History 201 Study Guide
History 201 Study Guide HIS 201
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Claire Notetaker on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HIS 201 at University of Oregon taught by Boodry K in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see United States >2 in History at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
Week 1 102215 113 PM The Colombian Exchange end of 15th century Columbus unintended consequences 0 altering the diversity Alfred Crosby book the Colombian exchange 0 Didn t happen over time o Europeans moving to America 0 No time to adjust to new surrounding Europeans won exchange 0 Advantage over the Indians 0 Claim ownership of Hispaniola 0 Now Cuba and DR How were the Europeans able to claim total dominance Crosby found in realm beyond simple control ecology Europeans found life in Americas healthy 0 Indians not adjusted to small pox etc Cause of huge amounts of death Virgin Soil epidemic Bringing host into new area 0 acquired immunity 0 Once you have you don t get again build antibodies 0 One of the deadliest epidemics in history Conquistadors cam to new world 0 They had nothing to lose 0 Searched for riches gold glory god Had native Americans resisted earlier we would be living in a very different world today Week 2 102215 113 PM Reliance of Native Americans New England 0 Plymouth rock located off the coast of Cape Cod 0 Large source of food and protein fish 0 Cape Cod was one of the largest fisheries in the world Virginia 0 Three sisters 0 Corn Squash Beans 0 Fish Purtans 0 cross Atlantic on their own dimequot 0 different than pilgrims because they have freedom not relying on anyone else 0 different religious beliefs that the Chesapeake colonies reformers not catholic Europe at this time 0 Many places were not welcoming to anyone meaning different religion and skin color 0 Religious tolerance in Amsterdam 0 good for trade 0 diversityvariety o where puritans came from New England settlers were lucky to have more money 0 more freedom enough money to sail for freedom on your own dime buying their independence 0 the goal of an individual is to have enough money to do what you please Value autonomy and independence Puritans show off their money 0 everyone wheres black 0 however class and level of wealth shown by quality of fabric Sumptuary Laws a law that governs what you were 0 is a type of prohibition o is a way to establish elites from commoners 0 creating a community of freedom but also controverted with control 0 popery Liverpool 0 Quakers major slave port mask incredible amount of money due to trade including slaves they had different views of the people around them 0 show some similarities to Puritans in habits and beliefs 0 save heathens from the burning fires of hell Puritans The Elect preordained who is in heaven 0 status ex clothing indicates if one is the elect or not 0 believe that comes down from heaven 0 if you aren t doing well in your life not being part of the Elect you are going to hell The Declensionist Narrative narrative that suggests this society was in decline 0 that society went to hellquot 0 because decline they reevaluate their beliefs so that children and upcoming generations can make the cutquot Beliefs play a huge role in society Religion 0 trust is established through being part of the same group 0 establishes trust to do business and trade 0 banishment becomes a problem Who do they go to Mercantile Capitalism developing type of capitalism huntinggathering societies like the native americans actually worked less 0 money motivated motivates people to work harder for their freedom gold currency The Dark agesEurope 0 due to the massive amounts of deaths due to sickness o the plague low population Thomas Malthus After a while Europe starts to build back up and population increases many believed there was too many people 0 Times are good people eat well no worry of starvation Population surplus 0 parallel relationship of good crops and people having too many kids 0 Due to population surplus the cycle begins again disease struck which follows with low population drop Sustaining a population surplus o In New England the environment forced people to work hard for survival 0 allowed no surplus in population 0 soil was not fertile making it impossible to grow crops In the Chesapeake 0 the environment is warm and fertile lots of rain 0 tobacco slavery became more promenade because of demand of labor due to so many crops New England 0 sons set to build newer communities 0 created many smaller colonies and communities within New England 0 Rhode Island 0 Providence 0 New Haven Class 5 Mercantilism 102215 113 PM mercantile capitalism can be used to make a wealthy and powerful country 0 You don t want to buy too much from another country 0 Export 9 Sell 9 0 Import 9 Purchase 9 Ownership 0 You want to export more than import in order to make the most amount of money possible 0 In Europe they struggled to find the products to export in order to balance the trade They wanted all of the imports coming from other countries But in order to make money and not loose from all of their purchases they had to find a product to export a group of people that get together diversifying decreasing the risks of importingexporting in order to make more money 0 Large scale corporations taking a lot of cash 0 More capital to play with 9 less risk of importing goods less risk of loss in product due to ships sinking or other risks 0 The royal African company 0 The slave trade 0 Given the monopoly by the British crown because they saw this would aid their empire to growthrive Slaves 9 labor 0 Travel by water was much easier at this time than overland travel 0 Traveling by water made it easier to transport bulkier cargo such as sugar wheat and other goods that were larger and heavier and more mass 0 People would value the exchanged of goods in gold or silver not like the modern paper we call money 0 Trading 9 that benefits both parties How to assign 0 When trading value can be measured as anything anything valuable to the other 0 Services beeretc 0 Some sort of value for the other trader involved in your trade Control of the oceans was considered vital for national power Piracy 0 Many were supported by their national governments Stole and created issues for other nations cargo and goods preying on competition Spanish and the Dutch were powerful in the seas All trade between England and it s colonies were sent on vessels across the Atlantic 0 Goods must land in England first before sending vessels to the colonies 0 Working to England s advantage 0 Ensures the security of the trade in England s favor 0 Keeping control of the colonies through taxation 0 English taxes are paid first John Smith said that free trade benefits both parties 0 Selling more goods at a cheaper price 9 more profits Monopoly effect 1776 marls the end of the mercantilism era and beginning of free market economics 0 An economy can not be sustained by the few with mass amounts of money An economy must thrive on many with money to buy products One person can only buy so many chocolate bars Mercantilist view still held today 9 account deficits is bad but borrowing money to go to school isn t bad 0 The investment of going to school is worth it in the long run The colonial economy flourished with sugar indigo rice and tobacco American colonies traded with Boyo early currency 0 At the end of the 18th century they switched to paper money Engand benefited from The colonies had fractious relationships with the English rule 0 The colonies did not like the system 0 The goods always must go through England first Discussion Week 3 Lecture 0 Early British colonization Mercantilism Last Weeks Section 0 Essay 0 Practice arguments William Berkley 102215 113 PM 0 Protected the land of the native Americans and refused to give the land to smaller farmers Witchcraft trials 1692 0 United states starting to come together Massachusetts 0 Focused on small farms craftsmanship 0 Salem 9 Salem 0 Dealing with lots of tension 0 Lots of fights between colonists and native Americans pushing for land because it is running out 0 Coming from a religious background that very strict 9 puritans 9 causing more tension 0 The environment The trials 0 Women were highly targeting 0 Many who didn t fit the image of what a regular woman should be Martha Corey 0 Very involved in the church and community 0 Ended up being convicted and sentences to hang 0 Friends and neighbors accused her of Pinching Biting Talking to a black man u Their symbol of the devil Class 6 Salem Witch Trials 102215 113 PM 0 169293 in present day Danvers o 200 years after Columbus s landing o more than 200 people accused of witchcraft and 20 executed The towns realized afterwards they were wrong and gave commodities to those affected 0 1629 Salem is settled and established 0 1641 makes witchcraft a crime 0 1684 England says colonies may not self govern Salem basically says too bad were doing it o In 1688 following an argument with Goody Glover Martha Goodwin 13 years old begins acting weird and having fits Goodwin s brother also started acting weird 0 Maybe they were just teens maybe it was the mold on grain 0 SO Glover is arrested for bewitching the children Reverend Cotton Mather talks with Glover and she is later hung o 1689 Sam Parris is named new minister of Salem 0 Parris isn t accepted within the community because he s from outside the community and very firm in ideas 0 Villagers become VERY upset and try to kick him out basically 0 Jan 20th Abigail Williams and Elizabeth Parris begin acting weird too both young as well 0 Mid Feb Doctor Griggs says witchcraft could be the cause eye roll 0 Feb 25th a slave named Tituba bakes a witch cakequot requested by neighbor Mary Sibley and feeds it to the dog 0 Folk remedy says take the pee of the crazy girls and mix it in the cake and feed it to the dog so the spirit will move into the dog bigger eye roll 0 Late Feb 1692 the girls say Tituba is the reason why they re acting strange and accuse Sarah good and Sarah Osborne of witchcraft March 11th Ann Putnam shows symptoms too 0 The next day Ann Putnam accuses Martha Corey of being a witch It begins to snowball more and more people are arrested and everyone s just calling everyone a witch 0 June 2 1692 Trials begin 0 People are beginning to become concerned about what is happening 0 Cotton Mather though he supports the trails start to see that it isn t such a good idea 0 These trials cause conflict in the community more and more people are hung Elizabeth Proctor isn t sentenced to death because she is prego 0 September 92 Giles Cory 71 year old man is pressed rocks on him and he refused to not talk after two days under the weight he dies 0 Oct 8th Phippes says no more of this shit Stop accusing people and hanging them because of magic or fake evidence We cant prove anythingquot 0 After trials people feel guilty in 63 Phipps says sorry to everyone 0 in 72 the court says sorry in 1706 Ann Putnam Jr leading accuser apologizes in 1957 Massachusetts formally apologizes and in 1992 they make a memorial took them long enough Explanations there are many 0 most people involved had been earlier residents in Maine and they prob had PTSD 0 Another has been to place the events in a larger European context like in 1689 War with France king Williams war made people upset so they had that in their minds sorta PTSD here too 0 Also people could have been fighting over money because tension were high section before this went over this idea 0 One other idea is that these girls who were young having fits were just going through puberty and acting up 0 OR the fungus in wheat which can grow easily in warmer summery times the fungus can cause people who digest it to do weird things perhaps 0 An outcome of SWT there s a move away from explanations based on magic and a shift towards factual argumentation 0 Less they sayquot more This is right becausequot 0 Ex If someone died after being around the accused person they had to have been a witch right Or if someone looked at the church and a piece of wood fell they were definitely a witch biggest eye roll ever Class 7 102215 113 PM Categorized as change and transformation across 3 centuries very unique within Atlantic slavery The construction of racism starts here 0 This created the racial difference we see today Created the differentiation of class and status within the United States 0 More than just the minority working for free Ll Chesapeake South Carolina Virginia etc Free People Landownersfreest people on planet Servants Planterssomeone that owns 20slaves Native Americans and running a business Slaves many free menpeople and servants would feel for natives and slaves unique relationship Planters 20 slaves sometimes into the 1005 have lots of money and I fee blessedquot but they realized they needed to build alliances with others in case the slaves revolted freest people on the planet at the time Landowners and Planters are the freest people embraced enlightenment ideals BUT kept slaves def hypocritical Work is much more extreme and hard Much more violence occurred between races 0 Whites being the dominant Florida 0 Owned by the Spanish at the time o Slaves were used in military to protect themselves from Spain Much more easier to escape than other landscapes Slaves would sell their labor to other plantation owners 0 Increased instances of slaves running away Charlestown New identity pretend you re free 0 18th century 0 planters seeing a stricter act against the slaves o slaves being used as pawns against the British and the Spanish 0 Slave societies 0 Have greater legislation over what slaves can do 0 A society with a lot of slaves Increase in need for control Increase in laws against slaves in order to gain this control Creates a strict social order with plantation owners on top 0 Characterized by violence to maintain social order 0 Slaves were very expensive property Negotiation vs violence Negotiation Ex student loans if enough of us rebelled and refused to pay the government may choose to come forward with a better solution 0 Violence it s about control fear in order to contain the control over others 0 Brutality and threats 0 Slaves were very expensive for violence wasn t something to just pass the time o The relationship wasn t guaranteed Slaves coming from different cultures 0 Spoke different languages and had different cultural expe ences o Caused lots of issues for owners slave agency when slaves have room to act or rebel and fight for their freedom 0 Even though there is room for action the costs are high that may cause lots of harm did not have plantation slavery because the soil is not fit to grow Mostly ship builders and other work that did not involve plantation Slaves were not coming directly from Africa New York 0 Highest population of former slaves than elsewhere Most people didn t object to slavery even though today were consider them to be the good guysquot Slaves lived in the houses of their owners causing a closer relationship 0 They live in a much closer proximity to whites 0 They understood culture better European culture Burial grounds segregated Jamestown slave who eventually won his freedom but then owned slaves Sued his neighbors for helping his slaves and he won Mainly in the Chesapeake area are supposed to provide food and clothes for servantsslaves many slaves were able to have their own independence if they were able to produce lots of goods and sell extra 0 mid 16005 0 eventually purchase their own freedom Everyone got along for the most part 0 Drank together celebrated together ect across the Atlantic intensified 18th century slaves had to make new identities expansion of tobacco caused changes of living 0 increased demand for slaves in extreme measures slave conditions became much more harsh slave owners became much more brutal slaves could not work for their personal gain anymore tobacco effects environmental depletes the soil OOOO tobacco field experienced decreases of product I caused harshness of conditions for the slaves that much more Slaves begin a consorted effort to establish their right to develop families 0 this is my lifequot many slaves gained rights of privacy away from their owners 0 allowing families 0 free time such as a day off often due to religion time to worship Monday Tuesday Mck 240c 67 Class 8 Revolutionary Claire Dimmick nov 2 6pm 9 film the crucible no class on nov 12th The revolutionary generations Freedom and liberty Against the British People thought slavery would just fade away Cotton Cotton was on the rise in America a High demand in labor U Need for slaves or workers to do the labor 0 Plantation slavery Planters gained lots of power in the Americas compared to elsewhere Development of a free north 0000 0 Atlantic creoles Africans who spoke a different language o A promise of freedom 0 Slavery is becoming much more profitable Slaves that spoke English and were much more modern 0 Was a time of opportunity of the south to gain independence away from the north 0 Possible of not one nation forming but multiple 0 1807 o Planters aren t able to purchase slaves anymore 0 Slaves that were sold from the Chesapeake area into lower south to work Fashion and the Development of the Role of Cotton 0 In the 16th century most people wore 0 Created lost of issues dirty smelled bad 0 was breathable easy to wash comfortable could hold bright colors many different patterns 0 Cotton and garments made of cotton were initially coming from India 0 British merchants wanted in on the trade 0 Cotton does not grow in England They needed access to cotton 0 Planters in the early American republic spark an interest in growing cotton Cotton in America 0 1815 cotton is the number 1 item that is produced as an export item 0 primary source of profit 0 The expansion of the popularity of cotton and the high demand and the large addition of land due to the Louisiana Purchase 0 Large expansion of slavery in the south 0 Short staple cotton 0 Hard to grow sensitive plant 0 Easier to remove seeds cotton fabric 0 Usually vibrant in color and patterned 1807 0 Where are people getting slaves o movement of slaves out of the Chesapeake are into the south 0 In terms of numbers slaves are living longer and are able to produce 0 Not growing due to the African slave trade travels of slaves from other countries such as Africa African traders became upset from the lack of trade 0 Growing due to reproduction o Planters decide to treat their slaves better causing this ability to reproduce Slaves became much more valuable mutuality commonwealth Like liberals of the modern day 0 The common good focuses on gaining power for yourself 0 Individual success not about others and people as a whole 0 Individualism Midterm Review 0 Format short response essays and two short essays 0 Bring a green book bring two 0 Study straight off of the study guide you will be finequot 0 After this class nothing we go over will be on the midterm o AGAIN FOLLOW THE STUDY GUIDE
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