Exam 3 Study Guide
Exam 3 Study Guide PSYCH 230-01
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This 22 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alisha Currier on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 230-01 at Washington State University taught by Nora Erikson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 111 views. For similar materials see Human Sexuality in Psychlogy at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
Human Sexuality Exam 3 Study Guide Chapter 8 Childhood and Adolescence Sexuality Birth to Age 2 Male fetuses are able to have erections while female infants are able to have vaginal lubrication Children are able to have orgasms Child and mother have a strong psychological bond the baby goes to the mother for warmth security and food Genital touching is normal at infancy soothes and relaxes the baby not orgasm based Ages 25 Children at this age learn to walk talk selffeed and control bodily wastes Through toilet training children become interested in their genitals They are also trying to understand gender rolesthrough help from parents siblings and television models Genital touching is more common in early childhood and then picks up after puberty After being taught rules about touching their genitals they begin to associate sexuality with secrecy Ages 6 to 12 Somewhere within this time puberty will occur Pube y 0 Body prepares for puberty at 6 or 7 0 First signs show at 9 or 10 o Puberty actually begins between 813 in girls and 914 in boys 0 Girl Puberty 0 Breast buds appear 0 Pubic hair grows o Acne Boy Puberty o Pubic hair grows o Frequent erections o Acne 0 Change in voice 0 quotAwkward Phasequot 0 Begin hiding sexuallike behaviors Prepubescence is the age of sexual discovery 0 quotThink B4 You Speakquot help children to understand negativity of phrases and their consequences for using them 0 Usually by the end of this period most know how to masturbate At this age they become curious about sex 0 When parents avoid talking about sex children get the idea that sex is secretive and bad Prefer other children of the same sex o The time of girlfriends and boyfriends begin at about age 11kissing and petting may happen but typically occur later 0 Sex play may happen with siblings or cousins 0 Abuse may occur when the child is coerced into unwanted sexual activity 0 Psychological damage can occur with a large difference in age or use of force Adolescence Ages 12 to 18 0 Physical Development 0 Adolescence ends when the person has entered adulthood reached a level of maturity and capability of living on your own 0 During adolescence you begin to separate from your parents begin jobs and careers and even sex 0 Gaining weight and growing in height is common 0 Developing changes to a teenager s body and the taunting and negative comments that come along with it can cause a negative body image of themselves 0 Females Menstruation can be very scary for a girl especially when they are not informed o Males Development in boys usually means a deeper voice and a growth spurt Psychosexual Development O In early adolescents body image becomes very important and eating disorders occur with females and males By age 14 dating is common begin to develop relationships and sexual experimentation may occur 0 Those who are bisexual gay or a lesbian have better health outcomes when their families are supportive and understanding versus those who are not 0 Sexual Behavior Experimentation and Abstinence 0 As they enter their adolescence there is an increase in masturbation Boys are more likely to masturbate more than girls Girl may underreport because they are uncomfortable discussing the subject while boys nd it more socially acceptable and a normal thing to do Many may be confused about what de nes quotabstinencequot Some think it s just when you don t orgasm Some wait to have sex because they want to wait for the quotrightquot person or have a fear of STls and getting pregnant At 13 years old girls are more likely to have had kissed at least once and have had their breasts touched girls prefer older guys so 13 year old boys don t report as much There is a higher increase in boys having kissed or touched a girl s breasts by 1516 years old 0 Sex education is very important to inform youths of their sexuality by giving the facts versus seeing false information in media Youths will accept themselves by understanding their sexuality which will lead to more satisfying relationships 0 Sex educations in the US is primarily focused on stressing abstinence Comprehensive sexuality education programs begin from kindergarten and continue until 12th grade where students learn and understand different topics to develop into skills Abstinenceonly programs focus on all aspects of abstinence and stress on avoiding all sexual behaviors De ne these terms gt Gender Constancy gt Comprehensive gt Breast Buds Sexuality gt Semenarche Education gt Body Image Programs gt Abstinence gt AbstinenceOnly gt Fellatio Programs gt Cunnilingus Chapter 9 Adult Sexual Relationships Cohabitation 0 Advantages Allow couples to learn more about each other s habits Share nances o Disadvantages Society does not view a couple who cohabitates a whole issues with taxes Those who cohabitate are at a higher risk of divorce 0 More adults in the US will cheat while living together rather than when they are married 0 Those who engage in comarital sex are often referred to as swingers or polyamorists Samesex relationships 0 More gay and lesbian couples report to be happier than heterosexual couples 0 They are more likely to feel free from gender roles and share equal household responsibilities 0 They are more satis ed with their intimate relationships 0 Lesbian couples are more emotionally intimate than gay men gay men are more emotionally intimate than heterosexual couples Children 0 There are less teen births and more births from unmarried mothers 0 The intimate relationship between a couple decreases when a child is added to the picture and it continues to decrease with each child added Nofault divorce allows for a couple to divorce without have to put a blame of wrongdoing on one partner 0 Has been legal since 2010 before someone would have to take the blame before divorce could occur Issues with divorce 0 Depression 0 Dif culty nding friendships that are not connected to them and their expartner 0 Dif culty nding another relationshipgets more dif cult with age 0 Finances are also more dif cult to be handled by women their standard of living declines more than men De ne these terms VVVVVV Cohabitation gt Civil Union Serial Cohabitation gt Domestic Partnership Asexual Relationship gt Nofault Divorce Comarital Sex gt Covenant Marriage Swinger gt Serial Divorce Polyamorist gt Arranged Marriage gt Polygyny gt Polyandry gt Consanguineous Marriage Chapter 10 Sexual Expression 0 The four phases of sexual response cycle in women 0 Excitement The process of the vaginal walls lubricating is called transudation Certain triggers can cause for excitement such as having a fantasy or being touched Sexual arousal may be associated with serotonin Breasts increase in size and nipples become erect o Plateau Women often take longer than men to reach this phase The rubbing of the clitoris is the cause for orgasm during sexual intercourse f sexual stimulation were to stop at this phase it would be very uncomfortable May last anywhere from 30 sec3 minutes Areola enlarges and the breasts may become sex ushed o Orgasm The orgasm is the blood being expelled from surrounding tissues during a contraction 14 of women experience multiple orgasms Areola is enlarged and sex ush still occurs 0 Resolution Orgasms can help reduce cramps during menstruation The breasts reduce to normal size nipples remain rm and sex ush disappears The four phases of the sexual response cycle in men 0 Excitement The penis is fully erect partially aroused testes being to elevate and engorge and there is thickening and tensing of the scrotal skin f sexual stimulation were to stop at this point it would be very uncomfortable o Plateau Cowper s gland secretes testes become completely elevated and engorged and scrotum maintains thickened and tensed state Some may experience sex ush o Orgasm Some may orgasm without ejaculation Orgasmemission no ejaculation is when there is contractions of the vas deferens internal urethral sphincter contracts urethral bulb expands with seminal uid and external urethra sphincter contracts Orgasmexpulsion with ejaculation is when there is contractions of penile urethra external urethral sphincter relaxes contractions of muscles around base and contractions of rectal sphincter 0 Resolution Erection loss begins testes descend to unstimulated size and scrotum thins and resumes wrinkled appearance Men go through the refractory stage where they cannot orgasm for a period of time Ka plan39s triphasic model 0 Believes there are many factors that block sexual desire Depression Pain Fear Medications Past sexual abuse David Reed s Erotic Stimulus Pathway 0 Includes four phases Seduction wearing perfume and what we wear Sensanntouch Surrender orgasm occurs Re ection re ect on experience Sexual Fantasy 0 Women s sexual fantasy 0 Women s sexual fantasy include more touching and feeling 0 Five most common sexual fantasies Sex with current partner Reliving a past sexual experience Engaging in different sexual positions Having sex in other rooms besides bedroom Sex on the carpet Men s sexual fantasies o More aggressive than women s fantasies 0 Less romance 0 Five most common sexual fantasies for men Engaging in different sex positions Having an aggressive partner Getting oral sex Having sex with a new partner Having sex on the beach 0 Manual Sex De ne these terms 0 Manual sex on women typically occurs before penetrative sex and includes a partner rubbing the female s clitoris and digit penetration 0 Manual sex on men includes stroking the penis and testicles Four positions for vaginal intercourse o Maleontop o Femaleontop o Sidebyside 0 Rear Entry Safe sex includes using contraceptives and condoms to use to lower the risk of pregnancy and STl s Safer sex includes all of that and communicating with your partner about sex and manual sex gt V VVVVVV Sexual Response Sexual Response Cycle Excitement Plateau Orgasm Resolution Vasocongestion Myotonia V VVVV VVV Transudation Tenting Effect Sex Flush Orgasmic Platform Multiple Orgasms Tu mescence Detumescence Ejaculatory lnev ab y VV VVVV Refractory Stage Triphasic Model Sexual Cognitions Manual Sex Mutual Masturbation SixtyNine Anilingus Anal Sphincter Fisting lnterfemoral Intercourse Buttockry Tribadism Lesbian Erotic Role ldenU cann Safe Sex Safer Sex Chapter 11 Sexual Orientation Sexual Orientation quotThe genders that a person is attracted to emotionally physically sexually and romanticallyquot o GLBTQ Gay Lesbian Bisexual Transgender or Questioning The Kinsey Continuum states that individuals cannot simply be labeled as quotheterosexualquot or quothomosexualquot 0 He introduced a 7point scale which identi es an individual39s behavior ranging from exclusively homosexual behavior to exclusively heterosexual behavior Although the social status of homosexuals are different today it still seems that the rate of samesex behavior has been constant over the years so it is still unsure as to how many gays bisexuals and lesbians there really are Five theories on sexual orientation 0 Biological 0 Developmental o Behavioral o Sociological o lnteractional The view of homosexuality was the most negative in the US than in any other country through most of history Classical Era o Homosexuality was common 0 Seen as a crime rather than de ning someone39s sexual orientation 0 Homosexuality was hardly mentioned and was barely taken into consideration by Christians The Middle Ages 0 For the rst 0 1000 years of Christianity homosexuality was not forbidden o By 1300 homosexuality would result in punishment by death in almost all of Europe This time in uences the Western39s world on homosexuality The Modern Era 0 America is more disapproving of homosexuality than Europe 0 Passing women disguised themselves as men married other women and even held of ces with high power most were not found out until death 0 They believed homosexuality was an illness that could be contagious Other Cultures 0 Latin American Countries Many are open to samesex relationships In many countries they don39t typically in terms of homosexuality and heterosexuality but rather labeled through masculinity and feminism If the man is penetrating either gender he is considered masculine Feminine men are those who allow themselves to be penetrated 0 Arabic Cultures quotMale homosexuality is tabooquot Also has similar views as Latin American base men on dominance and subordination and penetrating a man does not make them gay Most countries homosexuality can be punished by death 0 Asian and Paci c Countries Believed homosexuality was a disease from western civilization In India lesbians are less acceptable than gay menwomen who are believed to be lesbian are quickly married off ln Buddhist countries homosexuality was not condemned so it is more accepted in those countries 0 African Countries Homosexuality is illegal in most of Africa quotCorrective rapequot occurred in Southern Africa women who were lesbian died by quotcorrective rapequot and were exposed through the internet in 2010 o Sambia This culture believed in sequential homosexuality Sambian39s believed the mother39s milk should be replaced by semen At age 7 until 18 boys are engaged in samesex sexual activity and then become heterosexual Gays lesbians and bisexuals throughout the life cycle Many have dif culty coming out due to social attitudes toward sexuality in most countries Typically around the age of 8 or 9 they are beginning to be aware of their sexual orientation Today more teens are coming out earlier due to more acceptance by society Coming Out 0 Parents who are supportive after their child has quotcome outquot helps their child to have higher selfesteem and con dence 0 Those who do not support their child causes them to be at a higher risk of depression loneliness suicide and homelessness Homosexuals and bisexuals are at a higher risk of stress and tension than heterosexuals which increases the risk of chronic diseases and mental health problems 0 This may be due to the fact that they are in a society with negative attitudes towards homosexuals Gay men and lesbians have dif culty with dating in a heterosexual world clubs organizations and other groups are formed to helps homosexuals to socialize with other homosexuals Gay couples have issue gaining joint custody of a child Children who are raised by gay or lesbian parents have the same emotional cognitive and social aspects as other children who has been raised by heterosexual parents Those who come out before their senior years are more comfortable with their sexual orientation as they transition in their senior years 0 Those who don39t end up feeling depressed and lonely They will end up completely hiding their true sexual orientation 0 quotsocial services medical political entertainment and even religious organization have been formedquot 0 Since the AIDS epidemic medical services has been formed to help the GLB community 0 Harvey Milk School School that accepts 1418 year olds where their sexual orientation will be accepted Terms to de ne gt GLBTQ gt Buggery gt Heterophobia gt Sexual Orientation gt Lesbian gt Sequential gt Straight gt Passing Woman Bisexuality gt Heterosexual gt Machismo gt Contemporaneous gt Homosexual gt Sequential Bisexuality gt Bisexual Homosexuality gt Situational gt Maternal Immune gt Coming Out Homosexuality Hypothesis gt Homophobia gt GenderRole gt Heterosexism Nonconformity gt Hate Crime gt Reparative Therapy gt Biphobia gt Sodomy Terms and De nitions Chapter 8 De nitions Childhood and Adolescence Sexuality gt Gender Constancy The realization in the young child that one39s gender does not normally change over the life span gt Breast Buds The rst swelling of the area around the nipple that indicates the beginning of breast development gt Semenarche The experience of rst ejaculation gt Body Image A person39s feelings and mental picture of his or her own body s beauty gt Abstinence Refraining from intercourse and often other forms of sexual contact gt Fellatio The act of sexually stimulating the male genitals with the mouth gt Cunnillingus The act of sexually stimulating the female genitals with the mouth gt Comprehensive Sexuality Education Programs Programs that often begin in kindergarten and continue through 12th grade presenting a wide variety of topics to help students develop their own skills while learning factual information gt AbstinenceOnly Programs Sexuality education programs that emphasize abstinence from all sexual behaviors Chapter 9 De nitions Adult Sexual Relationships gt Cohabitation Living together in a sexual relationship when not legally married gt Serial Cohabitation A series of cohabiting relationships with a person living with one partner breaking up and living with a new partner gt Asexual Relationship A type of intimate relationship in which the partners do not engage in sexual behavior gt Comarital Sex The consenting of married couples to exchange partners sexuaHy gt Swinger A man woman or couple who openly exchanges sexual partners gt Polyamorist A man woman or couple who openly exchanges sexual partners gt Civil Union A legal union of a samesex couple sanctioned by a civil authority gt Domestic Partnership Persons other than spouses who cohabit Domestic partners can be either same or other sex gt Nofault Divorce A divorce law that allows for the dissolution of a marriage without placing blame on either of the partners gt Covenant Marriage A marriage that is preceded by premarital counseling and has strict rules about divorce gt Serial Divorce The practice of divorce and remarriage followed by divorce and remarriage gt Arranged Marriage Marriage that is arranged by parents or relatives and is often not based on love gt Polygyny The condition or practice of having more than one wife at one time gt Polyandry The condition or practice of having more than one husband at one time gt Consanguineous Marriage A type of marriage between blood relatives usually to maintain the integrity of family property Chapter 10 Sexual Expression gt Neurotransmitters Specialized chemical messengers in the body that transmit messages from one nerve cell to another gt Sexual Response Series of physiological and psychological changes that occur in the body during sexual behavior gt Sexual Response Cycle Fourstage model of sexual arousal proposed by Masters and Johnson gt Excitement The rst stage of the sexual response cycle in which an erection occurs in males and vaginal lubrication occurs in females Plateau The second stage of the sexual response cycle occurring before orgasm in which vasocongestion builds up Orgasm The third stage of the sexual response cycle which involves an intense sensation during the peak of sexual arousal and results in a release of sexual tension Resolution The fourth stage of the sexual response cycle in which the body returns to the prearoused state Vasocongestion An increase in the blood concentrated in the male and female genitals as well as in the female breasts During sexual activity Transudation The lubrication of the vagina during sexual arousal Tenting Effect During sexual arousal in females the cervix and uterus pull up and the upper third of the vagina balloons open making a larger opening in the cervix Sex Flush A temporary reddish color change of the skin that sometimes develops during sexual excitement Orgasmic Platform The thickening of the walls of the lower third of the vagina Multiple Orgasms More than one orgasm experienced within a short penod Tumescence The swelling of the penis because of vasocongestion causing an erection Detumescence The return of an erect penis to the accid state Ejaculatory lnevitability A feeling that ejaculation can no longer be controlled Myotonia Involuntary contractions of the muscles Refractory Stage The period after an ejaculation in which men cannot be stimulated to another orgasm Triphasic Model A model of sexual response proposed by Helen Singer Kaplan which includes three phases Sexual Cognitions Thoughts about sex Manual Sex The physical caressing of the genitals during solo or partner masturbation Mutual Masturbation Simultaneous masturbation of sexual partners by each other SixtyNine Oral sex that is performed simultaneously between two partners Anilingus Oral stimulation of the anus Anal Sphincter A ringlike muscle that surrounds the anus it usually relaxed during normal physiological functioning Fisting Sexual technique that involves inserting the st and even part of the forearm into the anus or vagina lnterfemoral Intercourse Thrusting the penis between the thighs of a partner Buttockry Rubbing of the penis in the cleft of the buttocks Tribadism Rubbing genitals together with another person for sexual pleasure Lesbian Erotic Role Identi cation The roles of quotbutchquot and quotfemmequot in lesbian relationships Safe Sex Sexual behaviors that do not pose a risk for the transmission of sexually transmitted infections Safer Sex Sexual behaviors that reduce the risk for sexually transmitted infections Chapter 11 Sexual Orientation gt GLBTQ Acronym for gay lesbian bisexual transgendered or questioning or queer adults or youth Sexual Orientation The genders that a person is attracted to emotionally physically sexually and romantically Straight Slang for heterosexual Heterosexual Man or woman who is erotically attracted to members of the other sex Homosexual Man or woman who is erotically attracted to members of the same sex Bisexual Person who is erotically attracted to members of either sex Maternal Immune Hypothesis Theory of sexual orientation that proposes that the fraternal birth order effect of gay brothers re ects the progressive immunization of some mothers to malespeci c antigens by each succeeding male fetus VVV VV VV Genderrole Nonconformity Theory that looks at the role of early childhood in the development of homosexuality and explores crossgendered traits in childhood Reparative Therapy Therapy to change sexual orientation also called sexual reorientation or conversion therapy Sodomy Any of various forms of sexual intercourse held to be unnatural or abnormal especially anal intercourse or bestiality also called buggery Buggery Any of various forms of sexual intercourse held to be unnatural or abnormal especially anal intercourse or bestiality also called sodomy Lesbian Woman who is sexually attracted to women Passing Woman Woman who disguises herself as a man Machismo Characterized or motivated by stereotypical masculine behavior oracUons Sequential Homosexuality Situation in which heterosexual or bisexual men and women go through a period of homosexuality for a variety of reasons including cultural and societal Coming Out The process of establishing a person selfidentity and communicating it to others Homophobia Irrational fear of homosexuals and homosexuality Heterosexism The quotpresumption of heterosexualityquot that has sociological implications Hate Crime A criminal offense usually involving violence intimidation or vandalism in which the victim is targeted because of his or her af liation with a particular group Biphobia Strongly negative attitudes toward bisexuals and bisexuality Heterophobia Strongly negative attitudes toward heterosexuals and heterosexuality Sequential Bisexuality Having sex exclusively with one gender followed by sex exclusively with the other Contemporaneous Bisexuality Having sexual partners of both sexes during the same period Situational Homosexuality Homosexuality that occurs because of a lack of heterosexual partners
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