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Art History

by: Matthew Gambril

Art History ARH 253

Matthew Gambril
GPA 4.1
Survey of Art II
Jenny Blount Tucker

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About this Document

The first section is important notes for each important piece of art. They are organized by period in chronological order. The second section is key terms. The third section is example test ques...
Survey of Art II
Jenny Blount Tucker
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Matthew Gambril on Tuesday January 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ARH 253 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Jenny Blount Tucker in Spring2013. Since its upload, it has received 423 views. For similar materials see Survey of Art II in Art History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 01/13/15
Matthew Gambril ARH 253002 Jenny Tucker Exam 1 Study Guide Chapters 1417 When studying each image ask yourself the following questions What is depicted in this image What is this image s art historical significance How is this image exemplary of its artistic period or style Also please know the specific details of each painting WORKS Proto Renaissance lSaint Francis Altarpiece Bonaventura Berlinghieri 13th Century backed with gold leaf wood was painted with tempera then glazed ItaloByzantine Style frontal at elongated 2D not naturalistic gold leaf stigmata in Christian art the wounds that Christ received at his crucifixion that miraculously appear on the body of a saint nimbus the halo that denotes divinity Saint Francis is holding a Bible narrative scenes contrast with the stiff image of Saint Francis earliest known signed and dated representation of Saint Francis 2 Madonna Enthroned with Angels and Prophets Cimabue 13th Century nimbus hierarchy of scale Mary and Christ are more prominent incorporates some movement relatively more perspective depth 3D naturalistic Cimabue was one of the first to break away from ItaloByzantine Style Gold background and embellishments show Byzantine in uence Renaissance 3 Madonna Enthroned Giotto 14th Century located at Church of Ognissanti in Florence Italy Giotto was the first Renaissance painter better layering and perspective of the prophets some senses of shading Mary looks unhappysad because she knows she will have to see her son die Baby J esus s face is more of a man s face because he is wise beyond his years weighty queenly mother instead of frail Virgin of Cimabue going for an effect of substance dimensionality bulk marks the end of medieval painting in Italy and th beginning of a new naturalistic approach to art 4 Lamentation Giotto Arena Chapel in Padua Italy 14th Century buon fresco rock wall draws attention to Jesus in the bottom left nimbuses emotional faces and gestures really depict the intense grief bulky sculpturesque figures Northern Renaissance 5 Ghent Altarpiece J an van Eyck 15th Century largest 15th Century altarpiece a central theme of Salvation God is in the center wearing the Pope s triple tiara crown the lamb at the altarpiece symbolizes Jesus the dove represents the Holy Spirit there is an open view and a closed view Jodocus Vyd commissions the work he was promoted he and his wife appear on the work 6 Merode Altarpiece Robert Campin 15th Century triptych 3 panels depicts the Annunciation lilies purity Mary s red passion mousetrap Jesus is the bait to catch the Devil depicts the scene in a contemporary Flemish home to relate to the audience better fusion of religious and secular imagery becomes synonymous with Northern art Joseph in his carpenter s workshop and donors on the right 7 Giovanni Arnolfini and his Bride J an van Eyck 15th Century oil painting allows for more detail and clarity man is closer to window place outside the home woman farther in place in home dog fidelity shoes holy ground oranges fertility lit candle God s omnipresence 2 more people in the mirror some sort of legal proceeding maybe a wedding J an van Eyck was here inscribed by the mirror 8 Portrait of a Lady Rogier van der Weyden 15th Century oil painting private intimate with emotion and personality she is wealthy because of her nice clothes the large forehead was a fashion statement reserved and pious demeanor Early Renaissance 9 Florence Cathedral Amolfo di Cambio Florence Italy 13th Century center of religion in Florence symbolism of size engages the sky and Heavens bell tower was built by Giotto balance symmetry simplicity massive dome basilican style church solved problems of the dome with new building techniques and machinery of his designs 10 David Donatello 15th Century bronze 1St freestanding nude since antiquity highlights Classical in uence young relaxed contrapposto effeminate meant for the fountain of the Medicci home David is symbol of Florence ll Expulsion of Adam and Eve from Eden Masaccio 15th Century Brancacci Chapel in Florence Italy fresco no perspective indicated naked hunched ridden with guilt Eve s ugliness depicts shame the angle s will and their own despair lead them from Eden 12 Holy Trinity Masaccio 15th Century Santa Maria Novella in Florence Italy Lorenzo Lorenzi and his wife are patrons in the lower comers Virgin Mary and Saint John on either side of crucified Christ God behind Christ supporting the cross dove of the Holy Spirit between God and Jesus linear perspective vanishing point at the foot of the cross the ascending pyramid of figures leads viewers from the despair of death to the hope of resurrection and eternal life through Christ s crucifixion l3 Primavera Botticelli 15th Century oranges and laurel are Medici symbols springtime advent for Venus trees open up to form a halo around Venus 3 graces Mercury Cupid Zephyrus Chloris probably commissioned for the wedding of Lorenzo Medici mgh Renaissance 14 Madonna 0f the Rocks Leonardo da Vinci 15th Century atmospheric perspective central panel of an altarpiece for a chapel in Milan sfumato Italian for smokey haziness that softens outlines in paintings this term is applied exclusively to Leonardo pyramidal grouping all 3 figures are interacting with each other to create cohesion and balance Virgin Mary Christ the Child Saint John the Baptist angel 15 Last Supper Leonardo da Vinci refectory in church of Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan Italy 15th Century the painting is in bad condition almost 80 is the restored work not original fresco secco depicts Christ s last supper with his 12 apostles everyone is aghast at announcement that one will betray Jesus linear perspective J esus s head is the vanishing point trinitarian symbolism things windows apostles J esus s body position in 3 s l6 Mona Lisa Leonardo da Vinci 16th Century located in the Palace of France sfumato 3 quarter pose results in the following of the eyes no eyebrows half smile peculiar landscape who is she cropped from original size smaller than would be expected selfassured young woman without the trappings of power jewelry etc atmospheric perpsective 17 School of Athens Philosophy Raphael 16th Century Stanza della Signatura in the Vatican Palace commissioned by Pope Julius 11 linear perspective fresco focal point on the 2 central figures of Plato left and Aristotle right Plato points to heaven his source of inspiration and Aristotle points to earth for his 18 David Michelangelo 16th Century 17 tall marble Florence Art Academy Academia more masculine than Donatello and Verocchio slingshot and contemplative look moment before fight with Goliath David is the symbol of Florence embodiment of Neoplatonism hands 2X normal size hand of God 19 Pieta Michelangelo 15th Century Saint Peter s in the Vatican marble pieta is the form of Mary holding her dead son Christ Mary is enormous in relation to Jesus Mary looks very youthful controversial because she looks younger than Jesus youth signifies Virginity and purity very emotional depiction of mourning mother Jesus seems to be asleep rather than dead barely visible wounds Late Renaissance 20 Last Judgment Michelangelo on the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel in Vatican Rome Italy 16th Century fresco commissioned by Pope Paul 111 Christ at center masculine muscular large fierce clear ruler almost scary massive 48 X 44 references Dante s Inferno puts his own face on the ayed skin of St Bartholomew had to add cloth to cover up the abundance of nude figures only entirely nude wrapped in snakes is portrait of Cardinal who made him lose the nudes Heaven and Hell damned pulled down and blessed raised up Venetian 2l Venus 0f Urbino Titian 16th Century Classical nude GrecoRoman in uence 1St return of the reclining nude the dog suggests fidelity cassoni garment chests of the Renaissance Mannerism 22 Entombment of Christ Pontormo 16th Century Void in the center of the work instead of an important figure symbolizes loss and grief the cross and Christ s tomb are absent contrasting colors increase complexity the work represents a departure from the balanced harmoniously structured compositions of the High Renaissance 23 Madonna with the Long Neck Parmigianino 16th Century weird long neck body is out of wack Baby Jesus looks dead almost makes the work a pieta random little guy in the corner rogue useless column sexy angel leg 24 Venus Cupid Folly and Time Bronzino 16th Century Venus s son Cupid fondles her breast as he kisses her allegory in time all folly comes to light Cupid fondling Venus Folly has the petals Father time revealing them from a sheet TERMS Naturalism painted or sculpted representation based on close observation of the natural world that was at the core of the classical tradition Fresco buon fresco or true fresco is painting onto wet plaster Pigment is mixed with water and then painted onto wet wall thus becoming part of wall itself Fresco m or dry fresco Pigment is mixed with water and painted onto dry wall Know examples of both types of fresco Perspectiv depiction of threedimensional objects in space on a twodimensional surface Renaissance French word for rebirth Ultimately describes the reemergence of history culture and art of the 1416th centuries Denotes the intentional focus on the classical style Humanism Within the Renaissance an emphasis on education and the expansion of knowledge Humanism also meant a focus on the individual potential and the desire to excel and the commitment to civic responsibility and moral duty Scienti c or linear perspective creates the illusion of depth by a mathematical orchestration of objects within a composition Atmospheric perspective creates the illusion of depth by the blurring of contour lines Orthogonals diagonal lines within a perspectivallyperfect work Sfumato Italian for smoky haziness that softens outlines in paintings applied to Leonardo s work almost exclusively m depiction of Christ dying in Mary s arm after the deposition descent from the cross Putti cherubic young boy plural form singular putto Cassoni Renaissance garment chests Allegor figurative treatment of one subject under the guise of another Ex Bronzino s Venus Cupid Folly and Time QUESTIONS 1 What are the characteristics of the Byzantine style very frontal at elongated2D not naturalistic gold leaf 2 What does the ItaloByzantine style mean very frontal at elongated 2D not naturalistic gold leaf nimbus a combination of Italian and Byzantine stylein uences maniera greca 3 What artwork epitomizes the ItaloByzantine style Saint Francis Altarpiece 4 What is the ProtoRenaissance the time beforeleading up to the emergence of the Renaissance Classic Gothic and Byzantine in uences 5 What was Cimabue and Giotto s relationship Cimabue was Giotto s teacher 6 Who is known as the Father of Western Pictorial Art Giotto 7 What is the Renaissance the history culture and art of the 14th through 16th Century in Western Europe during which artists consciously revived the Classical style 8 What is it a rebirt of Classical style of art 9 What is Humanism and how does it directly correlate with Renaissance ideals humanism in the renaissance an emphasis on education and on expanding knowledge especially of classical antiquity the exploration of individual potential and a desire to excel and a commitment to civic responsibility and moral duty a return focus and emphasis on the past as well as a desire to learn for today 10 During the formative years of the Renaissance what city do we associate with the burgeoning of this style Florence Italy 11 Within Northern Renaissance three important events oilbased paint invented and infiltrates art community printmakingmovable type becomes more prevalent number of private commissions rose greatly 12 What are the characteristics of oil painting allowed for far greater detail heavier layers of repeated glaze richer colors illusion of glowing light enamel like surfaces 13 How did oil painting change the look of paintings far more realistic and greater in fine detail no longer a matte surface 14 What caused an increase in the number of art patrons in places such as Flanders increases in wealth from wool and banking 15 How is the Merode Altarpiece a fusion of secular and religious imagery a traditional religious scene Annunciation depicted in contemporary setting everyday objects hold religious symbolic meaning 16 Why did secular imagery begin to appear in Northern European art to increase the bonding and relatability to the audience because personal devotion was increasingly encouraged 17 And what are other paintings that are exemplary of this fusion Gi0vanni Amolfini and His Bride We reviewed many Northern artworks containing symbolism be sure to know these details and what the objects symbolize 18 What were the developments made during the Italian Renaissance forever changed the perception of Western art Hint Perspective line figure representation notion of the narrative within art 19 20 21 22 23 25 26 27 28 29 What was the role of the Medici family within Florentine art some of the most ambitious art patrons in history Were the Medici s humanists Yes What objects are associated with the Medici s and which painting displays these objects oranges and the laurel depicted in Primavera Who developed linear perspective Filippo Brunelleschi Masaccio developed perspective alongside him as well What is the difference between Linear Perspective and Atmospheric Perspective Linear Perspective scientific allows artists to determine mathematically the relative size of objects and in turn accurately depict this depth in space Vanishing Point Horizon Line Orthogonal Lines EX Masaccio s Holy Trinity Vanishing Point the point on the horizon line where all orthogonal lines meet the focus of the painting usually an important spot within the subject of the work Orthogonal Lines all diagonal lines they all meet at the vanishing point One Point Linear Perspective uses only one vanishing point EX Leonardo s The Last Supper Two Point Linear Perspective uses two vanishing points instead of just one Atmospheric Perspective aerial creates the illusion of distance by the blurring of contour lines EX Leonardo s Madonna of the Rocks Be sure to understand T rinitarian Symbolism groupings of three to symbolize the Holy Trinity example windows and disciple groupings in Leonardo s Last Supper Be sure to understand Pyramidal ConstructionComposition composition within work of art where figuresobjects form a pyramid example Raphael s Madonna of the Meadow example Leonardo s Madonna of the Rocks and Last Supper What is Neoplatonism builds upon Plato s theories of beauty and the natural world idealized body beauty and beauty spirituality therefore idealized body spirituality Neoplatonic ideal What famous artist was a Neoplatonist Michelangelo Example Michelangelo s David Please understand the differences between Reformation and CounterReformation 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 10 Reformation Martin Luther wrote 95 theses about his complaints regarding the Roman Catholic Church and Pope Paul 111 The main issues were the selling of indulgences nepotism and clergy members pursuit of personal wealth Counter Reformation The Roman Catholic Church s response to the Reformation A Catholic Revival The Council of Trent was organized for institutional reform and to purify the arts EX cover nude figures Who began the Reformation Martin Luther and the Protestants Why was this person group dissatisfied with the Church selling of indulgences nepotism clergy members pursuit of personal wealth Who led the Counter Reformation Roman Catholic Church What is the Council of Trent organized by Pope Paul 111 for institutional reform and to purify the arts by doing things such as covering nude figures in paintings Please know the three major issues that caused the Reformation clearly outlined in your book selling of indulgences nepotism clergy members pursuit of personal wealth What is Venetian Art art from Venice which is distinct from other Renaissance works Unique color palette What are the characteristics of Venetian Art unique color palette of warm colors color over lines What was the relationship between Giorgione and Titian Titian was Giorgione s student What is the typical color palette used in Venetian painting warm colors What is Mannerism reaction to the Renaissance What are the characteristics of Mannerism stylish cultured elegant weird colors peculiar strange and awkward How is Mannerism a reaction to the Renaissance style it is the opposite of the order balance and symmetry of the Renaissance


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