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by: Johnathon D'Amore


Johnathon D'Amore
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Frank Martin Tierney

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Frank Martin Tierney
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Johnathon D'Amore on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ART 4359 at Texas Tech University taught by Frank Martin Tierney in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 79 views. For similar materials see /class/226477/art-4359-texas-tech-university in Art at Texas Tech University.




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Date Created: 10/22/15
N 5 75 5 quotF m E 7 5 0 E 7 5 E3 139ru Art 4359 Graph c Design Hismry Fall 09 Study Guide for Exam 1 Graphic Design History 4359 Fall Semester 2009 Texas Tech University Tuesday September 29 6 to 720 pm Instructor Frank Tierney Exam I Study Guide Chapter 1 The Origins of Typography and Graphic Design Chapter 2 Art Nouveau I A New Style for a New Culture Chapter 3 Sachplakat The First World War and Dada Multiple choice and ll in the blank 25 will appear on the exam worth 1 point each The process whereby words and phrases are highlighted in different colored inks is called All but one of the following eventually replaced the use of color as a way of showing emphasis within a text italics boldface small caps Cyrillic is a variant of the general category called gothic scripts sonamed because ofits dense weave of spiky letter forms The Mainz Psalter represents the rst union between illustrations an metal type It employed the technique that would become the basis for centuries of letterpress printingi Roman letters emerged in Venice in the I460s They devel oped from all but one ofthe following Carolingian Miniscules Roman cursive Humanist Miniscule demotic script A French expatriate learned the art of printing in Mainz prior to moving to Venice His roman letterforms are highly legible with variation in the stroke width and a sloping stress derived from writing with a quill pen Nicolas Ienson Aldus Manutius Pietro Bembo Claude Garamond OVPN 5 9 m 57 5 57 d Old Style roman types are distinguished by their understated contrast have bracketed serifs have an oblique stress sloped axis ofthe above Claude Garamond is responsible for all but one of the following promoting roman Old Stylequot letterforms as being charac teristically French developing punctuation such as the comma was the rst typographer to use italics as a complement to roman type establishing the rst successful type foundry selling his type to other printers and Fraktur were Renaissance styles of type based on older blackletters In the seventeenth century at a time when the roman Old Style faces had become established across much of Europe there was continuing typographic development resulting in a new class of typefaces called The rationalization of letterforms inthe Romain du Roi type face led to all but one of the following the notion of the vectorial font by de ning characters in terms of outlines the concept of the bitmap where type is composed on a eld of small square cells the notion of the quotslantedquot roman character where the roman character is deformed by sloping its axis typefaces that still display characteristics of pen formation 1 B E n 57 P w m E 7 P 5quot 5 ET 5 m 57 Pierre Simon Fournier contributed three of the following to the history of typography Which one does NOT belong The standardization of type measurement using the point as the smallest unit The rst encyclopedic survey of typography The invention of moveable type The rst classi cation of type from across Europe offering examples of regional trends In 1725 set up a type foundry in London His most in uential eponymous typeface Cuslon was exported to the American colonies where it was used extensiver including for the o icial printing of the Declaration of Independence A desire to print his letterforms accurately led to invent new inks experiment with different paper types and hot pressingquot whereby he heated the freshly printed sheets between copper plates to smooth the sheet The term quotModernquot when used with reference to type de scribes letterforms that exhibit all but one of the following ugreater contrast between thick and thin strokes Hserifs that are reduced to hairlines features and details that come from handwriting with a quill pen greater overall geometry in the letterforms creating a more abstract appearance markedly vertical stress The typeface Didot re ects the linear style of the Renaissance and a concern for geometric simpli cation of form that links it to the painting style In the nineteenth century the desire to letterpress print large letterforms was ful lled by the manufacture of type made from wood type made from a lighter alloy of lead and zinc phototype The term refers to designated kiosks where numerous advertising posters could be posted in an effort to avoid urban visual c utter Some of the characteristics of quotVictorianquot poster design in clude all but one of the following whorror vacuii direct representations of content on covers of magazines and jour ma multitude of confusing styles ulittle integration of type and image 5 N m 139ru Art 4359 Graph c Design Hismry Fall 09 Study Guide for Exam 1 said I do not want ART for a few any more than education for a few or freedom for a fewquot designers sought to devise arange of styles that were not directly based on historical revivals but rather cre ated a fresh new visual vocabulary that celebrated the vibrant pulse of urban life The Iapanese print strongly in uenced designers in the last half of the nineteenth century All but one of the followiI1g characteristics of these prints was adapted by artists such as Iules Cheret and Henri de ToulouseLautrec wbold passages of at color uasymrnetrical composition wspatial depth rendered by shading ublack contour lines In the nineteenth century chromolithography was aprinting technique that mused the principle that oil and water do not mix Hcombined woodcut illustration with metal type mused etched metal plates in an intaglio process mused a photographic process to create halftones ofminute dots organized on a matrix or gri Eventually banned in most European countries in the 1920s what alcoholic drink was popular during the Belle E170tu and became associated with Parisian nigh ife whiskey sake absinthe anisette Popular magazines served a signi cant role in bringing new graphic art to the attention of the public was a French satirical journal that featured thousands of works by key poster designers By chance the designer as commissioned to design a poster for one of the great divas of the Art Nouveau era Sarah Bernhard Like William Morris the French poster artist hoped to beautify and enliven urban life in a movement called an 1i la me or art on the streetsquot 2 375 P 575 P w 057 P m N nF m P w w F m r P The poster prints of ToulouseLautrec were strongly in u enced by Iapanese prints Which of the characteristics below do they exhibit attened areas of even color prominent curvilinear contour lines overall simpli cation of form all of the above American magazines were crucial in raising awareness of the Art Nouveau within the United States Which of the maga zines listed below wus not one of them Harper s Punch Lippimatt s Century is known for his designs which appeared in the magazine The Studio His work was strongly in uenced by the French Symbolists and English Aesthetic movemeng and was labeled decadent because it rejected classical styles and often had overt sexual themes William Nicholson and Iames Pryde formed a partnership and produced some of the most striking jupunisme posters of the late nineteenth century Their collaboration was called Punch Beggarstaff Brothers The Four The Immortals At the Glasgow School of Art circa 1893 four students banded together to form The Fourquot and become the larger part of the Art Nouveau movement in Scotland They were Margaret Macdonald Frances Macdonald Herbert MacNair and Iames MacPherson Gustav Klimt Aubrey Beardlsey Charles Rennie Mackintosh Austrian Expressionism grew from the Vienna Secession It is exempli ed by the work of Oskar Kokoschka and Egon Schiele The movement has all but one of the following char acteristics Exaggerates and overstates emotional content rejects polished nish displays the ornamental elegance of Symbolism and Art Nou veau often articulates a generalized anxiety 5 P w 57 WP OETP 139 w E 1 57 w 9 are P m P 139ru Art 4359 Graph c Design Hismry Fall 09 Study Guide for Exam 1 What term best describes the kind of curve found in much of the Art Nouveau and exempli ed by some of the patterns of Hermann Obrist s luxury textiles architectonic oblique whiplash angular designed 3 rooms for Siegfried Bing s L Art Nouveau gallery Examples of Gesumkumtwerk every article in the room was designed in a consistant manner including ceramic tiles and drawer handles on furniture Peter Behrens many abilities included all but one of the fol lowing architect Kunstgewerbeschule art school director industrial designer of electrical appliances corporate identity and logo design for the AEG typeface designer textile designer Suchplukut means roughly obj ectposter quot at poster quot realityposter quot The suchplakut of Ludwig Hohlwein display all but one of the folowing characteristics a more volumetric rendering of form than his contemporaries vivid color and abstract patterning Beggarstaff Brothers reductiveness sinewy arcs of the Art Nouveau Governments rallied support for the First World War from citizens by publishing posters In England the poster under went a rapid stylistic change and one of the following sets of characteristics were rejected jupunisme abstraction and indirect reference to subject matter Symmetry little interplay between letterform and image direct emotional appeal and moral reproachfulness Because some of its provinces were bilingual tailored its message to its citizens depending on whether they spoke French or English 3 E nF m P nF m P w 4 nF m P 4 m 46 53me m 4 1 During the First World War the poster in France changed stylistically and they exhibit all but one of the following char acteristics greater use of allegorical imagery sophisticated references to ne art of the past an edgy abstract style an academic ne arts in uence The Dada artists who gathered at the Cabaret Voltaire in cluded all but one of the following expatriates Hugo Ball Henri Matisse Tristan Tzara jean Arp Dada art and performances are often lled with all but one of the following precisely planned choreography incoherent effects overlapping simultaneous elements acerbic attacks on traditional culture Although Dada typography came to be known for its espousal of freedom and chance the journal Cabaret Voltaire and the rst two issues of the journal were typographicale unremarkable Dada 3 rejected conventions of legibility and logical compo sition and sought to disrupt the reader s expectations It also contained a list of the group s priorities known as the Dada The characteristics of Dada typography include all but one of the following a bewildering range of typefaces type layedout on several different axes jumbled upper and lowercase letters apparently random placement of visual elements no visual reinforcement of the underlying meaning of the text Loosely associated with the Berlin Dadaists in the post war years was one artist who did not avoid commercial clients w quotF m 57 1 9 9 w H quotF m 5 N Equot rru Art 4359 Graph c Design Hismry Fall 09 Study Guide for Exam 1 True or False Questions 25 will appear on the exam worth 1 point each Textura was an example of blackletter type The columns of text in the Gutenbeig Bible are justi ed left and right Incanabala comes from the Latin word for cradle and refers to books published before 1501 One of the earliest books printed in Venice using roman type was Eusebius s treatise De praeparatiorie evangelica Bembo was a roman typeface designed by Aldus Manutius and the punch cutter Francesco Grif o The contemporary versions of historic typefaces such as Gara mond are often not true to the origin s Confusingly the word fraktur refers to all blackletter scripts designed after 1450 as well to a speci c type developed by Anton Schonsperger The sloped roman letterforms of the Romain da Roi were de signed using the same principles as were the italic letterforms of Claude Garamond Though based on contemporary Dutch typefaces Caslori became closely associated with the British national identity john Baskerville s type was universally admired throughout Europe immediately after its release in 1757 where it had rst appeared in a publication of a volume of Virgil The second half of the eighteenth century witnessed the continuing evolution of typographic styles in particular the creation of quotModernquot typefaces A member of the Didot dynasty of typographers Francois Ambroise Didot re ned Fournier s system 0 type measure ment basing it on the French pied aa roi or foot German typographers often had to typeset their publications in both roman and blackletter fonts in order to satisfy both national and international tastes Though less original the typefaces ofthe Didot family were more popular than those of Giambattista Bodoni Sansserifs represent one class of typefaces invented in the 19th century Slabserifs overemphasize rather than eliminate serifs The primary purpose of the job printer was to operate the industrial machinery of publication and not to dwell on the artistic quality of their product The term graphic designquot was coined well before the 1920s William Morris s desire to bring high quality books to the masses was realized in his lifetime jules Cheret successfully promoted the art of color lithogra phy called chromolithography An essential principle of the Art Nouveau movement was the belief that the new artquot must consist of a style that could be applied in all situations and would not be unique to any one type of art The Symbolist poets love of the music of the German Richard Wagner was one of the few transgressions of French national ism during the Belle Epoque In his posters Henri de ToulouseLautrec successftu inte grated his interests in ne arts with the needs of his clients 4 E At the turn of the nineteenth century graphic design scarcely existed in the United States Both Linotype and Monotype were industrial machines that mechanized the process of typesetting The Fourquotia group of art students that had banded together in Scotland were in uenced more by Scandinavian design than Celtic manuscript design The Vienna Secession artists earned their name because they seceded from the two established arts institutions in Vienna In general the Scottish and Austrian Art Nouveau styles tend to be more angular and geometric than their French parallels Pun jugemi and Simplicissimus were all magazines or journals that promoted the Art Nouveau in Germany Siegfried Bing s Gallery L Art Nouveau was the name given an entire movement which lasted nearly two decades Lucian Bernhard s original name was Emil Kahn He changed it to either defy his father or conceal his semitic heritage Ludwig Hohlwein is credited with the typeface Bernhard Antiqm The First World War resulted in the collapse of four empires Many ofthe Allied war posters use emasculating messages and moral reproach to goad young men into enlisting The gure of Uncle Sarnin Iames Montgomery Flagg s 1917 poster I want yuufur US Army was the precedent for images of national icons pointing out of the poster adrnonishjng the viewer to act The word quotDadaquot is essentially meaningless and an ironic comment on what this group of artists saw as a lack of hu man reason in the gruesome First World War Dada artists combined an iconoclastic outlook with a love of improvisation and chance Dada artists sought to pursue so cial and artistic change through anarchistic aesthetic projects Dada artists were truly international and formed likeminded groups in Paris Berlin and New ork Merz and Merzbild were Kurt Schwitters s name for his Dadaist compositions and comes from the German word Kummerz rru Art 4359 Graph c Design Hismry Fall 09 Study Guide for Exam 1 Short AnswerStudy Questions 8 will appear on exam I 2 3 7 8 Io 12 13 worth 5 points each Identify the type above as Old Style Transitional or Modem List two characteristics of each What manual processes did the invention of printing re place Which book links the use of blackletter to German publish ing and to the Protestant Reformation Which blackletters in particular are associated with Germany of the early 16th century and why What do the typefaces Ungerkamr of Iohann Unger and Francois Didot and Peter Behren s BehrensSchn have in common How are they different What is historicism How is it re ected in the type and book design of the Victorian age What are some of the discontents created by the Industrial Revolution that the Arts and Crafts Movement attempted to ess Using David Small s thesisiparticularly pp 13718 William Morris s essay The Ideal Bookquot supplemental readings and Eskilson s text brie y describe the evolution of the book up to the end of the nineteenth century What is its future in your educated opinion Compare the two districts of Yoshiwara Tokyo and the Mont martre in Paris What did they have in common that is often re ected in the subject matter of both the French poster and the Iapanese print hat was the connection between the Symbolist poets and designers of the French Art Nouveau Brie y contrast the portrayal of women at the end of the nine teenth century in France and the United states De ne the term Gesumkumtwerk List two similarities between Otto Weisert s Bucklin Typeface and Georges Auriol s Auriol Typeface List two differences Describe the process with which Lucian Bernhard arrived at his star ing poster for Priester Matches Long AnswerStudy Question it will appear on the exam 1 worth 10 points Describe the role of typography and graphic design in creat ing national identities Give speci c examples that support your thesis In your conclusion indicate whether or not you think national idioms in design ultimately contributed to worldwide con ict 5 37 P N 375 P w 37 P quotF 575 5 v1 375 P 139ru Art 4359 Graph c Design Hismry Fall 09 Exam 2 Sindy Guide Graphic Design History 4359 Fall Semester 2009 Texas Tech University Tuesday October 27 6 to 720 pm Instructor Frank Tierney Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 4 Modern Art Modern Graphic Design Chapter 5 Revolutions in Design Chapter 6 The Bauhaus ml the New Typography Multiple Choice Questions 2 5 will be an the exam each worth 2 points for a total ufjo points The artists of the Montparnasse included writers and paint ers Who does NOT belong Pablo Picasso Georges Braque Guillaume Apollinaire Filippo Marinetti The 1908 exhibition of Braque s paintings met with some harsh criticism including rst use of the term Purism De Stijl Cubism Futurism The stylistic elements of Analytic Cubism include all but one ofthe following twodirnensional abstraction hardedged geometric shapes analysis of solid forms references to Greek mythology The stylistic elements of Synthetic Cubism include all but one of the following objects are synthesized out of abstract parts use of collage including bits of newspaper an anarchic aesthetic governed by chance gentle mockery of traditional representations of three dimen sions Guillaume Apollinaire s were experimental poetry that would later greatly in uence graphic design Poemes Cubists Calligrarnrnes Calligraphies Poemes de Montparnasse 57 375 P 575 F 375 P 9 E 57 F 5 E 7 5 P Sonia Terk and Robert Delaunay developed a variety of Syn thetic Cubism that invoked classical music and was called Orphism Purism Futurism Concretism was one of the rst dependable venues where modernist designers could nd work New York Transit Paris Metro London Underground Trans Siberian Railway became unofficially the publicity manager for the London Underground His commitment to bring ing new styles to the general public earned him the lasting reputation as one of the greatest patrons of the artsmquot Ioseph Niepce P W Fry Frank Pick William Henry Fox Talbot Born in Montana spent time throughout Eu rope before settling in London and designing posters for the London Underground Frederic Goudy William Addison Dwiggins Edward McKnight Kauffer Morris Benton Posters designed for the London Underground were gener ally in the idiom Sachplakat Dadaist Art Nouveau Cubist 1 572 P B E 7 P 375 P 375 5 37 P The signage and visual identity program of the London Un derground pioneered the use a purposefullydesigned typeface called Iohnston Sans Goudy Gill Sans Akzidenz Grotesque Although anticipated earlier in Belgium Harry Beck s a 39 in its 39 Aquot ofa com plex and variable system Paris Metro map London Underground map French Line Schedule New York Transit map The launch through the world this violently upsetting incendiary begins with It is from Italy that we manifesto of ourswquot Dadaist manifesto Futurist manifesto Modernist manifesto Purist charter Filippo Marinetti created some of the most daring typography and graphic design in his book ZarLg Tumb Tumb In it he used where the sound ofa word suggests its meaning alliteration onomatopoeia simile assonance reject all conventional rules of gramInar punc tuation and syntax Calligrammes parole in liberta La Prose an Transsibe riert et de la petite jeharme de France Symbolist poems 575 P 375 P 57 E r 375 F N 9 557 P 375 P 139ru Art 4359 Graph c Design Hismry Fall 09 Exam 2 smdy Guide Many movements were publicized in art journals and newspa pers For the Futurists became an outlet for expression Deutsche Zeiturlg London Times Le journal Lacerba Which of the following characteristics is NOT typical of Futurism depictions of speed sometimes called dynamismquot transformation of Cubism into a more vital energetic style a fascination with the machinery of modern transportation a precise and mechanical ordering of information A movement parallel to Italian Futurism that occurred in England was called Purism Vorticism Kineticism Dynamism Manmachine hybrids were often the subject of Vorticism and Futurism In England such combinations were the subject of illustrations in the publication Der Sturm Simplicissimus Blast C hapbwk Created by the Monotype Corporation in 1928 was more calligraphic and less geometric than johnston Sans Univers Gill Sans Centaur Cloister was a reinterpretation of Cubist principles that sought to secure a more secure and harmonious future for Europe following the First World War Dadaism Futurism Vorticism Purism 2 57 E r P E 7 P n r P 375 P 575 P 375 P The Machine Aesthetic as exempli ed in Puris evokes the smooth polished shapes of machines expresses a high level of admiration for industrial society seeks to prove that massmanufactured goods can be beautiful all of the above sought to serve as a visual template for a new postwar society L Esprit Nouveau Art Nouveau Futurism L Art Primitif The in uential Parisian exhibition in 1925 called Exposition Internationale des Arts De comtifs et Industrieis Modernes was the root in 1966 ofthe name for the style Streamline Purist Art Deco Divertissernents Typoguphiques A M Cassandre is known for his typeface design Bi n his typeface design Peignot the poster for the luxury liner Nonnundie all of the above Many Art Deco posters at the end of the colonial period in Europe exhibit racial and ethnic stereotypes sensitivity to indigenous cultures a new awareness of Women s rights a rejection ofthe sexual objectification of women Countries that had a profound in uence on graphic design immediately after the First World War include all but one of the following France Switzerland Holland Russia arm 5 are 5 OWE 5 are 5 w N n r F w w E 5 7 E3 ITU Art 4359 Graph c Design Hismry Fall 09 Exam 2 Study Guide De Stijl artists shared with the Purists and others a strong bias Objectivist Neoplatonist nationalistic individualistic Piet Mondrian used the term neoplasticism to refer to his aesthetic which rejected the emotionally laden complexity of contemporary Expressionism Futurism D adaism Vorticism The methodical abstraction of form in the Dutch movement has a nonobjective quality but also reveals a commitment to the machine aesthetic in its preci sion and austerity Art Deco De Stijl Futurist C onstructivism While remaining asymmetrical the typographic composi tions of Theo van Doesburg have an underlying grid are rectilinear create an expressive tension from simple geometric shapes all of the above Perhaps the most famous example of De Stijl architecture is the by Gerrit Rietveld Farnsworth House Maison Particuliere S chroder House Villa Stein De Stijl principles when applied to graphic design were considered by industrial clients as a viable form of com mercial communication were often rejected by commercial clients took on older characteristics of the Art Nouveau had no effect on commercial graphics later in the twentieth century 3 E 7 5 P 557 P are P m r P glut an F m r De Stijl and Dada were so different from each other no collaboration was pos sible formed collaborations in spite of Dada s embrace of absurdity and De Stijl s commitment to rational structure shared a common interest in the sequential and gradual abstraction of forms found in nature both originated in Switzerland The enormously in uential held in Weimar Germany in 1922 represents the most important collaboration between De Stijl Dada and Constructivist artists Socialist Congress Third International Constructivist Congress Exposition Internationale des Arts De comti s at Industriels Modernes By 1922 collaborations between had transformed Dada into arecognizable set of visual principles Kurt Schwitters and Piet Mondrian Kurt Schwitters and Theo van Doesburg Theo van Doesburg and Filippo Marinetti Umberto Boccioni and Raoul Hausmann idevoted to the collaboration of Dada and De Stijliwas published only four times in its existence Blast Meiz Me39cuno Der Sturrn Four imperial governments collapsed at the end of the First World War They were all but one of the following the Ottoman Empire Germany AustriaHungary Russia lapan The Russian Bolshevik poster has its origins in all but one of the following inexpensive popular folllt prints called Lubki Russian icons or religious paintings 18th century Russian product advertising 375 P E nF m P 375 P n 57 P 375 P ITU Art 4359 Graph c Design Hismry Fall 09 Exam 2 Study Guide Amid the turmoil ofthe 1918 civil war in Russia the Bolshe vik government recognized the need to keep popular senti ment on its side To that effect they embarked on all but one of the following statesponsored rnassmedia to spread Communist ideology replaced tsarist monuments with images of their own leaders organized public ferstivals and parades collaborated with Western Capitalist countries such as Germa ny to produce posters using the most sophisticated printing processes A thriving avant garde artists scene had developed in Moscow prior to the First World War In uenced by developments in Paris Rayonism combined all but one of the following Analytic Cubism Futurism Orphism Dada Russian Suprematism carried Cubism to its logical extreme and was eventually seen by the Bolshevik government as being impractical experiments too extremely abstract metaphysically speculative all of the above Tatlin s became a symbol of triumphant Communism U N OVI S Monument to the Third International Colonial Exposition Gallery Schroder House Constructivism was seen by the prevailing Bolshevik govern ment asw a more utilitarian concept of art a rei ection of selfexpression committed to modern industrial materials all of the above 4 4 v1 557 P 572 P 49 El Iissitzky s poster simple geometric shapes to symbolically narrate the story of the Russian Revolution from the Bolshevik perspective Beat the Whites with the Red Wedge Spartakiada Moscow The Struggle of the Red Knight with the Dark Force Under the Banner of Lenin for Socialist Construction The Constructivist aesthetic was put into the service of state operated enterprises Which of the following artists was most successful at applying the aesthetic in these enterprises Vladimir Tatlin 5L Alexander Rodchenko Gustav Klutsis Kasimir Malevich Collaborations between graphic designers and poets were not unusual in the early part of the twentieth century In Russia the collaboration between ments for the state food stores in Moscow called Mosselprom as well as the book ofpoetry titled Pro Eto a a Kasimir Malevich and Nikolai Punin b b Alexander Rodchenko and Guillaume Apollinaire C c Alexander Rodchenko and Vladimir Mayakovsky d d Dmitri Moor and Vladimir Tatlin 5 3 Photomontage as a new medium was explored in composi tions such as Hannah Hoch s a Corner CounterRelief b Suprernatist Composition Airplane Flying c Cut with a Kitchen Knife Dada through the last Weirnar a BeerBelly Cultural Epoch of Germany b d Af rmers of the New Art 3 d The Russian love affair with the camera is displayed inw a Use of photomontage 54 b association ofthe human eye with the camera lens c the notion of lmic Visionquot d the silver gelatin prints of El Lissitzky e all of the above a b c d from the civil war years uses 50 resulted in advertise 52 ITU Art 4359 Graph c Design Hismry Fall 09 Exam 2 Study Guide Who commented The old disciplines in the isual arts with their obsolete techniques and working methods are insuf cient to satisfy the demands of the Revolution as concerns the tasks of agitation and propaganda on a massive scalemArt must be on the same high level as socialist industryquot a Gustav Klutsis b Alexander Rodchenko c El Iissitzky d Georgii Stenberg e Kurt Schwitters 1 u I I ofthe on rmm39vi tae the c the lm poster of Georgii and Vladimir Stenbergw a were limited by Russian printing technology of the time b were fine examples of offset halftone lithography c re ect an influence from contemporary American lm posters A number of experimental techniques were rst employed by Russian lmakers including montage jump cuts extreme closeups all of the above Despite his strong desire to support the Soviet state differed from his colleagues in that he traveled extensively outside the USSR In doing so he was largely responsible for spreading interest in the Russian avant garde among Europe ans Alexander Rodchenko El Iissitzky Gustav Klutsis Kasimir Malevitch after the First World War was considered a pariah state had longstanding trade ties with Russia and was considered a good place for a diverse community of artists interested in exploring new abstract styles Germany France Holland Italy 5 v1 m are P m 57 E 7 P m gt1 are P 575 P 375 P 575 P In yet another great collaboration fthe era Constructivist principles were joined with Dadaist inclina tions in several issues of the Iournal Merz El Lissitzky and Kurt Schwitters Alexander Rodchenko and Kurt Schwitters Alexander Rodchenko and El Lissitzky Kasimjr Malevitch and Alexander Rodchenko El Lissitzky s work Runner in the City was a laterally com pressed photomontage that captured the dynamism and bril liant lights of this quintessentially modern city Moscow New York Paris London In the USSR the Constructivist movement was suppressed by an increasingly totalitarian government and was gradually replaced with Socialist Realism Expressionism Dadaism Purism The term originated among Berlin Dada artists many of whom advocated Communism as a way of rebulding wartorn Germany and considered themselves quotassemblersquot representing the modern world in anovel ways Calligramrnes Counterrelief Photomontage Constructions German Expressionist lm making included The Cabinet of Dr Cuiiguri and City Lights Modern Tirnes Metropolis Limelight German Expressionist lms contain all but one of the follow ing characteristics distorted often illogical spaces novel narrative devices such as the reveal fear of machines and of women optimistic depictions of postwar Germany 0 E 5 P 375 P 575 P 375 P 557 P ITU Art 4359 Graph c Design Hismry Fall 09 Exam 2 Study Guide The polemical Communist group played an im portant role in articulating the role of artists and designers in rebuilding German society after the First World War Kunstschuie LEF October Arbeitsrut ir Kunst The Bauhaus a statefunded institution began in Weimar but was forced to move to because the elections of1924 empowered conservatives and rightwing reactionaries Hannover Dessau Berlin Munich At the beginning of the Bauhaus many faculty had Expres sionist leanings When increasingly more faculty sided with Constructivism which original artistinstructor was forced to resign Vilmos Huszar Iohannes Itten Bart van der Leek Theo van Doesburg The was admired by the early founders of the Bau haus who considered it to be a symbol of social collaboration Gothic cathedral skyscraper factory studio At the time of the Bauhaus s founding the institution was forced to confront the dispute in Germany over the relative merits of versus Roman lettering sans serif blackletter italic fat faces 6 375 P are P 375 P 575 P 375 P The concept of the artist turned engineer resonated with the widespread adoption in Germany after the War of the prin ciples of scienti c management and industrial processes that had been developed by the theorist Ralph Bunch Frederick W Taylor Oskar Schlemrner Laszlo MoholyNagy The state government of Thuringia Weimar demanded proof of the Bauhaus that it had been spending public monies well which resulted in the 1923 Exhibition 1923 Secession Universum Film Aktlkmgesellscha Kuhstschule The architect the new Bauhaus in Dessau directed the design and construction of Gerrit Rietveld Walter Gropius Herbert Bayer Le Corbusier Hired to teach at the Bauhaus in Dessau after he had nished its curriculum worked assiduously to improve the quality of modern graphics Iosef Albers Laszlo MoholyNagy Herbert Bayer Wassily Kandinsky Laszlo MoholyNagy made signi cant progress in terms of in tegrating photography into the design arts In 1925 he coined the term 7 and layed out a set of aesthetic principles that would govern integration of typography and photography in graphic work photograrn typophoto photomontage type collage J 57 E 5 557 P 375 P E 7 P 1 v1 5 ET 5 P ITU Art 4359 Graph c Design Hismry Fall 09 Exam 2 Study Guide Constructivist principles employed midway in the history of the Bauhaus had originated in Socialist Russia and had been in the service of a speci c political vision In the period fol lowing the 1923 exhibition and the move to Dessau adminis tration of the school sought to m Constructivism fearing reprisals from an increasingly intolerant state humanize depoliticize nationalize reject Typography at the Bauhaus as exempli ed by Iosef Alber s Stencil Typeface or Herbert Bayer s Universal Typeface has all but one of the following characteristics sansserif is often only lowercase is strictly geometric and designed with an underlying grid is meant to be expressive and individualistic The New Typographyquot has the following characteristics uses sansserif type uses asymmetrical arrangements is inclusive of photography all of the above The designers organized by Kurt Schwitters which used exhibi was a collection of typographers and graphic tions to promote the Constructivist aesthetic and was not adverse to applying the aesthetic to commercial ends Ring New Werbegesmlter Die New Typographie Mulerie Photographic Film Universum Film Aknkmgesellscha Members of the Ring as well as faculty of the Bauhaus all faced the same problem elevating the status of photography reconciling leftwmg political ideology with the service of clients from the capitalist countries of Europe reluctance to use sansserif typefaces over the traditional blackletter fonts popular in Germany adaptation of German Expressionism to the curriculum after the 1923 Exhibition at the state s insistance 7 I39I39U Art 4359 Graph c Design History Fall 09 Exam 2 Study Guide I 8 nnageIden ca on10N lappearonexan1 mdnswmm3pmms Identify the designer title or type ofwork and date of each image 1 2 3 i gt WINTER SALE are Ines c reackeci yNDERcRourLD 4 IJIIBO DUBIJII llllBUllIEI mu 4 39 Auqubw 3 u mm I39I39U Art 4359 Graph c Design History Fall 09 Exam 2 Study Guide I 9 Image Identi cation continued Identify the designer title or type ofwork and date of each image 10 11 i iii l ii ii 12 13 14 ITU Art 4359 Graph c Design Hismry Fall 09 Exam 2 smdy Guide I 10 64 Exam 2 Essay this will be worth 20 points on the exam Summarize Walter Benjamin s The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction What does he say about lithography as a modern technique of reproduction Of the orig39inal and the concept of authenticity What is aura in his View What does he suggest about the concept of uniqueness reception and value What speci cally does he say about photographyabout painting Does he include film and acting in his essay Creation of demand How does he perceive the rnasses The individual


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