Midterm Study Guide & Answers
Midterm Study Guide & Answers MSCH-C 213
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madelyn Chassay on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MSCH-C 213 at Indiana University taught by Andrew Weaver in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 451 views. For similar materials see Intro to Media & Society in Media at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
Thursday October 22 2015 Exam 2 Study Guide Media Reality 1 a Can you describe the magic window Magic window a perspective that regards media messages as a window on the world that presents the actual occurrences from the real world in an undistorted manner b What are the dimensions of reality Social utility judgement based on whether viewers believe they can use the information in the portrayal in their own lives Identity judgement based on a feeling of parasitical involvement with particular characters c Describe the difference between factuality and plausibility Factuality is based solely on facts while plausibility is if something is likely to happen Factuality did it happen Plausibility could it happen d How do people judge the reality of media messages We use dimensions to determine reality Researchers have found that people will go beyond the magic window considerations and also judge the reality of media messages along the dimensions of social utility and identity 2 a Do people generally want realistic content and what two factors influence the consumption of media messages We do not want truly realistic content Two Factors that influence the consumption of media messages 1 Impossible for people to get those messages in real life Ex knowing what other planets look like 2 Cost of getting thru real world is more expensive b What two characteristics do the messages that people search for in the media have 1 Find messages they cannot get in real life 2 want things to be realistic but to go beyond plausible 3 a What is the next step reality Message presented as reality to resonate with the audience s experience and make it have the potential to be useful in everyday situations must be sweetened to take a step outside audience s every day existence b What does the next step reality entail for news media Present us reality but present unusual the stories that make news are abnormal c What is cultivation theory Cultivation theory the more media we consume the more our perception of reality fits that media depiction d What are some examples that TV distorts our perception of reality Seeing more violence in the news assume it ll happen to us Diseases that aren t that common once they re covered in the news people are scared they are going to get the disease The stuff we read about in the news is typically always rare Thursday October 22 2015 4 a Why do people watch reality TV Not watching for dialogue or character development or any quality we re willing to sacrifice in quality if we have a perceived reality They exist as a person outside of the show keep the same name all these people are real b How real is reality TV Not very real at all The reality of editing can have 24 hours of footage cut it down to fit a 1 hour TV slot Highlighting particular aspects Can use different shots and sound bytes to create different realities c What is the fundamental attribution error Fundamental attribution error when we make attributions of other we re more likely to blame it on the person s personality Don t know the context of their actions Ex someone cuts you off in traffic you assume they re a jerk or bad driver when really they could have been distracted couldn t see with sun in their eyes etc Don t give people the benefit of the doubt Without FAE we wouldn t enjoy reality TV 5 a How does next step reality affect video game production Enjoyment many players want games to feel and look more realistic Potential effects feeling guilty or not guilty for killing someone in a game c What is perceptual persuasiveness Input devices player is controlling the action game systems try to make the playing experience feel more realistic ex controller vibration wii motion Graphicssound Pong Atari basketball low perceptual persuasiveness Now there s wii tennis and NBA2K16 Uncharted 4 A Thief s End Plausibility and the uncanny valley d What is the uncanny valley and what does it mean for video game creators Uncanny Valley the closer something gets to human like the more uncomfortable it gets Messes with our perception of what s real and what s not Emotional response to dead bodies human like robots prosthetics etc The News Media 1 a Name and describe the four journalistic values that are present in editorial decisions 1 Entertainment if it is not entertaining and drawing audiences then it will die 2 Objectivity no matter what must present both sides no matter how hard it is 3 lnformativeness the news has to be new it has to tell us something new cannot tell us stuff we already know 4 Brevity it needs to be short and brief b What are the three characteristics of objectivity 1 Independence being free from political pressures and ownership 2 Balance for any issue you need to present opposing sides of any feature putting both sides out there and letting the public decide what side to follow 3 Non evaluate you cannot pass judgment on either side just present the facts Thursday October 22 2015 c Why do news stories have to be short and brief To keep the audience s attention to keep them entertained d What kinds of constraints are placed on news stories Deadlines prevent journalists from gathering all the facts and presenting a complete and accurate story about the event Resource Limitations not enough resources to cover EVERYTHING so must pick and choose Geographical Focus certain parts of the world get more coverage than others 2 a What are some of the intended effects of news coverage To inform or persuade to gain views and ratings 3 a What is agenda setting Agendasetting the media doesn t tell us what to think they tell us what to think about Our attitudes and beliefs aren t going to be changed by what s in the news media b What are the research findings about agenda setting If an issue doesn t get news coverage in our eyes it doesn t matter as much Ex show one group stories on crime show another group stories on the economy The group that saw stories on crime will believe crime is more of an important issue currently but the group that saw stories on the economy believe that it is the most important issue 4 a How does media coverage of suicides relate to suicide rates When news covers a suicide rates of suicide go up The more coverage the more of an increase in the suicide rate The rate goes up where the most news coverage on suicide is not where the suicide occurred b What is the coroner classification hypothesis and is it valid Coroner classification effect has to draw a conclusion based on evidence lots of guess work Ex did Heath Ledger commit suicide or did he overdose on accident But because of suicide news coverage a coroner is more likely to determine a death as a suicide than an accident Suicide rate looks like it s going up because of these ambiguous deaths and there is no decrease in other types of deaths c What is the precipitation not causation hypothesis and is it valid Precipitation not causation the media coverage precipitates suicide but does it cause suicides Causes people to commit suicide sooner than they already would have rather than someone committing suicide if they ve never really considered it d What ultimate conclusions can be drawn about the effect of media coverage of suicides Suicide rate increase after news coverage should have a decrease after the coverage goes away But that isn t the case after the suicide rate goes up it only goes back down to the average doesn t go below Thursday October 22 2015 e How could this effect be reduced Adding suicide prevention hotlines to the story provides helpful information There are things that can be done but there are steps to be taken to inform journalists These stories have a right and a wrong way to report on a suicide 6 a What frame of reference is used in coverage of political campaigns The sports frame how the score is changing the analysis they lost because Political coverage is similar to coverage of a sports event b What are the two questions that news media focus on 1 Who is winninglosing By how much 2 How are they winninglosing Campaign strategies where they spend ad money why they gave a speech was it a good or bad strategy c Why do the media use this type of frame to report political campaigns Because it fits the journalistic values Sports are a contest they are entertaining dramatic something that can be presented in an objective way It would be more difficult to use the problem proposal performance method because it would be non objective you would have to evaluate the candidates d What is an alternative frame of reference that could be used We should pick our political leaders based on this job interview like proposal e What are the effects of the sports frame Knowledge acquisition we know very little about what the candidates want to do in office their plans proposals policies etc We focus too much on their strategies and why they give a speech As well as Public cynicism makes us more cynical about politics and politicians Media Entertainment 1 a What is the entertainment formula there is a certain formula for entertainment media content that follows a basic formula conflict some problem characters face conflict heightens rises to a set of climactic scenes where the problem is resovled b What are the three generic components of a general story Conflict is the key everything else comes from it c Why are general story formulas still used by creators and accepted by consumers What are some of the main genres in television entertainment and how is the formula different for them d What is the uses and gratifications approach Constraints by the medium and constraints by society 2 a What constraints are found in entertainment media There is high culture and low culture and most media aims to create high culture but unfortunately most audiences Thursday October 22 2015 only seek out low culture ex reality tv We want in the moment entertainment don t want to watch something complex nothing we have to think about b What are the two main challenges with producing entertainment content for television Format constraints and audience constraints High culture vs Low culture Our needs influence the content we consume meeting a base level not caring about quality 3 a Why is character identification important for the enjoyment of drama In order to create suspense conflict between two or more people For us to appreciate the drama we have to care enough about the characters to care what happens b What is suspense Suspense for suspense to occur there needs to be a conflict with 2 possible outcomes the outcome has to be uncertain have to have a strong preference for one outcome over the other achieved through character identification The more we care about the characters the more suspense we will feel To maximize suspense really want something to happen make it look very unlikely to happen c Why is character identification important for the enjoyment of comedy There has to be conflict someone we re rooting foragainst Have to set up that character disposition We can still like the victim of the joke but we have to believe they deserve it in the moment d What is hostile humor Hostile humor humor that happens at someone else s expense there s a victim humor comes from laughing at that victim 4 a Why might violent content increase or decrease enjoyment At some level we like to watch violent shows play violent video games etc But at a base level violence should be something that turns us off Bloodsight of blood is the number one phobia there s a survival benefit to this When we see bloodviolence we should run away If it s so aversive why is it so common Because it does draw an audience b What does the research say about the enjoyment of violence Research suggests that we would actually enjoy violent shows if the violence was taken out So why do we still want to watch these violent shows Violence provides a short hand for action suspense although it comes with a cost disgust aversive emotions etc o Why is there so much violent content in entertainment media Violence represents part of the conflict formula very effectively it s easy for producers as well as audience members d How does this relate to the effect that violence has on selective exposure Refers to an individuals39 tendency to favor information which reinforces their pre existing views while avoiding contradictory information Thursday October 22 2015 5 a Why would horror film attendance increase during periods of economic uncertainty or following a highly publicized murder Terror management Horror film consumption is highest during periods of economicsocial security when there is a local murder or crime etc Happens at a local and national level People are using these horror films as a way to gain some control to manage these outside stresses and anxieties fear of losing a job fear of mass murder fear of the economy etc We turn to media to escape Allows us to manage the terror we can shut it off or walk out when it gets too bad b What do people usually watch horror films in groups We don t generally watch horror films alone horror film contention is purposeful planned out tend to be consumed in groups c What are the gender role expectations with regard to horror films Natural reaction to fear male amp female is to lookrun away but when you re sitting in a movie theater females typically cover their facelook away while males usually keep looking sometimes laugh It s not masculine to show fear Study shows that a guy thinks a girl is more attractive if she s scared girl thinks a guy is more attractive if he isn t scared Changes perceptions of physical attractiveness Advertising 1 a What are the goals of advertising 1 To get consumers attention 2 Once they get our attention they need us to remember their product it must stick with us in some way 3 Changing Attitude how well does advertising change our attitudes about a brand or product 4 Emotion changing emotions in a positive way 5 Behavior ULTIMATE GOAL point of advertising is to get people to buy product 6 Create a connection between audience s needs and product b Describe the connection between needs and product Ultimately you need to connect the consumer s needs to your product One of the core goals of advertising is to create a need because the majority of all advertised products in the market do not have an actual physiological need You do not need another TV or the newest smartphone etc o Is advertising successful in terms of needs and products Extremely d Why might prescription drugs be a good example for explaining the effectiveness of advertisements Prescription drug example not until 1977 you could advertise drugs directly to a consumer Around the world it is still illegal only legal in US and New Zealand It used to be illegal because it creates a need to make people think they have something wrong with them and that they need that medication The consumer can t make that decision by themselves It violates the whole idea of having prescription drugs in the first place Thursday October 22 2015 2 a Why might a company want a celebrity to represent their product To be more relatable we know these celebrities can relate to them more than a random actor usually have a positive identification with them b What is the balance principle We want to have likes and dislikes that are similar to those of people that we like and dissimilar to people that we don t like The problem is if someone has a negative relation to a celebrity they ll have a negative relation to the product they re associated with It can backfire Ex Tiger Woods or Just Say No campaign using Nancy Regan old white lady telling you what to do basically made rebellious kids want to use drugs instead c What are congruence and credibility and why does congruence determine credibility Congruence and credibility More credible ads will be more successful Congruence how closely linked are the celebrity and the characteristics of the product If they are not congruent it will not be as successful It damages the persuasive appeal Celebrities can backfire d If an audience likes an advertisement does this mean they will buy the product Why or why not Liking of the ad often hurts other aspects A drawback of having a well liked advertisement you remember the commercial but not the product They don t focus on the product very much Liking can increase attention but it is directed in the wrong direction c Does sex really sell Not necessarily It is very attention getting even if we don t consciously recognize it we still spend more time looking at it than other ads It increases arousal not just sexual but physiological which increases our attention and memory But Congruence is relevant here too if using sexual content makes sense for the product they stick together better in our memory Ex sexual content in an ad for condoms is more effective The drawback of using sexual content is that it could distract you you re paying attention to the sexual content not the product itself We don t remember the product Reduces brand recognition 3 a Explain the Elaboration Likelihood Model and give an example for types of purchases according to the central and peripheral routes Elaboration likelihood model How we are persuaded how are minds and behavior are changed There are different routes to persuasion Central route involves us thinking about it engaging with it Peripheral route conscious elaboration does not occur Belief and behavior changes happen before attitude changes What determines what route we take is how much we care about the belief the product the idea in the first place The product we care a lot about that we spend a lot of money on we think through it we use the central route Ex buying a car Ads need to use different strategies depending on which route Thursday October 22 2015 their audience will likely take Credibility is necessary for the central route Attractiveness superficial things are more important for the peripheral route 4 a What are some societal concerns with advertising Exposure to advertising leads to materialism Makes us feel like we need more stuff Also increases unhappiness There is more stuff that we want that we don t have b Are advertisements aimed at children deceptive any ads that target children is by its nature deceptive Kids do not have the cognitive ability to understand persuasive intent As adults we understand ads are trying to sell us on their product their views are biased Younger children can t take another person s perspective they are very egocentric c What is the difference between visual and social perspectives Visual perspective is easier than social perspective when a kid can understand that what they see is different from what you see they can understand visual perspective But it is much harder to understand social perspective where it is much harder to understand what other people are thinking and feeling They can t understand that commercials have a different point of view d Why might subconscious persuasion make us feel uncomfortable The idea that are behavior are purchasing decisions are effected by processes outside of our control This is uncomfortable for us we like to believe we have control of ourselves and what we do