HK 366 Exam 1 Study Guide
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shelby Marie on Tuesday January 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HK 366 at a university taught by Dr. Ruiz in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 580 views.
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Date Created: 01/13/15
Ruiz Fall 2014 HK 366 Study Guide for Exam 1 Important note This document is intended to be a guide only and MAY NOT include everything you might see on the 1st midterm exam You re strongly encouraged to study all material covered in class until now including PPT slides chapters covered in class and any speci c papersstudies discussed in class 0 Be able to describe the dimensions of health Understand how they are related to each other Be able to recognize examples of each 0 Physical keeping your body healthy wearing a seatbelt eating a healthy diet wearing sunscreen o Emotional behaviors that enhance our mentalemotional well being expressing feelings in an appropriate manner making good decisions setting personal limits 0 Intellectual one39s ability to learn and use information learn new skills engage in intellectual growth and having an open mind to new ideas read take classes learn new things talk to new people that are different from them 0 Social the way you interact with others good communication skills cultivate a healthy support network work well with others 0 Spiritual a person has a set of principles that guide life believe life has a purpose forgive others altruistic have hope in the face of adversity 0 Environmental keeping the environment in which we live healthy so that we can be healthy not littering polluting the air etc 0 Financial your ability to manage your finances and live within your means not over spending money on things that you cannot afford 0 Understand rationale for focusing on health behaviors in public health and health promotion 0 There has been a huge shift in the past 100 years from infectious disease to chronic diseases a This is mainly caused by people39s behaviors and choices 0 This is why it is so important to try to intervene within specific behaviors so that we can change to promote healthy new behaviors 0 Have a good understanding of the types of factors in uencing development of diseases and chronic conditions 0 Social determinants of health SDH conditions in which people are born grow live work and age 39 Genes and biology physical environment clinical care social and economic factors health behaviors 0 Biggest determinants of health are social and economic factors 40 and health behaviors 30 0 Career pressures Sedentary lifestyles High density population living Poor diet Crime Drugs 00000 Ruiz Fall 2014 Gangs Poverty Pollution Fear Stress Economic struggles 000000 Understand trends in important diseases in US over past 100 years or so 0 Current leading causes of death in the US I Heart disease I Cancer I Chronic lower respiratory diseases I Stroke 0 Diseases such as TB and pneumonia have drastically decreased over the past 100 years but diseases such as cancer and heart disease have drastically increased a A huge shift from infectious diseases to chronic diseases as leading causes of death 0 Many of the leading causes of death are caused by things that we have control over I The diseases are affected by the choices that we make I Individuals are largely in control of their own health problems Definitions of overweight and obesity and trends in obesity in US during past 1520 years 0 Obesity medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health leading to reduced life expectancy andor increased health problems I BMI of 30 or higher 0 Overweight BMI of 25 or higher 0 Trends I Increasing dramatically I In 1990 no state had a prevalence equal to or greater than 15 I In 2000 no state had a prevalence equal to or greater than 25 I In 2010 no state had a prevalence equal to or greater than 30 0 Many are overweight and even more are becoming obese 0 US is number 1 in the world for the highest numbers of obeseoverweight people Be able to identify settings for health education and health promotion programs 0 Hospitals 0 Clinics 0 Schools 0 Fitness centers 0 Workplace Understand dimensions along which target audiences can be defined e g sociodemographic characteristics etc o Sociodemographic characteristics age gender etc a Race and ethnicity 0 Life cycle stage 0 Disease or at risk status Ruiz Fall 2014 I Be able to define and recognize examples of health behaviors and things that are not health behaviors 0 Health behaviors actions of individuals groups organizations as well as their determinants correlates and consequences I Be able to define and recognize key attributes of theory e g abstract in nature a Theory set of interrelated concepts definitions and propositions that present systematic view of events or situations by specifying relations among variables in order to explain and predict the events or situations 0 Terminology I Concepts building blocks of theories I Constructs concepts used in specific theories I Variables operational forms of constructs define the way a construct is to be measured in a specific situation I Models may draw on the number of theories to help understand problems in a specific setting or context aren39t always as specific as theories 0 Why is behavior theory important 0 They provide a general explanation of why people do or do not act to maintain their own health 0 Allows researchers to investigate why who what and how 0 Provide us a roadmap so that we can answer why who what and how 0 Three phases of health promotion during which theory is used e g planning 0 Implementing 0 Evaluating programs and interventions o Explaining behavior and suggest specific ways in which behavior change can be accomplished I Be able to recognize the three types of studies in which behavioral theories are used or tested e g measurement etc 0 Measurement testing theoretical constructs o Observational examining determinants of behaviors such as PA diet tobacco use 0 Intervention guiding strategy development I Be able to understand that there are multiple levels of in uence on health behaviors some of which may not be motivated or in uenced by health concerns For example health behavior may be in uenced by social or personal goals that have nothing to do with health 0 Social or personal goals 0 Socioeconomic circumstances 0 Environmental conditions a Public policies and regulations 0 Ecological Model 0 Two key points I Behavior is affected by and affects multiple levels of in uence 0 Individuals39 choices are thought to be in uenced by one39s previous experiences other people social norms and environments at work schools communities etc Ruiz Fall 2014 I Possibility of reciprocal causation 0 Environmental factors affect individuals and groups but they can also in uence their environment to regulate their own behavior 0 Multiple interventions or strategies at multiple levels are often needed to initiate and sustain behavior change a If many factors shape and motivate behavior as it relates to health we can say that for any given health issue that there is an ecology of behavior 0 Behavioral ecology might include factors I Close to individual intrapersonal I Related to social groups interpersonal I Related to community society and culture physical environment a For each of the ecological levels there are theories that correspond Be able to understand how to apply social ecologicalecological models to obesity physical activity and violence and recognize examples of factors that might affect these outcomes at the individual social and environmental levels 0 Obesity example I Individual factors 9 genetics food preferences attitudes and beliefs knowledge about risk I Social factors 9 interpersonal processes social relationships social status and connection to diet I Cultural factors 9 shared beliefs or values related to food images of ideal body social role of eating I Environmental factors 9 encourage overconsumption of food discourage physical activity availabilitycost of healthy food or exercise options Be able to define recognize examples of conceptual models and be able to distinguish conceptual models from theory 0 Conceptual model diagram of proposed causal linkages among set of concepts believed to be related to a public health problem 0 Different from a theory I Not concerned with global classes of behavior but with specific behaviors in specific contexts 0 You would develop a conceptual model for a specific health behavior or healthrelated outcome Cure Violence Cease Fire 0 Effective broad community approach to preventing and reducing gang violence 0 Approaches violence as an infectious disease a Tries to interrupt the next event the next transmission or next violent activity a Targets a small population 9 members of the community with a high chance of being shot or being shooters in the near future Uses a threeprong approach I Detection and interruption where to concentrate efforts focus resources and intervene in violence identifies communities most impacted and provides a picture of those individuals at the highest risk for violence 0 Ruiz Fall 2014 I Behavior change intervenes in crises mediates disputes between individuals and intercedes in group disputes to prevent violent events counsel clients I Changing community norm works to change the thinking on violence at the community level and for society at large through the use of public education communitybuilding activities and motivational interviewing with the highest risk 0 Decision alternatives I Wanted to provide situation specific alternatives to shooting I Violence interrupters and changing community norms I Promoted truces and negotiated I Harm reduction was seen as a successful outcome 0 Norm change I Defined range of behavior that is normally acceptable and drew some limits outside of which people are not supposed to stray I Encourage local debates over what people will and won39t accept I Marches rallies prayer vigils 0 Risk and cost enhancement I Incarceration injury and death I Emphasized the social risks of involvement 9 potential impact of violence on the families and other gang members I Posits that shooting will be reduced through more widespread realization of the direct human costs of violence Understand relevance of context even when using individuallevel health behavior theories such as the health belief model discussed during HBM lecture 0 Important to still remember context 0 Example I An adolescent39s decision to have sex is likely to be in uenced by the cues they receive from other young people in their social circle at school in their neighborhood etc Understand history behind the development of the health belief model HBM for example developed by social psychologists trying to understand why individuals did not participate in certain type of screening 0 People will engage in healthy behavior if they value the outcome related to the behavior being healthy and if they think that the behavior is likely to result in that outcome 0 Oldest of the individual behavioral theories and most widely used 0 A TB screening station was set up and was free but not many people came I This is how this theory was developed 0 Based on motivation of the individuals Be able to define what is meant by valueexpectancy theory discussed in HBM lecture o Refers to the assumption that people will engage in healthy behavior if I They value the outcome being healthy related to the behavior I They think the behavior is likely to result in that outcome Be able to define key constructs within HBM recognize examples of those constructs and understand how constructs work together to predict someone engaging in certain health behavior 0 CONSTRUCTS Ruiz Fall 2014 I Perceived susceptibility I Perceived severity I Perceived benefits of an action I Perceived barriers to taking that action I Cues to action were needed as direct motivation I Selfefficacy a persons belief in his or her ability to take the action 0 Using the following example I She thinks she is susceptible to the specific health problem the behavior will prevent believes she is potentially at risk I She thinks that the health problem is severe if she gets it there will be severe consequences I She thinks that taking preventative action will do some good perceived benefits in taking that good action I She thinks that there aren39t too many negative consequences if she takes that action the perceived barriers are low I Something happens that gives her a push to act a friend is diagnosed with the disease she sees something on TV about it etc I She believes she is capable of taking the action she has the skills will etc to do it o In order to make it successful don39t just go by the constructs I Must do research and target your program the theory and the people you are trying to help I These theories are tools guidelines and frameworks to help you develop an effective program I Tweak the theory to reach your target population Be able to define and recognize examples of positive reinforcement negative reinforcement and punishment Dr Hyner s lecture 0 Go over the notes for 9112014 Be able to define and recognize examples of key constructs within TTM o For each stage of the model different things are going on and different behavioral theories are applicable by stage I If someone is in the decision making stage TPB or HBM might be applicable 0 STAGES I Precontemplation person does not intend to take action don39t know there is a problem with what they are doing want to increase awareness of need for change and concern about current pattern of behavior amp envision possibility of change I Contemplation person is thinking about changing sometime in the future weighing pros and cons can take some time not yet ready to take action decisional balance weighing pros and cons careful evaluation that leads to a decision to change amp decisionmaking I Preparation person is ready to do something and intends to change intend to act soon and have some kind of plan or idea about what they want to do use Ruiz Fall 2014 programs that provide action steps in this stage want to increase commitment and create change plan that is acceptable accessible and effective I Action person has taken action recently towards a change want to implement strategies for change revise plan as needed and sustain commitment in face of difficulties I Maintenance person has made a significant change in their behavior in terms of health risk and is now focused on keeping that behavior change going requires serious work want to sustain change over time and across a wide range of difficult situations I Termination person in this stage has completed the process of behavior change bad habit is no longer a part of person39s behavior anymore not typical to get to this stage most people stay in maintenance stage key construct in this stage is the issue of selfefficacy in maintenance stage people are developing their self efficacy and when they reach termination they HAVE full selfefficacy Be able to recognize a person s stage of change if given a specific survey item see surveys reviewed in class 0 Do you exercise regularly according to this definition I Yes I have been for MORE than 6 months I Yes I have been for LESS than 6 months I No but I intend to in the next 30 days I No but I intend to in the next 6 months I No and I do NOT intend to in the next 6 months Be able to define and recognize examples of the 10 cognitive and behavioral processes of change understand the stages at which certain processes of change are more relevant For example consciousnessraising is most relevant for people who are in precontemplation O Consciousness raising increased awareness about causes consequences and cures for problem behavior use feedback confrontations and media campaigns Dramatic relief produces heightened emotions followed by reduced affect or anticipated relief if person takes action roleplaying personal testimonies health risk feedback media campaigns Selfreevaluation assessment of one39s selfimage with and without an unhealthy behavior such as one39s image as couch potato and active person clarification having healthy role models guided imagery Environmental reevaluation affective and cognitive assessment of how the absence or presence of one39s behavior affects others such as the impact of one39s smoking on others documentaries testimonials family interventions Selfliberation belief one can change and commitment to change new year39s resolutions and public testimonies Helping relationships building caring trust support with others as a way to support behavior change counselor calls buddy systems Counterconditioning learning healthier behaviors that can replace unhealthy ones relaxation nicotine replacement positive selfstatements Ruiz Fall 2014 o Reinforcement or contingency management provide positive consequences for taking steps toward behavior change incentives group recognition 0 Stimulus control removing cues for unhealthy behaviors and adds prompts for healthier alternatives avoidance environmental reengineering and self help groups a Social liberation requires increase in social opportunities or alternatives important for those who are deprived or depressed advocacy empowerment techniques and healthful policies Be able to recognize target populations key constructs outcomes findings from 2 papers discussed in class 0 Study done on school age children in Thailand to try to determine why they had such a low level of physical activity crosssectional study using questionnaires I Target population primary school students in Thailand ages 9 I Key constructs perceived benefits perceived barriers and cues to action I Outcomes significantly in uenced by perceived barriers but not as heavily in uenced by cues to action or perceived benefits Perceived benefits same for boys and girls a To be healthy to be strong and to make me happy Perceived barriers 0 Boys fear of strangers bad weather being tired 0 Girls too much homework bad weather fear of strangers Cues to action same for boys and girls 0 Being told that physical activity is good for health 0 Having a sports field or space to play 0 Parental encouragement 0 Study sought to identify variables associated with being in a particular stage of change for physical activity used survey questions to measure stage of change I Precontemplation no intention to engage in physical activity I Contemplation intention to engage in physical activity within the next 6 months I Preparation if they engaged in some physical activity on an irregular basis or if they were regularly active but not for 30 minutes per day5 days a week I Action exercise 30 minutes a day for more than 5 days a week less than 6 months I Maintenance exercise 30 minutes a day for more than 5 days a week more than 6 months I Results A lot of people were in the maintenance stage with preparation being next then contemplation then Precontemplation then action
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