ANTH 212 Final Exam Study Guide
ANTH 212 Final Exam Study Guide ANTH 212
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shelby Marie on Tuesday January 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 212 at Purdue University taught by Rowe in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 439 views. For similar materials see Culture, Food and Health in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 01/13/15
ANTH 212 Final Exam Study Guide November 17 MA Chapter 9 pages 269284 0 How did the development of civilizations in uence the prevalence of infectious disease 0 Animal domestication started the spread of zoonotic diseases 0 Urbanization and increased population density increased direct contact and caused sanitation problems 0 Social hierarchies created unequal access to resources 0 How did colonialism affect the spread of infectious disease 0 Managed to extract lots of resources from Africa and the Americas 0 Would mine local resources and use local populations who are enslaved and not paid well Ex would set up plantations for things such as cash crops cotton sugar etc Made tons of money and capital and took it to Europe Used cash to increase infrastructure in Europe Allowed for the decrease of infectious disease back in Europe Increased risk of disease and Africa and Americas 0 Why is the spread of Treponemal diseases between the Old and New Worlds controversial o Smallpox in the Old World Had gods that they prayed to If you got smallpox it was because you didn39t obey or do the right thing Endemic infection and people were exposed regularly o Smallpox in the New World A virgin soil epidemic immunologically naive and had no way of ghting these things off since they had never been exposed When Europeans came in contact with Native Americans NA weren39t immunologically sophisticated and hadn39t been exposed to zoonotic diseases Paved way for Europeans to invade new world and kill off Native Americans 0 Controversy Did Europeans bring it here or did Native Americans give it to Europeans Examine bones to see evidence of diseases Syphilis and yaws How can the historic spread of infectious diseases explain why some people have genetic defenses against HIV infection 0 0 Some people are resistant to AIDS even when they carry HIV Mutation in a gene for a protein called CCR5 Started with the Black Plague Everyone who lived within the plague cottage died from the plague HIV and bubonic plague both affect the immune system Fleas spread the bubonic plague along trade routes People who survived bubonic plague must have had some genetic resistance to it Also gave them resistance to HIV since they both affect the immune system How does cholera bacterium affect the body 0 O O Cholera toxin pulls salt into the small intestine Osmosis then pulls water into the small intestine Causes severe diarrhea How is cystic brosis potentially a genetic defense against cholera O O O O Cystic brosis is genetic Cystic brosis controls water balance on either side of the membrane Want to maintain equilibrium and have same amounts of water on each side of membrane Mutation in protein that allows ions in and out of channel CFTR protein Tends to cause a mucus buildup when there are two copies of this gene Buildup of mucus throughout body but problematic in lungs Harder to breath Since it affects the ow of the ions and the water on each side membrane could be effective to prevent cholera How do human migration patterns and climate affect the spread of cholera Terms 0 0 Emerging infectious disease new infectious diseases entirely new Resurgent infectious disease new outbreaks and new epidemics coming back again Zoonotic diseaseszoonoses diseases transferred from animals to humans Virgin soil epidemics immunologically na39ive and have to way of ghting diseases off since they have never been exposed Treponemal diseases a type of disease including syphilis and yaws that can cause bone damage Sleeping sickness transferred by cows to humans by tsetse y cause you to go into a coma and die Bubonic plagueBlack Death zoonotic disease that is spread by eas and affects immune system very deadly lon channel proteins allow ions in and out of cells mutation in these proteins is what causes cystic brosis Cholera caused by drinking contaminated water give severe diarrhea Cystic brosis genetic and caused by mutation in CFTR protein ion channel protein cause mucus buildup which make it hard to breathe but mostly problematic in the lungs November 19 o How did neoliberal economic policies concerning groundnut agriculture affect Senegal39s national debt and the country39s support for health care expenditure 0 O O O O O Neoliberal policies made their debt worse Loaned money to the country to help them involved certain regulations though such as removing tariffs not having minimum wage etc Made their national debt worse Ground nuts were popular in Senegal so they produced a lot and sold a lot of them to other countries Other countries started to produce them which caused the price of ground nuts to fall Senegal had to borrow even more money to keep their head above water Removed tariffs from imports Got them into an even deeper whole Spending more money on their debt than their health and educa on What organisms are involved in the spread of river blindness and Schistosomiasis O 0 River blindnessOnchocerciasis caused by helminths and vector is a black y Schistosomiasis caused by helminths and vector is a snail How are the spread of both river blindness and Schistosomiasis connected to the Akosombo Dam O 0 Created an area for these organisms to live Dam was created for aluminum smelting 0 People would be around the dam use it for bathing hanging out etc and contract these diseases What entities bene tted from the building of the Akosombo Dam o Shareholders and operators Kaiser Aluminum US and Valco Aluminum Company US Valco was assured from Ghana that for their investment that they would be exempt from taxes on trade and would receive an electricity discount 0 Supported by the ExportImport Bank US What factors contribute to tuberculosis as a modern resurgent infectious disease 0 Has capsule around it so it can hand around in the soil Don39t spend a lot of money trying to cure it Disease of poverty Affected by globalization Poor people might not be able to keep up with the antibiotics because they cannot afford them Terms 0 Onchocerciasisriver blindness caused by helminths and vector is black y causes lesions in skin but also in eyes caused by being bit by the y live in and require water can make you blind o Schistosomiasis caused by helminths and vector is a snail get it from contaminated water with snails in it tends to go into liver and also bladder can cause massive swelling in scrotum of men live in and require water 0 MDRTB and XDRTB multiple drug resistant TB and extremely drug resistant TB Europe and North America affected by XDRTB 0000 What organs in the body are involved in the stress response 0 Hypothalamus o Pituitary o Adrenal gland What hormone does each produce 0 Hypothalamus corticotropin releasing hormone CRH o Pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH o Adrenal glands cortisol epinephrineadrenaline and norepinephrinenoradrenaline Terms 0 Hypothalamicpituitaryadrenal axis involved in the stress response 0 Stressors things that cause stress and the stress response of the body to kick in o Corticotropinreleasing hormone CRH produced by hypothalamus causes pituitary to produce ACTH o Adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH produced by pituitary causes adrenal glands to produce cortisol epinephrine and norepinephrine o Adrenal glands produce cortisol epinephrine and norepinephrine o Cortisol controls many of the changes that occur in the body in response to stress such as blood sugar levels fatproteincarb metabolism immune responses anti in ammatory actions blood pressure blood vessel contraction CNS activation 0 Epinephrineadrenaline increase heart rate muscle strength blood pressure and sugar metabolism 0 Norepinephrinenoradrenaline increase amount of oxygen to brain increase HR increase in sugar release into blood increase breathing rate shut down metabolic processes like digestion and growth November 21 MA Chapter 10 pg 307321 0 How do epinephrine norepinephrine and cortisol affect the body especially insulin metabolism and the functions of the immune and cardiovascular systems 0 Cortisol Initially boosts immune system boosts insulin and boosts ghrelin hunger hormone Long term suppresses immune system suppresses insulin and boosts glucagon o Epinephrine Boosts glucose Vasodilation in muscle Increased HR 0 Norepinephrine Boosts glucose Boosts sweating Vasoconstriction How does chronic stress impact the immune system cardiovascular system diabetes risk and growth and development Be able to give speci c examples 0 Immune system lnitially cortisol stimulates immune function Overtime cortisol causes immune function to be suppressed Cortisol causes thymus to shrink l reduces levels of white blood cells and antibodies to ght infections 0 Diabetes Cortisol promotes insulin resistance 0 High levels of cortisol high levels of insulin 0 Chronic high levels of cortisol constant high levels of insulin l insulin resistance Insulin resistance l diabetes Stimulates appetite Fat gets preferentially stored in the abdominal region huge risk for diabetes 0 Cardiovascular disease Chronic stress l hypertension l narrowing of blood vessels Hypertension can enlarge the heart muscle causing hypertrophy Chronic stress can cause tears in blood vessels which lead to a local in ammatory response Accelerated injury response Platelet aggregation epinephrine l plaques Plaques atherosclerosis 0 Growth and development 0 Terms Ghrelin hunger hormone produced by the stomach increases appetite and stimulates the release of growth hormone Thymus makes tcells cortisol causes it to shrink l aka reduced immune function Type 1 DiabeteslDDMjuvenile diabetes caused by high levels of blood glucose Beta cells produce insulin Pancreas produce beta cells which produce insulin 0 0 Can happen in utero from mother 0 Child interprets the high levels of cortisol as a stressful situation outside of the womb and prepares for it Stress induced dwar sm Severe stress stops growth entirely and growth hormone levels are extremely low Growth and other nonessential functions are suppressed during periods of stress Example in Dominica 0 Household stressors associated with higher cortisol levels in children 0 Higher cortisol associated with more frequent iHnesses Hypertension high blood pressure 0 Atherosclerosis when there is plaque build up within the walls of arteries and blood vessels Platelets blood cells whose function is to stop bleeding 0 Plaques anything that circulates in the blood and can accumulate on the walls of blood vessels and cause a blockage o Voodoo deaths sudden death brought about by a strong emotional shock such as fear seen in native societies heart attack in modern day 0 Stressinduced dwar sm stunted growth due to high stress levels 0 0 November 24 MA Chapter 10 pg 321end What factors contribute to patterns of life expectancy between countdes 0 GDP 0 How wealth is distributed 0 Social inequality 0 Social cohesion 0 Race 0 What factors contribute to patterns of mortality within countries 0 Social inequality 0 Social cohesion How can social cohesion affect health 0 Social cohesion shared values goals and distribution of resources within a society allows for individual participation in social life which is manifested by involvement in meaningful social activities and organizations 0 Example lndia Kerala is a state in India Per capita income is among lowest in India yet its health statistics are astonishingly positive There are opportunities for social participation by both males and females which increases the control that people have over their lives and the satisfaction that they have with their lives Less stress and better health 0 What are some examples of health disparities along ethnic or racial lines Be able to give speci c examples of diseases 0 Race and breast cancer more common in white people than black people 0 Race and prostate cancer more common in black people than other races O 0 Race and low birth weight more common in nonHispanic blacks than other races Race and homicide risk more common in nonHispanic blacks than other races more common in men than women 0 What evidence does not support the notion that race is biologically based 0 Traits that are present in some races but not others FALSE 0 0 Discrete rather than clinal distribution of traits FALSE No evidence that race is determined by social circumstances false 0 What evidence supports the notion that race is social construction 0 O O 0 Race and health insurance Hispanic don39t have it Race and income Asian American have highest Race and subprime mortgages black have highest subprime percentages Race and mortgage denial black have highest denial rates 0 0 Terms 0 0 Health disparities differences in the incidence prevalence mortality and burden of diseases and other adverse health conditions that exist among speci c population groups Structural inequalities condition where one category of people are attributed an unequal status in relation to other categories of people bias that is built into the structure of organizations institutions governments or social networks Discrete traits eitheror one or the other no variation Clinal distribution of traits traits having high frequencies in some places with diminishing frequency as geographic distance increases Epicanthic folds skin of the upper eyelid that covers the inner corner of the eye Burakumin outcast group at the bottom of the Japanese social order historically been the victim of severe discrimination and ostracism have poor occupations with negative stigmas The quotone dropquot rule legal and sociological principle of racial classi cation that was historically prominent in the US asserting that any person with even one ancestor of subsaharan African ancestry one drop of African blood is considered to be black December 1 Saltshaker39s Curse on BB 0 How does the slavery hypothesis explain why African Americans have higher rates of hypertension than other ethnic groups 0 Kidneys had to retain as much salt as they could because they sweat so much salt out in the hot environments 0 Middle passage was a bottleneck very selective process where only the strongest survived 0 When exposed to a saltsaturated diet where there are high levels of salt intake these individuals39 efficient mechanisms for salt retention are overused and their blood pressure increases 0 What are some arguments that refute the slavery hypothesis 0 Americans of African descent are mainly from West Africa so we have little insight into what salt sensitivity looks like among populations in other parts of Africa 0 Not just genetic o Blacks may be more sensitive to salt but the dietary environment in which blacks live is characterized by a high frequency of a dietary stressor o Unequal access to environmental resources 0 What is Bidil What was it for and what about its history suggests that it is not more effective than other medicines for its target ethnic group 0 First only drug for Africanamericans 0 Used for treatment of heart failure 0 Wasn39t tested on any other race 0 Study proved no clear demonstration of why or how the drug is effective among blacks o What evidence shows that medical studies involving race may have invalid results 0 Some doctor39s can39t correctly label a patient39s race 0 Not always tested on other races 0 Discrimination involved by doctors What evidence suggests that hypertension among African Americans is actually not due to their ancestry 0 Race does not reliably match ancestry 0 We aren39t all that different genetically like we may think 0 How does ethnicity impact infant birth weights 0 African americans have higher rates of low birth weight babies 0 Stress of being a certain race or ethnicity can cause poor health outcomes December 3 EC Chapter 9 What are the different ways that food insecurity can be de ned 0 O O 0000 Reduced availability of suf cient quantities of food Reduced availability of food of sufficient quality variety or deskabH y Reduced access to food due to transportation issues or food deserts Insecurity about money available for food Shifting priorities in family budget to handle food insecurity Reduced food intake Lack of education about basic nutrition and safe food handHng How can food insecurity affect a person39s risk for obesity 0 O 0 Stress levels Parents give the better food to their children so that they can grow better and parents eat the bad food Don39t have access to organic food and produce because it is more expensive therefore they have to resort to processed foods and fastfoods How has the 2014 Farm Bill affected bene ts for people with food insecur y O O 0 Trying to get rid of the US debt Cut funding to SNAP by 84 billion 90 a month per family Cut food stamps for people who receive money to help pay electricity and heating bills for people in the winter Politicians didn39t like the idea that people were double dipping How does the 2014 Farm Bill affect farmers O O O Cuts direct payment system for farmers Usually gave farmers subsidies up front for crops that might fail Now the farmers have to apply for federal assistance if they lose crops instead of just receiving it anyways Includes disaster insurance losses for farmers Give them money but doesn39t match the money cut from direct payment so Farm Bill still allows government to save money Supports farmers Subsidizes farmers who earn up to 900000 Requires farmers to practice land conservation for subsidies Subsidizes corn and sushi rice Increased farmer39s market funding by 20 million and provides grants to local farmers How does the 2014 Farm Bill affect food banks 0 Supports nutrition and sustainable agriculture Increases research funding 7x Increases funding for organic crops Changes to meat labeling where it comes from Added funding for food banks and nutritious food purchases through SNAP What are the different ways that globalized food can become localized Be able to give an example of each 0 Acculturation Process by which people are exposed to a new culture take in some of that new culture Ex McDonalds taught the Chinese the ne art of lining up 0 Local interpretations of food Kaitzenzushi in Japan involve little or no interaction with other people What popularized sushi in Japan were these restaurants that served sushi on conveyer belt and had the prices listed people would just grab what they wanted and eat it Don39t have to talk to anyone or have any interaction Modernization to eating experience in the restaurant In US sushi is locally interpreted as a market of sophistication status and race 0 In Japan seen more as a fastfood type of thing 0 Creolization Korean tacos with kimchi and Vietnamese banh mi are creolized foods Taco is a Mexican food but is made with Korean ingredients Banh mi is creolization of French food with Vietnamese food use French bread to make a sandwich o lndigenization KFC in Korea shows how a global brand can become indigenized kids dress up like Colonel Sanders McDonalds in China is indigenized where old people hang out Terms 0 SNAP supplemental nutrition assistance program food stamps o LIHEAP low income home energy assistance program help people pay electricity bills during winter O O O O Acculturation process in which members of one cultural group adopt the beliefs and behaviors of another group Creolization process in which Creole cultures emerge in the New World as a result of colonization there was a mixture between people of indigenous African and European descent which came to be understood as creolization Local interpretations how something is understood in a certain area lndigenization what happens when locals take something from the outside and make it their own Kaitenzushi conveyer belt sushi Kimchi Korean side dish made of vegetables and seasonings Banh mi Vietnamese hoagies Vietnamese hoagies Nashi cation indigenization in Russia December 5 MA Chapter 11 o What does information about anorexia from different cultures tell us about its causes 0 O 0 Some women did it for religious purposes fasting Some places have anorexia because it shows resistance to cultural norms that expect women to be beautiful and submissive to men to have large breasts and a certain level of body fat Other areas such as the US consider it to be an quotideal body type 0 What might explain why ADHD diagnoses are more common in the US and in Hong Kong than in other areas of the world 0 0 There is an expectation what children should sit down and be quiet but they are still kids and might not be prepared to do that We call it ADHD when it is in fact just a kid being a kid 0 What is an evolutionary explanation for bipolar disorder 0 People who show high levels of creativity might be bipolar o The reason bipolar illness is maintained in human 0 populations is due to the compensating success of creative relatives of bipolar relatives Creative people thrive in evolutionary terms l we need them as part of the society because of their contributions 0 How is heritability de ned and interpreted O O Heritability the proportion of variation in a trait that is due to genetic variation Doesn39t tell you about what genes are involved and not a measure of genetic determination of a trait 0 Scale of 01 Oenvironmental heritability 1genetic heritability 05 mix of both What are some problems associated with interpreting heritability data 0 Example numbers of ngers and toes in a population is xed Pretty much everyone has ve ngers and toes Heritability is 0 because there is no variation if everyone has the same amount of ngers and toes Does this mean the numbers of digits has no genetic determination NO Heritability is greater than 0 in areas where polydactyly is common l greater than 0 because there is some variation Why are geneenvironment interaction studies helpful in understanding variation in risk for depression and schizophrenia 0 Genes interact with stressful life events in depression risk lf extremely stressful childhood risk for depression was much higher than other people Very sensitive to how their environment was 0 Marijuana use interacts with genes in the risk for schizophrenia If they smoke marijuana and have this certain genetic variation they are at a much higher risk of developing schizophrenia Very sensitive to cannabis use in terms of their risk for schizophrenia 0 Depression and schizophrenia prevalence differs by country Terms 0 DSMV diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders offers a common language and standard criteria for the classi cation of mental disorders Polydactyly having more than 5 ngers and toes o Monozygotic twins MZ identical twins share all genetic info 0 Dizygotic twins DZ fraternal twins share 50 of genetic info 0 Ayahuasca psychoactive plant that is brewed can cause spiritual revelations and spiritual awakenings rebirth o Daime can cause hallucinations o Betel nut psychoactive plant 0 Coca leaf what makes cocaine 0
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