ANTH 212 Exam 1 Study Guide
ANTH 212 Exam 1 Study Guide ANTH 212
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shelby Marie on Tuesday January 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 212 at Purdue University taught by Rowe in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 250 views. For similar materials see Culture, Food and Health in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 01/13/15
ANTH 212 Quiz 1 Review Multiple choice TF and short answer can list things or answer with a few sentences Make sure you look at readings stuff from the textbook videos etc August 27 0 Body ritual among the nicirema and no heads no feet no monkeys and no dogs 0 What is anthropology A discipline that investigates the nature and causes of human variation and those aspects of life that are common to all of humanity Study of human biological and cultural diversity through time and space 0 What are the four sub elds of anthropology Biologicalphysical Cultural Linguistic Archaeology 0 How do anthropologists study culture different methodogies Holism studying all aspects of humans Culture Culture relativism no culture is superior to any other culture Evolution 0 What do we learn about Philippine cuisine from no heads no feet no monkeys no dogs Chicken noodle soup with chicken heads in it Lechon BBQing a pig prestigious Dinuguan pig intestines cooked in pig blood Pulutan finger foods to be eaten while drinking Dogs are considered a delicacy Monkeys o How does body ritual among the nacirema illustrate why cultural relativism is important SHORT ANSWER They did things that would be considered weird in the US culture such as possessing shrines had magical potions medicine men and rituals with their teeth and mouths By taking a cultural relativism standpoint on this we are able to understand why they do some of the things that they do 0 Terms use medical anthropology book 0 August 29 Participant observation actually a part of the group Informants people being interviewed or talked to Qualitative vs quantitative qualitative is categorical and quantitative is numerical Ethnography producing a written account of the qualitative research you39ve received Emic in a culture looking outward harder of the two Etic looking at a culture from the outside in o No thanks I don39t eat meat 0 How does Argentinian heritage in uence their eating habits They are beefcentric Cattle reproduced signi cantly and really ourished in the area making them readily available their early settlers brought cattle to the area Argentinian cowboys tended to the cattle The way that the cattle were cooked and prepared made it easy to continue the tradition for people who aren39t Argentinian cowboys 0 What39s the difference between proximate and ultimate explanations for traits sickle cell anemia and malaria examples Proximate the most immediate explanations for a trait Genetics Infections 0 Diet 0 Exercise Upbringing Socialcultural factors Ultimate explanations that use evolution or nature to explain a trait 0 Evolution 0 Nature Darwin39s Theory of Natural Selection 0 What must be true about a trait in order for it to evolve by natural selection a couple of criteriavariation for a trait heritability differential reproductive success Variation Variation must be heritable Differential reproductive success tiny dog in a litter has reduced differential reproductive success because it39s bigger siblings makes it harder for the dog to get to the food rabbits with slower running speeds are eaten by predators and their traits are not passed onto the next generation 0 Terms Asado Argentinian BBQ Differential reproductive success organisms with traits that better suit their environment are more likely to survive and pass those traits onto other generations September 3 O 0 MA chapter 1 What are proximate explanations for sickle cell anemia Genetics l hemoglobin shape red blood cell shape l sickle cell anemia What is an ultimate explanation for sickle cell anemia In areas where Malaria is highly present such as middle area of Africa the sickle cell trait can protect them highly against Malaria which is why natural selection and evolution hasn39t gotten rid of the sickle cell trait Natural selection promotes sicklecell genes where malaria is endemic How was the eld of medical anthropology created When the WHO was created anthropologists were hired to to help understand and break down cultural barriers to health promotion campaigns and craft new ones that would be more effective What are the 3 theoretical approaches used by medical anthropologists and what is an example of each Ethnomedical systems biomedicine Political economy state mandated ultrasounds during pregnancy Interpretivesymbolic lady acting crazy in the picture What are some examples of how a biocultural approach can be effective in understanding disease With slash and burn agricultureincreased malarial infection so increased rates of sickle cell trait Ebola is a zoonotic disease passed between animals and humans zoonotic diseases are transmitted through the Bushmeat trade killing bats and selling them for money and the bats have Ebola and give it to people who eat them Terms Selective pressures be able to recognize something from a list any reason for organisms with certain phenotypes to have either a survival bene t or disadvantage ex Strong sunlight favors darker skinned people environmental conditions availability of food and energy sources predators diseases etc Sickle cell anemia body makes sickle cell shaped red blood cells crescent shaped stiff and sticky and can block blood ow hemoglobin and iron can39t bind correctly to the RBC Sickle cell trait when a person has one copy of a sickle cell allele Malaria caused by getting bit by an infected mosquito parasites multiply rapidly in liver and RBC and can invade organs Endemic constant steady state at which disease is present Hemoglobin iron containing oxygen transport in the RBCs Biomedicine branch of medical science that applies biological and other principles to clinical practice biology and physiology the form of medicine that developed out of the scienti c tradition in 18th century Europe it views disease as having a unique biological cause within the body Slash and burn agriculture ultimate explanation for sickle cell anemia cutting and burning of plants in forests or woodlands to create elds that are fertilized Ebola how can a medical anthropology focus be used to explain this look above Zoonotic disease transmitted between humans and animals Bushmeat refers to meat from nondomesticated mammals reptiles amphibians etc hunted for food in tropical forests Septermber 5 O 0 EC chapter 1 What anatomical evidence supports the idea that primates are omnivores Our teeth and digestive system How is the dietary plasticity permitted by omnivory advantageous for primates It allows us to live in many different environments What is an explanation for the fact that primates must consume vitamin C while other mammals can make it on their own Primates have large complex brains relative to their body sizes they need more glucose to support neurological functions and don39t want to have to worry about the fact that all of their glucose is being used towards just producing vitamin C Which came rst in human evolution big brains or bipedalism bipedalism Bipedalism because at rst we were vegetarian and didn39t require as much energy but when we began walking on 2 feet we required more energy and began eating meat What do we know about what quotLucyquot an australopithecine ate and how do we know it She ate a lot of plants or leaves She had huge molars and heavy bones in herjaw Thick heavy bones which insinuated that she probably had thick and heavy muscles Her whole mouth was just a lot bigger than ours currently How was Homo erectus different from australopithecines anatomically Larger body size and brain More developed brains What do we know about what Homo erectus ate Began eating meat and bone marrow because of the larger body and brain size What39s the quotexpensive tissuequot hypothesis Brains are an expensive tissue and must be supplied lots of energy to function with higherorder reasoning Hence why brains got bigger and meat also began being consumed more energy Terms Dietary reconstruction a whole new diet Isotopic analysis ways we can reconstruct diets can detect dietary changes in organisms trace nutritional sources and identify the origins and migratory movements of wildlife Artifacts ways we can reconstruct diets we can look back and see what kind of tools and things were used sharp tools made from wood etc September 8 0 EC Chapter 6 o How did Neandertals differ from earlier human ancestors such as australopithecines and Homo erectus Lived in very cold environments Associated with sophisticated stone tools that would require a lot of skill and creativity Big game hunters based on the tools they used mammoths and reindeer Also used re Brains were bigger than ours Very big boned and muscular but were shorter than us 0 What did Neandertals eat Big game like reindeer and mammoths o What did Homo sapiens eat Horses 0 How do Andaman lslanders de ne prestige and non prestige food items The most prestigious foods were those that were rare and dangerous to catch like the dugong The most nonprestigious foods were those that were most easily acquired shell sh and were eaten when there was nothing else 0 What food groups are ritually pure or impure in Islam and Judaism 0 Terms Paleolithic diet Juhuaansi people of Africa had this diet and were relatively healthy which is why others adopted it lean proteins with fruits and vegetables also healthy fats from nuts seeds etc Humoral system way of classifying foods blood AIR hot moist spring and sanguine con dent and hopeful yellow bile FIRE hot and dry summer and choleric and irritablepassionate phlegm WATER cold and moist winter and phlegmatic and sluggish indifferent and calm black bile EARTH cold and dry autumn and melancholy and sad and pensive Halalharam Muslim halal are permitted foods such as coffee pita hummus chicken goats and seafood haram are not permitted such as pork products and alcohol Kosherterif Judaism kosher are permitted foods like alcohol sh only with scales and ns chicken goats cows hummus and pita terif are not permitted such as pork products hamburgers pizza seafood anything that crawls on ground no meat and milk in the same meal hence why no pizza or hamburger Caste system who can eat what types of food social strati cation meets ritual purity had to eat food that was produced of someone from your social class or higher if not considered ritually impure September 10 O 0 EC Chapter 6 How do religious calendars de ne when to fast and when to feast and what are some examples Religious calendars determine important dates for fasting and feasting How you get your food also determines how and when you eat Fasting and feasts Ramadan Yom Kippur and Eidul Fitr How do cultural norms shape what is considered to be a proper meal and what are some examples Proper English breakfast baked beans eggs bacon etc Rice is always in Thailand for every meal Prestigious vs non prestigious food items saffron vs turmeric How is the Italian Feast of the Seven Fishes an example of a rite of intensi cation A rite of intensi cation is a ritual or ceremony associated with periodic events affecting a societal group as a whole Comes from the Catholic tradition of abstaining from eating meat or milk products during important times of the year speci cally on Christmas eve How is making piki bread a rite of passage for Hopi women Rite of passage is making a transition from one stage of life or status to another Make the piki bread when they become women What are the different types of reciprocity and what is an example of each Generalized sharing with others but not expecting an immediate return parents feeding their children Balanced you give something and expect something back in the next couple of days hunter brings back animal to eat and shares so others will share with him when the time comes Redistribution one group gives away a lot of their stuff pot latch shows your power and generosity Market exchange buying and selling goods and services US economy 0 De ne each of the three bodies social individual and body politic and give an example of eachcan use pregnancy to use each Individual individual experience of health and sickness Social bodies are affected by social life Body politic political and economic decisions made around us 0 Terms Ramadan 9th month on calendar in Islam fasting EidulFitr end of Ramadan give gifts to poor and celebrate Yom Kippur Jewish holiday of fasting Shrove Tuesday precedes Ash Wednesday and people consume pancakes Saffron prestigious food prestigious in India Turmeric nonprestigious food not as great Seder beginning ofJewish Passover feast Rites of intensi cation a ritual or ceremony associated with periodic events affecting a societal group as a whole Tamil Brahmins September 12 MA Chapter 2 How do the ways that we respond to cold or heat stress demonstrate adaptability vasoconstriction and dilation thermal regulation 0 0 Our bodies respond to changes in our environment by thermoregulation our body being able to maintain a certain body temperature vasodilation occurs when body is too hot helps to release that extra heat vasoconstriction occurs when body is too cold helps body to hold that extra heat How do the ways that we respond to high altitude hypoxia demonstrate adaptability We have more RBC39s circulating around increased capillary volume reduced hemoglobin stickiness Our body adapts to the environment by making changes that will better increase chances of survival Terms Mortality death rates Infant mortality death rate for infants under 1 Morbidity illness rates for a speci c disease Incidence number of people who BECOME sick with a particular illness within any given period of time new cases Prevalence the number of people who are sick at any given time with a particular disease new existing and reoccurring cases Epidemic community state region spread Pandemic epidemics that are global Selective pressures ex Climate disease to organisms members of own social group which they are competing with sickle cell anemia protecting against malaria Thermoregulation ability of organisms to keep their body temperature within a certain range Vasoconstriction when body is too cold blood vessels constrict and retain that extra heat within the body Vasodilation when body is too hot blood vessels dilate and release that extra heat within the body 0 September 15 0 MA Chapter 3 o What are some examples of pluralism in biomedicine Pluralism is the fact that there may be a dominate culture and several types of sub cultures For instance US has physicians who are prestigious but also barbersurgeons who are not so prestigious o What are some examples of pluralism in medical systems in the US In the US we have chiropractors osteopathic medicine etc o What are some examples of the ways that one can become a healer in different cultures African American Spiritualist healers born under a cau birth order dreams and visions US white coat ceremony 0 Terms Barbersurgeons people who practiced surgery in the Medieval times in Europe physicians just observed and consulted patients but barber surgeons actually performed the procedures Chiropractic diagnose treat and prevent disorders of the neuromusculoskeletal system Osteopathic medicine focus on joints and bones to treat health issues H39iloletik healer in zinacanteco mexico Txiv neeb healer in Hmong Asian ethnic group Caul remnant of the amniotic sac that could be xed to the baby39s head quotwhite coat ceremonyquot US way of creating a healer nocebo substance or treatment that you believe will make you sick has nothing that will actually do so but it ends up making you sick placebo you think it39ll help you so it does Curandero or curandera treat patients in Mexico that have susto or depression and quotsweepquot their soul back into their body Susto disease with fatigue and lethargy and life doesn39t have meaning soul is disengaged from body similar to our depression Ayurvedic medicine food spices and herbs that have a strong potency and are used to treat people with disease and disorders Ethnopharmacology western biomedicine trying to understand how herbs and spices are used for medicinal reasons Betel nut type of tree that people chew on similar to chewing tobacco Coca leaf what cocaine is derived from mild stimulant effect when tea is made or chewed less stimulating than caffiene Ayahuasca plant that is used to make daime Daime made from ayahuasca very psychoactive can make you vomit take it ritually to interact with spirit world Acupuncture from China stimulation of speci c points along the skin of the body Meridians the path through which the lifeenergy known as Qi flows Qi the life energy that ows through the body Syncretism incorporating multiple traditions together num tchai will dance and chant for hours to try to heal September 17 0 MA chapter 3 you are what you eat o How do cultural beliefs shape funerary rituals Rituals are determined by beliefs about what happens when you die 0 How do cultural practices surrounding death and dying shape health care practices stem cell and transplantation In Japan Shinto funerals last several days which make transplantation hard since you need the organs immediately after someone dies Don39t agree with the fact that you are taking a body part from someone you don39t even know 0 Terms Sky burials in Tibet don39t believe much happens after you die body no longer serves a purpose so might as well nourish other organisms leave people39s bodies out on mountain sides so that the birds of prey come to feed on the body giving back to the Earth Ka statues in Egypt used to make statues of people when they died because the soul needed somewhere to go soul also needed nourishment so that is why temples were set up where priests would watch over and take care of quotsoulsquot Shinto in Japan lasts several days would make transplantation difficult because of the length of the Shinto funerals Mana things you aren39t supposed to touch or eat things that have a lot of POWER Taboo a social or religious custom prohibiting or forbidding discussion of a particular practice or forbidding association with a particular person place or thing 0 September 19 0 MA Chapter 4 lndia39s sacred cow 0 What are some rational explanations for why lndian Hindus don39t eat their cattle aside from religious purposes Believed in unity of all life In 200 AD status of cattle had undergone a spiritual transformation forbade the population to abuse or feed on it Cow is a symbol of health and abundance Provides milk that lndians consume in the form of yogurt and ghee clari ed butter Cow can produce bulls and oxen o What are the three types of macronutrients Carbs sugars and starches Lipids fats proteins What are micronutrients Vitamins organic and minerals inorganic What are some examples of nutrient de ciencies that are diseases How does our digestive system extract nutrients from food Small intestine breaks down chyme into monomers using pancreatic secretions and bile Large intestine removes water How is blood sugar regulation connected to diabetes Terms Zebu cows in India Water buffalo specialized dairy breed because it is milk has a higher butterfat content than Zebu milk Ghee clari ed butter Paneer fresh cheese Monosaccharides glucose only one CHO group Disaccharides sucrose two CHO groups Polysaccharides 3 CHO groups Lipids Amino acids Essential amino acids 9 essential Completeincomplete proteins Dal Lentil dish in India Wat Lentil stew in Ethiopia Injera bread in Ethiopia that they eat with their Wat Kwashiorkor Marasmus Beriberi vitamin Bl thiamine de ciency Pellagra vitamin B3 niacin de ciency Scurvy vitamin C de ciency Goiter iodine de ciency Bolus chewed up food in the oral cavity Amylase enzyme that begins the breakdown of food Peristalsis the movement of food into the stomach Chyme broken up food in the stomach Bile Insulin Glucagon stimulates breakdown of glycogen Glycogen Glucose Insulin resistance essentially Prediabetes
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