcast News Embraces Interpretive Journalism 1930 broadcast radio battle between radio and print news news started to lose a number of these cases radio entitled to their rights l950s cold war television news created with analysis 0 Literary Forms of Journalism 0 people began to suspect privileges and power of traditional authority key institutions began to lose credibility O J ournalsim as an Art Form Literary Journalism new journalism adapted ctional techniques such as descriptive details to non ction in depth reporting Tim Wolfe argued for mixing the content of reporting with the form of ction subjective reality 0 The Attack on Journalistic Objectivity argument that press could not tear itself away from the cold hard facts it was becoming monotonous and non engaging Objectivity believing people with power and printing their press releases very suspicious Advocacy Journalism when the reporter reports for a certain cause Precision journalism news more scienti cally accurate 0 Contemporary Journalism in the TV and Internet Age 0 USA Today Colors the Print Landscape emphasis on visual style over substantiative news or analysis and the use of brief news items that appealed to reader s busy schedules acknowledged TV s central role and used TV s color in magazines 0 Online Journalism Rede nes News new technology helps drives stories social media covers everything faster preventing pre mature bias tweeting breaking news is the trend The Business and Ownership of Newspapers 0 35 of major papers have a circulation of more than 200000 during the work week Consensus versus Con ict Newspapers Play Different Roles O Consensus Oriented Journalism carrying articles on local schools social events towns government property crimes and zoning issues Good sense of community Bad overlook or downplay problems Con ict Oriented Journalism front page news de nes all main events from social norms maintain adversarial relationship with local politicians and public of cials modern newspapers believe their role is to keep a wary eye on social situations often depicted two dimensionally 0 Newspapers Target Speci c Readers 0 O 0 major role in initiating immigrants into American Society sometimes did better than mainstream press papers that address minorities their leaders how they stand in the world African American Newspapers Freedom s Journal During and towards the end of civil war End of 1960s not as much circulation low funding due to controversy Spanish Language Newspapers Big in Texas during 1850s Not until late 1960 s were hispanic social issues recognized in the news Asian American Newspapers Today fty small papers in the US are Vietnamese Native American Newspapers Cherokee PhoeniX Neglect of Native American viewpoints in mainstream press Gambling hunting shing rights The Underground Press Underground Press papers that questioned mainstream political policies and conventional values voicing radical opinions Voices of students women blacks NAs homosexuals everything not mainstream 0 Newspaper Operations 0 O Newshole space not taken up by ads accounts for the remaining 35 to 50 percent of daily newspapers News and Editorial Responsibilities many editorial positions are being eliminated due to single editor who has to make sure stories are rst reported online I general assignments stories that might break at any time bureau reporters le reports from other major cities due to nancial downsizing not as many sources for outlets an news Chapter 14 The Culture of Journalism Modern Journalism in the Information Age 0 Modern America journalism sought to provide information to households 0 Problem too much information and amount of data questionable impact on improving public and political life 0 What is News Journalists today call themselves information gatherers m process of gathering info and making narrative reports edited by individuals for news organizations selected frames of reference public makes sense of important events issues trends unusual happenings Characteristics of News 0 O Newsworthiness information most worthy of transformation into news stories Process has evolved Criteria timeliness proximity con ict prominence human interest consequence usefulness novelty deviance TimelyNew Proximity to readers Con ict Prominent powerful Journalists responsible for keeping watchful eye Human interest Consequence Usefulness Novel Deviant 0 Values in American Journalism both a product and a process Subtle values and shifting rituals that adapt to daily social circumstances Conventional Journalism mainstream today All seeing observers detached reporters O O O Neutrality Boosts Credibility and Sales journalists today believe they should be objective observers softening partisanship might boost sales 0 Partisanship Trumps Neutrality Especially Online and on Cable old mass audience has switched into smaller niche audiences Rise of cable news downsizing of journalism of veri cationquot major catalyst for the nation s political and ideological divide O Other Cultural Values in Journalism ethnocentrism most news reporting and foreign coverage reporters judge other countries as compared to America responsible capitalism underlying value that journalists think business compete with each other for the prosperity of all vs maximizing pro ts small town pastoralism favoring small over large rural over the urban individualism remains the most prominent value underpinning daily journalism tenacity needed to confront and eXpose corruption 0 Facts Values and Bias traditionally reporters aligned facts with an objective position and values with subjective feelings FOX News MSNBC undermine fair reporting the suspicion of press bias reporters are out there to get subjects press is too close to subjects human drama compels our attention this is what journalists should be looking for in people Ethics and the News Media 0 When is it right to protect government secrets 0 What is more integral to liberty than freedom of an independent press 0 Ethical Predicaments O Frequent newsroom problems intentional deception privacy invasions con icts of interest 0 Deploying Deception journalists still use guises false names to get government info does the end justify the means absolute ethics moral society has laws and codes that anyone under any circumstance should abide by end never justi es the means situational ethics greater cause end does justify the means ethics code in favor of honesty at all times leaves loopholes though 0 Invading Privacy journalists always straddle a line between public s right to know and person s right to privacy Digital age makes this easier but more questionable THINK social media hacking What public good is being served here 0 Con ict of Interest any situation in which journalists may stand to bene t from stories they produce most US journalists do not actively participate in politics critics argue clarity between article and opinion based things online 0 Resolving Ethical Problems 0 I was just getting the facts the hardest argument out there 0 Aristotle Kant and Bentham and Mill Aristotle golden mean balance between competing positionsquot Kant categorical imperative society must adhere to all moral codesquot Bentham and Mill the greatest good for the greatest number good consequence to more people rather to fewerquot 0 Developing Ethical Policy laying out the case pin pointing the issues identifying involved parties and their intents competing values ethical models strategies and options forming a decision lives of people who have unintentionally become involved in the news Reporting Rituals and the Legacy of Print Journalism Focusing on the Present 0 telegraph rst enabled news to criss cross America modern journalism was born modern front page journalism began accepting new and now instead of political analysis and historical context Getting a Good Story tell me a story rather journalists say get the story standard against which many journalists measure themselves Getting a Story First journalism plays important role in calling public attention to serious issue and events but getting the story is often described as a game self promotions competitive against other reporters scoops and exclusive stories attempt to portray reporters in a heroic light not clear why having a story rst better serves the public herd of journalism occurs when reporters stake out at a house chase celebrities invading exploiting privacy Relying on Experts 0 relying on outside sources has made reporters heavily dependent on experts what daily reporters know us generally subordinate to who they know represent both leader s and reader s interest narrative con ict pitting quotes against one another distance themselves from daily experience with use of experts experts require direct contact predominantly white and male reporters as opposed to women and blacks the whole look of the anchor started to develop erodes celebrity status in journalism Balancing Story Con ict O O O O to most journalists balance inclusion of all sides in practice this has been reduced to only both sides of a story misinterpret the complexity of social issues neutrality in reportes distance Acting as Adversaries tough questioning style used in political reporting them and us political leaders and the people they represent by searching for what politicians are hiding key issues are missed Winner questions Why is this going on What ought to be done about it Journalism in the Age of TV and the Internet 0 Rules of governing American journalism shifted in the 1950s 0 O O O 0 Differences between Print TV and Internet News 0 broadcast news is driven by technology vs notebook and laptop method for print print editors think physical space around ads vs tv commercials print journalists eXpected to be detached vs tv news reporting live w believable imagery 0 TV to retain high ratings hired consultants Actions News developed crime blocks 0 Stations should ask why this crime takes place in stead of just presenting it 0 Pretty Face and Happy Talk Culture 1970s discrimination pickiness began national news consultants set the agenda for the anchor look news doctors happy talk ad libbed or scripted banter that makes news more comfortable to handle Sound Bitten sound bite tv equivalent of a quote printed in the news from forty to fty seconds in 1950s now down to eight seconds 0 Pundits Talking Heads and Politics 0 transformation of TV news by cable THINK CNN 1980s led to dramatic changes in TV news delivery at the national level 0 partisan lines used for success Sean Hannity Anderson Cooper 0 we need to get the facts straight for good journalism to take place 0 Convergence Enhances and Changes Journalism 0 0 readers and viewers don t have to wait till the next day for the newest news due to digital media 0 reporters now expected to tweet social media digital cameras stream video print style news internet stories a priority 0 The Power of Visual Language 0 often is more powerful than words online 0 Internet mainly responsible gatekeeper tradition slightly broken by this Alternative Models Public Journalism and Fake News 0 informational modern model emphasizes describing events and issues from neutral point of view 0 partisan European Model stresses analyzing occurrences and advocating remedies from acknowledged point of view 0 The Public Journalism Movement 0 Public Journalism moving beyond the limited mission of telling the news to a broader mission of helping public life go well has blurred the line with its use of public forums helpers to the public or reporters makes the community more involved and aware 0 An Early Public Journalism Project began in 1987 O Criticizing Public Journalism tools of marketing not journalism blurred the boundary between editorial and business functions of a paper weakened editorial control credibility balance and diverse views compromised profession s credibility undermined fair reporting with opinions and stances from the community had not addressed changing of economic structure which was its intended purpose 0 Fake News and Satiric Journalism 0 Colbert Report Daily Show 0 John Stewart 0 more amazement irony while entertaining more engaging but fact based No Nice to have good insight We should demand new forums that address the complexity of our world Democracy and Reimagining J ournalism s Role we need it to make important decisions conventional journalists will ght for freedom of the pressthe obligation to question government Social Responsibility 0 The reader is no less centrally involved than then authors and those of whom they tellquot Deliberative Democracy 0 citizen groups work together to develop solutions and ideas to shape political agendas O journalism should assert itself as a positive source Chapter 12 Public Relations and Framing the Message Early Developments in Public Relations 0 PR began to help business fend off scrutiny from muckraking journalists and labor unions at the time 0 Press Agents those who sought to advance a client s image through media eXposure via stunts staged for newspapers 0 RT Barnum and Buffalo Bill 0 He knew how to use media for promotion Perked curiosity William F Cody same deal in 1916 with gunshow John Burke one of the rst press agents Publicity promotional newspaper stories magazine articles ads dime novels theater marquees poster art early lms 0 Publicity A type of PR communication that uses various media messages to spread information about a person a corporation an issue or a policy to elevate entertainment culture to an international level 0 Big Business and Press Agents 0 Popular amongst railroads lobbyists people who try to in uence the voting of law makers buying favorable news stories dead heading bribing reporters for a good story Interstate Commerce Act 1887 rst federal law to regulate private industry stopped bribing O Tactics of the 1880s and 1890s would haunt PR 0 The Birth of Modern Public Relations 0 muckraking journalists were investigating the promotional practices behind many companies 0 starting to threatened established order of companies 0 Ivy Ledbetter Lee GOO GOO O companies could sell more products if they were associated with positive public image honesty and directness rst PR rm 1900s with George Park open relationship between business and the press developed fact sheets that were delivered to the press Rockefeller handing dimes to children to better public image Poison Ivy facts were elusive and malleable Edward Bernays rst to apply ndings of psychology and sociology to PR public relations counselor Clients GM Time Good Housekeeping Started the torches of freedom cigarettes for women emerging freedoms threatened the heir achy Companies must inject moral and spiritual motives into the public opinion Walter Lippman 1922 PR professionals with hidden agendas The Practice of Public Relations Approaches to Organized Public Relations 0 O 0 PR helps an organization and its public adapt mutually to each other PR agencies provide clients with PR services Firms maintain PR staff to handle writing press releases media requests special events internalexternal publics Publicis Omnicom WPP Interpublic Big ones Burson Marstellar HillKnowltob Strategies I Oglivy PR Most independent rms are smaller and operated locally or regionally almost every company in the manufacturing and service industry has an in house PR department Performing Public Relations 0 pays careful attention to the need of its clients politicians small businesses industries non pro t perspectives of its targeted audiences consumers and the general public company employees shareholders media organizations government agencies community and industry leaders provides services publicity communication public affairs issues management government relations nancial PR community relations industry relations minority relations advertising press agentry promotion media relations social networking Propaganda is communication strategically placed either as advertising or publicity to gain public support for a special issue program or policy such as nation s war effort PR personnel produce employee newsletters manage client trade shows and conferences conduct historical tours appear on news programs organize damage control after negative publicity analyze compleX issue and trends that may affect a client s future manage Twitter and other social media accounts Basics formulating a message through research conveying the message through various channels sustaining public support through community and consumer relations and maintaining client interests through government relations Research Formulating the Message essential to the practice uses phone and Internet surveys Twitter Analytics Conveying the Message Press Releases announcements written in the style of news reports that give new info about an individual a company or an organization and pitch a story idea to the news media The more closely a press release resembles a news copy the more likely it is to be used Video News Releases VNRs 30 to 90 sec visual press releases designed to mimic the style of a broadcast news report used by news stations in small TV markets M 15 to 60 second audio or video reports that promote gov programs educational programs volunteer agencies social reform Internet social media multimedia elements 0 Media Relations promote a client by securing publicity or favorable coverage in the news media times of crisis spokesperson might be designated as the only source of info available to news media knowledgable insiders used paid advertising 0 Special Events and Pseudo events raise the pro le of corporate organizational or gov clients a corporate sponsor s aligning itself with a cause or an organization that has positive stature among the general public Local level charities and parades Pseudo event any circumstance created for the sole purpose of gaining coverage in the media press conferences talk show any other staged activity aimed at drawing public attention and media coverage free publicity When can you get here attitude 0 Community and Consumer Relations sustain goodwill between an agency s clients and the public communities and consumers encourage companies to participate in community activities many newspapers and TV stations hire consumer reports to track down the sources of costumer complaints 0 Government Relations and Lobbying maintaining good relationships with government agencies who hold power over how companies operate in a community is key lobbying the process of attempting to in uence lawmakers to support and vote for an organization or industry s best interests Earmarks speci c spending directives that are slipped into bills to accommodate the interests of lobbyists an are often he result of political favors or outright bribes Astroturf lobbying phony grassroots public affairs campaigns engineered by public relations rms CCF Center for Consumer Freedom actually a creation by PR rm and claims to serve the interests of consumers consumer groups labor unions professional groups religious organizations foreign governments and presidential campaigns use PR rms 0 Public Relations Adapts to the Internet Age 0 Internet offers new routes for PR public communication 0 can upload media kits with instant access 0 social media presents a problem as consequences can come later as a result of a careless quick post that goes viral 0 companies hire bloggers to subtly promote them 0 Public Relations During a Crisis 0 BP Oil Spill Badly handled CEO did not appear 0 Tylenol Johnson and Johnson Well handled CEO appeared and broadcast to get all Tylenol out of houses and worked to develop a better container for the product Tensions Between Public Relations and the Press 0 PR adapted a code of ethics in the 1950s 0 m developed word antagonist to reference a PR agent 0 rivalry between journalists 0 speed 0 which is more reliable 0 source credibility 0 Elements of Professional Friction 0 Newspaper staff cut backs have eXpanded news medias need for PR stories 0 PR rms often raid the ranks for reporting new talent sought good writers 0 PR needs journalists for publicity and journalism needs PR for story ideas and access 0 PR rms now supply what reporters used to gather for themselves O Undermining Facts and Blocking Access interpretation of the facts Journalism argues that PR block access to key business leaders insert themselves between press and the newsworthy 0 Promoting Business and Publicity as News credibility for a journalist at stake takes media space and time away from those who can t afford to become visible in the public eye 0 Shaping the Image of Public Relations 0 PRSA Public Relations Society of America the watchdog on their own industry I Public Relations Tactics PR Week PRWaich O Divided into areas institutional relations corporate communications news and information services 0 Best strategy the limitations of the journalism profession itself because they don t have to be objective like journalists 0 Alternative Voices 0 PR is so close with the press that they are usually not under investigation 0 Their work helps bring an alternative angle to the well moneyed battles over public opinion Public Relations and the Democracy 0 argues that the crush of info produced by PR people overwhelms traditional journalism 0 Richard Nixon and the aftermath of the Watergate Scandal 0 Romney and Obama most eXpensive presidential campaign race 2012
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