ANTH 212 Exam 2 Study Guide
ANTH 212 Exam 2 Study Guide ANTH 212
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shelby Marie on Tuesday January 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 212 at Purdue University taught by Rowe in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 235 views. For similar materials see Culture, Food and Health in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 01/13/15
September 26 MA Chapter 4 p 84end How are phytonutrients bene cial from the standpoint of human heath 0 They have healthpromoting properties such as antioxidant antiin ammatory and liverhealth promoting activities What aspects of plant food allow you to choose those that are richest in phytonutrients o The color of plant foods can tell you what kinds of phytonutrients they have How are some phytochemicals potentially dangerous 0 Many people assume that since they are natural that they are also safe If they are taken in large amounts such as in supplements they can interact with other drugs and also have side effects What factors affect nutrient bioavailability 0 May be dependent on fat or water solubility 0 May be enhanced or reduced by the coconsumption of other nutrients Terms 0 Phytochemicals chemical compounds that occur naturally in plants some are responsible for the color of the plant 0 Phytonutrients natural chemicals found in plant foods that aren39t essential for life but help to prevent disease and keep the body working properly 0 Free radicals atoms or groups of atoms with an odd number of electrons can cause damage when they react with DNA or the cell membrane antioxidants help prevent this damage because they safely interact with free radicals and don39t allow their damage to occur 0 Pigment material that changes the color of re ected or transmitted light as the result of wavelengthselective absorption Betacarotene strongly colored redorange pigment Lycopene red pigment Anthocyanins red blue and purple pigments Phytoestrogens iso avone plant derived hormones Oxidants if not neutralized can be harmful and work against the immune system Vicine alkaloid toxic and can cause the disease favism Fava beans contains vicine o Alkaloids naturally occurring chemical compounds that contain mostly basic nitrogen atoms 00000 00 September 29 lnuit Paradox o What kinds of foods make up the Inuit diet 0 They eat a highprotein and high fat diet They eat lots of sh and seafood fat type stuff 0 How do Inuit people get adequate macronutrients from their diet 0 They eat a lot of meat and get numerous protein and carbs from that o How do Inuit people get adequate micronutrients from their diet 0 Colorful plant foods vitamin A sunlight vitamin D meat that isn t overcooked vitamin C 0 Terms 0 InuitInupiat people from Alaska that have a highfat and high protein diet 0 Muktuk frozen whale skin and blubber o Akutaq eskimo ice cream whipped fat mixed with berries o Gluconeogenesis conversion of protein to glucose 0 Based off of studies of the diets of living huntergatherers what was the diet of our Paleolithic ancestors like 0 Wild plants and animals 0 How was the Paleolithic diet different from the diets of most Americans 0 We currently eat a lot of processed foods and they didn39t theirs were all natural and wild What implications do these dietary differences have for chronic disease risk in modern Americans 0 We are more likely for diabetes and heart disease October 1 Eating Culture Chapter 2 0 What39s involved in each of the different types of food production and how is each different from the other 0 Hunting and gathering foraging Small vs large scale foraging groups pg 33 0 First kinds of foraging groups were large scale 0 Beginnings of social inequality or hierarchy because some people would receive more food than others 0 Horticulture the art or practice of garden cultivation and management Growing plants different from agriculture since it doesn39t use any sophisticated technology Mainly used to support JUST your family Produce things that are very starchy o Pastoralism raising livestock The eat a lot of plants such as grasses and normally live in herds Harvest blood from animals Get dairy products from animals Found in areas where you can39t have much agriculture because of the climate 0 Terms 0 O O Horticulture gardening no sophisticated technology Pastoralism raising livestock Patrilineal based on relationship to the father or descent through the male line Matrilineal based on relationship to the mother or descent through the female line Dowry property or money brought by a bride to her husband on their marriage Bride pricebridewealthprogeny price payment by a groom to the family of the bride in order to ratify a marriage Patriarchal men have more power than women Egalitarian belief that all people are equal and deserve equal rights and opportunities o What is the mismatch hypothesis and what are the consequences of the mismatch O O The hypothesis is that an organism39s social and physical environment may evolve at a rate faster than its ability to adapt which leaves it increasingly mismatched to its environment 0 What is the thrifty genotype hypothesis What evidence refutes this hypothesis 0 People who would39ve experienced alternating periods of food abundance and food scarcity l if they would eat food there would be a large quantity of insulin released to remove glucose from the bloodstream they would also go times where food was scarce and they wouldn39t eat as much so they would have more fat to use when they have continual access to abundant quantities of food especially glucose rich carbs individuals continually produce insulin which leads to insulin resistance 0 Obviously not everyone who eats these types of foods develop this type of diabetes l dependent on genetic factors Refuted by the thrifty phenotype hypothesis which states how it is dependent on nutrient scarcity during fetal and infant stages of development 0 Terms 0 O 0 October 3 Lactose intolerance when the body cannot digest lactose because there is an absence of lactase Lactase persistence when the body can digest lactose because there is lactase in the body Rickets disorder caused by lack of vitamin D calcium or phosphate causes softening and weakening of the bones Glycogen storage form of glucose in the body lnsulin hormone made by pancreas that regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates Glucagon raises the concentration of glucose in the bloodstream Insulin resistance condition where the body produces insulin but doesn39t use it effectively fails to respond to normal levels of insulin The Pima Native American group that are more sedentary and rely on wage labor no longer do traditional farming so became more reliant on processed foods MA Chapter 5 pg 116131 0 What factors have shaped human infant birth weight from an evolutionary perspective 0 000 Short babies are also likely to be low birth weight Young maternal ages because of adolescent marriages Maternal undernutrition All of these things cause alterations in fetal growth and development to occur They are adaptive in the sense that they are quotpredictionsquot of what life will be like outside of the womb l so if the mother is malnourished or stressed the baby will adapt They represent a programming of fetal metabolism for conditions of scarcity stress or both which should enhance their survival during childhood 0 What is an evolutionary explanation for gestational diabetes 0 0 Result from a combination of increased maternal fat stores and the effects of hormonal products of the placenta Could result from a con ict between the mother and fetus Although the mother and fetus can be said to have the same goal their genetic interests are not exactly the same since they only share about 50 of their genes Fetus may demand more resources than the woman wants to give which may result in fetal genes derived from the father that attempt to manipulate the mother39s resources Fetal genes from father play a larger role than those of the mother in the growth of the placenta through which the fetus receives nutrients from the mother Fetus can secrete hormones into maternal circulation which may cause increased maternal blood glucose levels by stimulating the release of placental hormones that increase maternal insulin resistance What is known about how malnutrition during fetal life affects health in adulthood 0 Can result in metabolic and endocrine changes that can affect the person later in life How is childhood different in humans than in other primates o Constraints on human infant size 0 Because of the way the birth canal is shaped we have to have smaller babies to squeeze through Why are boys considered more important than girls throughout much of India 0 Men are a net economic bene t and bring in a dowry and wife provide labor or wages for the household and perpetuate the patrilineage whereas women do the oppos e 0 Women are often neglected in these situations How does one39s gender affect access to nutritious foods and health care in India 0 Women are less likely to receive nutrition and health care because they don39t matter as much 0 Males were found to receive more high quality foods and health care Terms 0 Stabilizing selection type of natural selection in which genetic diversity decreases and the population mean stabilizes on a particular trait value favors intermediate variants o Gestational diabetes high blood sugar that starts or is rst diagnosed during pregnancy October 6 Maternalfetal genetic con ict as seen with gestational diabetes maternal genes try to do one thing and the fetal genes counteract it Fetal programming idea that during development of the embryo and fetus important physiological parameters can be reset by environmental events Dutch Hunger Winter took place in the Netherlands at the end of WW2 children of pregnant women were more likely to have diseases the children were born small and then also ended up having smaller children Thrifty phenotype says that reduced fetal growth is strongly associated with a number of chronic conditions later in life Life History Theory the schedule and duration of key events in an organism39s lifetime are shaped by natural selection to produce the largest possible number of surviving offspring MA Chapter 5 pg 132end What is different about human adolescence compared to that of other species 0 O O O 0 We have periods and menarche Declining menarche age re ects alternatives to life history patterns lf resources are abundant it becomes possible to devote energy to both growth and reproduction which was rare in historical and prehistorical times Humans continue to grow even after reaching sexual maturity Adolescent growth spurts are unique to humans hormonemediated What are the human life stages O 0000 O Gestation Infancy Child Adolescence Adu hood Old agesenescence o What physical changes mark the transition from each human life stage to the next O 0000 Gestation prenatal life and development lnfancy very rapid growth Childhood moderate growth and dental maturation Adolescence sexual maturity and nal growth spurt Adulthood maturity is reached relative homeostasis 0 Old age decline in function in physiological including reproductive system systems Terms 0 O 0000 O O O Menarche age of rst period Adolescent growth spurt increase in height velocity what makes humans different Epiphyseal closure when bone growth ends Epiphysis rounded end of a long bone Diaphysis shaft of long bone Menopause cessation of woman39s reproductive ability 12 months after last period Senescence deterioration with age loss of cell39s power of division and growth Sarcopenia degenerative loss of skeletal muscle mass Osteopeniaosteoporosis loss of bone density What factors in uence bone growth 0 O 0 Bone growth happens in response to hormonal signals IGF 1 Also happens in response to thyroxine thyroid hormone NEED IODINE What is the small but healthy hypothesis 0 O 0 Children who were small adults were still healthy The smallness was just an adaptation to their scarce environment As long as they were of normal weight compared to their height this was applicable What evidence suggests that this hypothesis is incorrect 0 All adaptations have some sort of cost so you can39t say that they adapted to being small because of their environment and have no costs Stunted growth isn39t solely resulting from a moderate food shortage other things can cause stunted growth By considering stunting an adaptation to environments with chronic food shortage doesn39t address why many populations live under those circumstances many of those circumstances are what actually cause the stunted growth might not be a good measure of a society39s health Terms 0 O O lGFl insulinlike growth factor1 re ects energy balance causes bone growth Thyroxine thyroid hormone that stimulates bone growth lodine needed to produce thyroxine and in return stimulate bone growth o The EfeMbuti shortest people in the world pygmy people short don39t have much live in rainforest 4399 for men and 4396 for women 0 The Mayans also short people in Guatemala but got taer when moved to US now have access to treated drinking water and reliable supply of food 0 Secular trend reach puberty earlier and be taller o What factors explain why the Mbuti and Efe are much shorter than other populations 0 They don39t have access to as many things as we do since they live in the middle of the rain forest 0 What factors explain why Mayans are shorter than other populations 0 Don39t have access to reliable food sources or treated drinking water 0 How are the children of Guatemalan Mayan migrants born in the US different from their parents 0 They are taller and heavier 0 Increased growth in weight and height 0 Indicates how growth is extremely sensitive to social conditions October 8 Ancient Roots of the 1 o How can differences in social status be determined from the archaeological record 0 Farming has been blamed because it led to a surplus meaning that SOMEONE had to get the extraand how do you think that was determined 0 Some huntergatherers may have accumulated wealth and political clout by taking control of concentrated patches of wild foods the ownership of small resourcerich areas that fosters inequality 0 From the Natu an found disparities in grave goods house sizes and the ornamentation of the dead Some were decorated with pendants or marine shells headdresses and had carved artworks in there 0 We discussed two archaeological sites where social inequality arose in two distinctly different ways What do we know about how social inequality arose at the Keatley Creek and Bridge River sites and how do we know it o Keatley Creek highest status families had traps and shing rocks where they could sh from which gave them an advantage when trying to get food lower status families had to sh from public areas with nets and only had smaller sh found evidence of sh bones from big sh in high status families houses and large roasting pits 0 Bridge River suggests that the rst elites emerged from a food shortage instead of surplus emerged after salmon runs declined and the village population plummeted some families responded to the scarcity by closing off public access to hunting and shing resources and holding feasts to attract workers to their households 0 How is food production related to social inequality 0 Food production ways can be passed down to children not physiological traits but material items 0 Farmers who practiced intensive agriculture and boosted yields in regions where arable land was scarce readily passed on the land to the children 0 Terms 0 Natu an culture rst seen area of social inequality found in the way that they were buried o Monolithic architecture buildings carved cast or excavated from a single piece of material a sign of social strati cation o Ziggurats massive structures that had the form of a terraced step pyramid of successively receding stories or levels dwelling places for gods 0 Urbanization increasing number of people that migrate from rural to urban areas physical growth of urban areas Cahokia Mounds rst urbanized city and very large population October 10 EC Chapter 3 o What factors caused a large number of people to move from rural areas to cities in England 0 New agriculture and food sources 0 Access to new sources of wealth 0 Greater control over trade 0 What was the Malthusian dilemma and what was attempted to solve the problem 0 When there was a need for agricultural intensi cation to support a growing population and an increasingly urbanized workforce who no longer produced food 0 In order to x it industrial agriculture took new energy sources employed mechanization and used scienti c innovation to ef ciently produce extra food made new transportation systems 0 Grow more food elsewhere and import it AND arti cially produce the productivity of the land o How was the British habit of drinking tea connected to Industrial Revolution and colonization 0 They didn39t have enough food to quotmake it through the dayquot or to keep them full until their next meal so they would take tea time o How did the needs of the military in uence food preservation methods 0 Encouraged food preservation How was food donation by the US to other countries connected to maintaining US interests during the Cold War 0 Crucial to keeping interests 0 Terms 0 The Enclosure Movement a push to take land that had formerly been owned in common by all members of a village and change it to privately owned land claimed it would allow for better raising of crops and animals claimed that large elds could be farmed more ef ciently than individual plots allotted from common land and the pro t could be kept by the people who now legally owned the land 0 The Corn Laws tariffs on imported food designed to keep cereal prices high to favor producers in Great Britain laws raised food prices and became the focus of opposition from urban groups who had far less political power than rural Britain 0 Rhodes39 Conundrum thought that we needed to prevent starvation so a war didn39t occur thought that the poor would organize and go after the rich instead of waiting to die from hunger o Appert father of canning experimenting with preserving things 0 MREs and K rations meals ready to eat and individual daily combat food ration How did the Green Revolution affect rural Indians environment 0 There was a lot of fertilizer and special pesticides used 0 Loss of autonomy for agriculturalists had to follow the rules of outsiders Rituals grew less frequent Urban social values have replaced the rural outlook o Decline in food for cattle making it harder for the animals to nd food 0 What is involved in globalization 0 Movement of people ideas goods money across borders 0 Facilitated by Technology 00 Global nancial interest such as the World Bank and The International Monetary Fund Trade organizations such as the World Trade Organization and the North American Free Agreement Neoliberal economic policies privatization reduced barriers to trade such as tariffs What did the United Fruit Company have to do with the overthrow of the Guatemalan president by the CIA in 1954 o Ubico encouraged a lot of foreign investment and the UFC bought tons of capital in the country such as railroads electric utility and telegraph o Gained control of more than 40 of country39s best land and government became subservient to interests of UFC 0 Terms 0 PBSUCCESS operation that the CIA carried out that deposed the President Arbenz and installed a military regime in his absence 0 PBHISTORY operation by CIA that occurred after Arbenz was removed wanted to nd documents that were left behind by the exiled government to exploit Guatemalan communist documents
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