HK 366 Exam 2 Study Guide
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shelby Marie on Tuesday January 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HK 366 at a university taught by Dr. Ruiz in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 384 views.
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Date Created: 01/13/15
Ruiz Fall 2014 HK 366 Study Guide for Exam 2 Tuesday November 4th Important note This document is intended to be a guide only and MAY NOT include everything you might see on exam 2 You re strongly encouraged to study all material covered in class until now including PPT slides chapters covered in class videos and any speci c papersstudies discussed in class 0 Identify the levels TRA TPB and social cognitive theories operate at eg individual interpersonal 0 TRA and TPB are individual 0 Social cognitive theories are interpersonal 0 Define and be able to identify examples of key constructs within theory of reasoned action TRA theory of planned behavior TPB and social cognitive theory 0 TRA constructs I Attitudes and components behavioral beliefs evaluationvalue placed on outcome I Subjective norms and components normative beliefs and motivation to comply I Behavioral intention 0 TPB constructs I All of the TRA constructs and perceived behavioral control and components control beliefs and perceived power 0 Social cognitive theory I Reciprocal determinism continuous interaction among characteristics of a person behavior of that person and the environment in which the behavior is performed can39t just target the individual for change but have to target environment as well 0 Hard to test the validity of this I Not been empirically evaluated I Outcome expectations person learns that certain events are likely to occur in response to behavior in certain situations and then expects them to occur when that situation occurs 0 Ex Youth learn to expect from others that smoking can be fun or exciting or that they will look grown up from engaging in that behavior 0 In order to make this positive in an intervention you should model positive outcomes of health behavior I Learned four ways 0 Previous experience 0 Observing others Vicarious learning 0 Hearing about the situations from other people 0 Emotional or physical responses to behaviors I Selfefficacy and collective efficacy confidence a person feels to perform a specific activity or to overcome barriers to engage in behavior beliefs about ability of a group to perform certain actions that will bring desired outcomes 0 Approach behavior in small steps to ensure success 0 Be very specific about behavior changes that are sought Ruiz Fall 2014 0 Four areas of in uence 0 Mastery experience engaging in an activity and interpreting the results experience of performance mastery is strongest in uence on selfefficacy belief O Vicarious experience of social modeling important to those who have doubts about their ability or have limited experience trying to do so good situation to use modeling so people can see that others like them can do the task 0 Physiological states both physical and emotional your moods can in uence your confidence level in a certain task 0 Social persuasion or verbal persuasion occurs when we hear others make comments regarding our behaviors you can do it I Observational learning vicarious learning more efficient than operant individual observes others engaging in the behavior and can see rewards and penalties involved I Selfregulationselfcontrol personal regulation of goal directed behavior or performance 0 Six ways to achieve it 0 Selfmonitoring systematic observation of one39s behavior Goal setting incremental changes Feedback getting info about quality of one39s performance Selfreward providing rewards to yourself Selfinstruction talking yourself through complex behavior 0 Enlisting social support I Incentive motivation through the provision of rewards or punishments for desiredundesired behaviors 0 Ex Laws have punitive or unintended effects and taxes that can deter the onset of tobacco use I Facilitation provision of resources and recognizes the environmental barriers to behavior change 0 Provision of free condoms as part of an HIV risk reduction program I Moral engagement people disengage from selfregulatory moral standards by thinking about harmful behaviors and the people who would be harmed in ways that make these behaviors acceptable 0 O O O I Can in uence people in terms of using aggression or committing corporate transgressions 0 Differentiate between TRA and TPB what is different about these two theories 0 TPB added in perceived behavioral control I Addresses the degree to which someone believes they have control over whether they can take the action and the strength of that belief 0 Why was TPB developed 0 Was developed to address situations that were outside of the person39s control 0 Someone could have a behavioral intention but still not be able to do the behavior 0 TPB addresses perceived behavioral control Ruiz Fall 2014 0 Describe or recognize how the constructs within TRA and TPB are linked together to predict health behaviors might help to refer to diagrams in Powerpoints 0 Know what is the strongest or most proximal predictor of behavior within the TRA and TPB O Behavioral intention 0 Definition and examples of referents what s the relevant theoretical construct 0 Based off of subjective norm which is a construct of TPB and TRA O Referents are the significant people in one39s life that in uence someone to decide whether or not they should or shouldn39t perform a behavior I Normative beliefs beliefs regarding whether important referents approve or disapprove of performing the behavior I Motivation to comply person39s motivation to comply with particular referents 0 Elicitation interviews be able to describe what they are and the purpose of doing them 0 A key step used in the TRA 0 Uses the theory to conduct a program or intervention 0 Purpose is to identify relevant behavioral outcomes and referents for each behavior and population being studied 0 Recruit a sample that has half people who have engaged in behavior and half people who haven39t 0 Ask two types of questions relevant to attitudes and subject I Describe positive or negative outcomes associated with behavior I Describe individuals whom they listen to referents who would oppose or support behavior 0 Define Healthy People 2020 What is it What is it used for 0 Definition set of goals and objectives with 10year targets designed to guide national health promotion and disease prevention efforts to improve the health of all people in the US 0 5 main missions I Identify nationwide health improvement priorities I Increase public awareness and understanding of determinants of health disease and disability and the opportunities for progress I Provide measureable objectives and goals that are applicable at the national state and local levels I Engage multiple sectors to take actions to strengthen policies and improve practices that are driven by the best available evidence and knowledge I Identify critical research evaluation and data collection needs 0 Organized into 42 topic areas with corresponding objectives I Ex increase routine vaccination coverage levels for adolescents by giving 3 doses of HPV vaccine for females by age 13 to 15 years of age 0 Reasons why adolescent health is important 0 Young people are more likely to adopt and maintain safe sexual behaviors than are older people with wellestablished habits 0 Youth are excellent candidates for prevention efforts 0 Will result in fewer infections among all age groups 0 Critical period of human development Ruiz Fall 2014 Define environment and situation and be able to describe how the constructs incentive motivation and facilitation are environmental factors that can in uence behaviors 0 Environment objective factors external to person that can affect behavior 0 Situation person39s perception of environment 0 Incentive motivation involves punishment or rewards to reinforce or inhibit desired or undesired behaviors laws with high taxes on alcohol and tobacco O Facilitation involves providing of resources that enable behavior or make them easier to perform I recognizes the environmental barriers to behavior change providing free condoms as part of HIV risk program Understand be able to recognize different types of intervention strategies based on SCT constructs e g strategies to increase selfefficacy If given a specific survey item see surveys reviewed in class and in your readings be able to recognize what construct a scale has been designed to measure e g to determine Attitudes towards vaccinating daughters who were 915 years old mothers were asked whether HPV vaccinating is 9 639 necessary 1s a good idea and is beneficial Readings l 2 Relevant sections of Edberg include parts of chapters 4 and 5 e g on TRA TPB and social cognitive theory Askelson N M Campo S Lowe J B Dennis L K Smith S amp Andsager J 2010 Factors Related to Physicians39 Willingness to Vaccinate Girls Against HPV The Importance of Subjective Norms and Perceived Behavioral Control Women amp Health 502 144158 a Type of study observational Setting rural Midwest Iowa Overall health problem HPV Focus behavior vaccinate Constructs i To assess attitudes didn39t in uence intentions I asked if it was a good idea beneficial and protected women from cervical cancer ii To assess subjective norms important I asking about physician willingness to adhere to the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices most people who are important to me think I should vaccinate according to the recommendations it is expected of me that I will vaccinate against HPV according to the recommendations the people in my profession whose opinions I value would want me to vaccinate patients according to the recommendations iii To assess perceived behavioral control important I asked physicians if vaccinating patients was impossible whether it was up to them to vaccinate if the cost prevented physicians from vaccinating and if parents prevent physicians from vaccinating iv High rates of intention were found f Target population physicians practicing medicine in the states family practice physicians general practice physicians and pediatricians 0909 Ruiz Fall 2014 3 Askelson N M Campo S Lowe J B Smith S Dennis L K amp Andsager J 2010 Using the theory of planned behavior to predict mothers intentions to vaccinate their daughters against HPV The Journal of School Nursing 263 194202 a Type of study observational Setting rural Midwest state Overall health problem HPV Focus behavior vaccinate Constructs given on a Likert 7point scale format 7 being most favorable i To assess intention I asked how likely they were to have their 915 year old daughter vaccinated and at what age they would vaccinate ii To assess subjective norms important I asked to rate how much they agreed with each statement most people who are important to me think I should vaccinate my daughter it is expected of me that I will vaccinate my daughter the people in my life whose opinions I value would want me to vaccinate my daughter iii To assess attitude important I asked whether vaccinating is necessary good idea and is beneficial iv To assess perceived behavioral control didn39t in uence intentions for me vaccinating my daughter against HPV is possible if I wanted to get my daughter vaccinated in the next 6 months it would be easy how much control do you have over your daughter to get vaccinated it is mostly up to me whether or not my daughter gets vaccinated the cost is a barrier to my daughter getting vaccinated f Target population mother39s who had daughters between 915 wanted to figure out their intentions to vaccinate their daughters 4 McNeill L H Wyrwich K W Brownson R C Clark E M amp Kreuter M W 2006 Individual social environmental and physical environmental in uences on physical activity among 9906 black and white adults a structural equation analysis Annals of Behavioral Medicine 311 3644 a Purpose of study to examine direct and indirect effects of individual social environmental and physical environmental factors on physical activity b Population 910 AfricanAmerican and White lower and middleincome adults between ages 1864 c Study description participants were recruited from waiting rooms in Missouri public health centers They were asked to complete a selfadministered survey assessing their current physical activity level and other SCT constructs surrounding exercise d Constructs i Selfefficacy measured with 7item scale to rate confidence level on a 5 point Likert scale from 1 disagree to 5 agree Questions regarded being physically active when tired or busy during bad weather feeling sick having sore muscles and recovering from an injury ii Motivation 18item scale comprised of 3 subscales regarding physical activity Participants responded using 5point Likert scale iii Social environment 6item scale measuring emotional and informational support using a 5point Likert scale Ruiz Fall 2014 iv Physical environment 7item scale comprised of 2 subscales measuring availability of physical activity facilities and neighborhood quality on a 4point Likert scale v Environmental factors neighborhood quality and access to facilities e Results perceptions of the physical environment had direct effects on physical activity Self efficacy was the strongest correlation of physical activity and a positive doseresponse relationship was shown between selfefficacy and intensity of physical activity Anderson ES Winett RA amp Wojcik R 2000 Socialcognitive determinants of nutrition behavior among supermarket food shoppers A structural equation analysis Health Psychology 195 479486 a Type of study observational Population supermarket shoppers in southwest Virginia Setting supermarkets in southwest Virginia Overall health problem nutrition and diet that contribute to obesity or morbiditymortality Focus behavior reducing poor food choices Constructs i Self efficacy measured using a 10point Likert scale quothow certain are you that you W999 can quot strongest factor on nutrition behavior ii Outcome expectations physical social and selfevaluative outcome expectations measured quotwhat would happen if you ate and served your family a healthy diet every dayquot 5point Likert scale physical outcome expectations were stronger than others Anderson ES Winett RA Wojcik RJ Winnett SG amp Bowden T 2001 A computerized social cognitive intervention for nutrition nutrition behavior Direct and mediated effects on fat fiber fruits and vegetables selfefficacy and outcome expectations among food shoppers Annals of Behavioral Medicine 232 88100
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