Exam 1 Study guide
Exam 1 Study guide Biology 220
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachel Sanchez on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Biology 220 at University of Washington taught by Jennifer Doherty in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 286 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology in Biology at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
Exam 1 Study guide N991990N Name How it How it closes Found Important part opens where VK Voltage When EKis On Nodes of Slow to open changes in reached Ranvier open at membrane threshold but not potential open fully til 30mV VNa Voltage Inactivation On Nodes of Have changes in gate Ranvier inactivation gate membrane potential LK Always Doesn t close Under Maintains RMP open myelin on leaking neurons both ways L Na Always Doesn t close Under Maintains RMP open myelin on leaking neurons both ways VCa Voltage As Presynaptic Calcium enters changes in equilibrium knob allowing the membrane potential is release of potential reached neurotransmitter Make a SMRF diagram for how a person is signaled they are hungry a Structures i Ghrelin ii Leptin iii Stomach iv food Make a SMRF model for insulin level regulation Make a SMRF diagram for hypothyroidism Explain how the glycemic index effects insulin levels Make a SMRF model for how the body senses pain after being hit with a hammer Make a SMRF model for how the brain tells the body to walk If the interneuron that was used to send messages to sense pain was damaged what would happen to the body Explain the implications Explain the mechanistic changes that occur between an afferent neuron an interneuron and an efferent neuron Explain the implications of having voltagegated sodium channels always open Always closed a Voltagegated calcium b Voltagegated potassium 10 Explain how MS effects action potential propagation 11 How does a negative feedback loop work How is it essential for the endocrine system 12 What creates the resting membrane potential 13 How does hyperpolarization occur 14 Why can t action potentials occur in both directions 15 What is the purpose of myelin 16 How does acetylcholine effect the postsynaptic cell 17 Compare and contrast temporal and spatial summation 18 Why is the sarcoplasmic reticulum necessary for muscle contraction 19 What is the function of actin and myosin 20 Create a SMRF model for the slidingfilament model 21 How does a muscle contract Create a SMRF model a How does it relax 22 If a nociceptor receives a painful stimulus it creates an action potential What happens if a more painful response is received What does that look like for the membrane potential 23 If a cell without voltagegated potassium channels is receiving stimuli what happens a What would a cell do without voltagegated sodium channels 24 What sets the equilibrium potential for ions 25 Lidocaine is injected into the body during a routine dentist s appointment The patient has an allergic reaction that extends over his entire face This results in facial paralysis Explain what must have happened to his cells a What would have happen if Lidocaine was injected in an unmyelinated axon 26 There is a mutation that won t allow insulin to bind to the receptors What is the effect after a person consumes a high glycemic index meal 27 A person has been dieting and consuming less CHO atoms but has gained weight Provide a mechanism for this situation 28 Molly is pregnant and has gestational diabetes Provide a mechanism for she has to go to the hospital for weakness and fainting Hint she hasn t eaten in a few hours 29 A neurotoxin is injected into Rylie s skin This neurotoxin binds to voltagegated potassium channels and prevents them from closing What will happen to his cells What would be the implication on muscle movement 30 Iared is given a drug that blocks the ability for troponin to change shape What will happen to his muscles Make a diagram to explain this 31 What would happen to muscle fibers after calcium was released but reuptake into the sarcoplasmic reticulum could not occur Make a SMRF diagram explaining this 32 Predict what happens if a degrading enzyme Acetylcholine is acting at the synaptic cleft on the release of Acetylcholine 33 Give all the steps for excitationcontraction coupling beginning with the action potential 34 Make a SMRF model for summation of IPSP and EPSP in the same model 35 Make a SMRF model for how a muscle contracts 36 Explain the importance of the DHP receptor and what would happen to a muscle without it 37 What happens to the body if there are too many hydrogen ions in the bloodstream a Make sure to bring up the Bohr Shift and the widespread effect 38 Provide a mechanism beginning with inhalation and ending with exhalation 39 How much oxygen goes to the tissue during exercise Be able to find this on a hemoglobin dissociation curve a Now label the hemoglobin dissociation curve for when the body is at rest 40 Why is cooperative binding necessary for the human body 41 Where does carbonic anhydrase not exist but bicarbonate ions do a What does this mean for the reaction 42 What would happen to PC02 and the membrane potential of a red blood cell with not chloride bicarb exchanger 43 What is the importance of the sigmoidal curve for the dissociation curve Type of Where is it How is it What does it How is this transport found released moved cause determined or N A Significance Metabolic rate T3 and T4 Insulin Glucagon EPSP IPSP AP P02 PCOZ Bicarbonat e Chemorece ptors Ventilation rate Blood brain barrier HCO3 H Patterns Increased pH ventilation Decreased pH ventilation Decreased C02 protons pH Type 1 muscle fibers Type 2 muscle fibers More mitochondria fatigue slowly Less mitochondria Fatigue quickly Red oxidative phosphorylation white Contract slowly due to mitochondria Contract quickly Slow twitch Fast twitch Aerobic respiration Anaerobic respiration less mitochondria Long contraction due to ATP from mitochondria Short contraction due to ATP Strong contraction able to use more energy to contract more muscle cells to contract and recruit more Weak contraction Energy storage in fat Energy storage in ATP
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